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NOV   12  19'" 


B    2    bM2   3M3 








Lie.    PHIL.,    OSTG. 




MAY  25th,  1917,  AT  10  o'clock  a.  M. 


^;^X^   b  t.  'A  K  p 
ff  OF  THH 


UPPSALA    1917 









Lie.    PHIL.,    OSTG. 



MAY    25th,    1917,    AT    10    o'clock    A.  M. 


UPPSALA    1917 


No  branch  of  English  philology  seems  of  late  years  to 
have  aroused  such  great  interest  as  the  study  of  place- 
nomenclature,  and,  if  one  were  to  judge  from  the  many 
works  that  have  been  published  on  this  subject,  the  science 
in  question  ought  to  be  at  a  comparatively  advanced  stage. 
A  closer  investigation  of  these  works,  however,  Avill  show 
that  a  great  part  of  them  by  no  means  satisfy  the  claims 
of  strict  scholarship.  As  far  as  one  can  see,  the  study  of 
English  place-names  has  to  a  certain  extent  fallen  into  the 
hands  of  persons  who  have  not  sufficient  knowledge  of 
philology  to  be  able  to  fulfil  their  task  in  a  satisfactory 
way.  It  is  also  indisputable  that  this  study  to  a  great 
extent  encourages  dilettantism. 

Two  general  points  in  which  Englisli  place-name  scholars 
have  laid  themselves  open  to  criticism  are  the  following: 
I)  the  importance  of  the  dialects  as  a  factor  in  the  devel- 
opment of  the  names  seems  entirely  neglected ;  2)  insuffi- 
cient attention  is  paid  to  geographical  and  topographical 
considerations.  Moreover,  manv  scholars  content  themselves 
with  an  inadequate  collection  of  material,  which  naturally 
must  also  affect  the  reliability  of  their  conclusions.  On 
the  other  hand^  however,  it  is  evident  that  in  this  subject 
there  are  many  points  which  are  too  difficult  and  uncertain 
to  be  settled,  in  spite  of  all  attempts  at  thoroughness. 
Many  names,  for  instance,  contain  Celtic  elements,  which  are 
most  often  impossible  to  explain,  but  even  Germanic  ele- 
ments may  be  very  difficult  to  identif}^,  when,  as  is  some- 


times  the  case,  the  old  forms  are  unsatisfactory.  Another 
fact  which  renders  this  study  so  difficult  is  the  intimate 
connection  of  place-names  Avith  personal  names,  the 
study  of  the  latter  belonging  to  a  quite  different  depart- 
ment of  philology. 

In  this  work  are  discussed  all  Wiltshire  place-names 
given  in  Bartholomew's  Gazetteer  of  the  British  Isles  [ed. 
1911],  of  which  forms,  previous  to  A.  D.  1500,  have  been 
found  ^.  As  for  the  material,  which  was  collected  partly 
in  the  Library  of  the  British  Museum,  partly  at  the  Univ. 
Library  in  Uppsala,  I  have  had  recourse  to  all  those  OE 
and  ME  documents  Avhich  seemed  to  be  valuable  for  this 
purpose;  (in  addition  to  those  documents  that  are  to  be 
found  in  the  bibliography,  several  others  were  searched 
which,  however,  proved  to  be  valueless).  In  this  I  have 
endeavoured  to  get  as  many  different  spellings  as  possible 
represented  (very  corrupt  forms  have  been  left  out),  and 
for  this  reason  the  collection  of  material  may  claim  to  be 
fairly  complete.  In  this  part  of  the  Avork,  however,  much 
difficulty  arose  over  the  question  of  identification.  The 
editors  of  the  ME  documents  are  as  a  rule  very  accurate  in 
this  respect,  though  one  may  occasionally  discover  mistakes, 
and  Jones'  identifications  especially  seem  carefully  thought 
out.  Kemble's  identifications  of  the  names  in  CD,  on  the 
other  hand,  are  far  from  satisfactory.  Among  the  numerous 
mistakes  in  the  index  to  this  work  there  are  also  startling 
inconsistences,  such  as  when  tAvo  adjacent  places  in  the 
same  charter  are  located  in  entirely  different  parts  of  a 
county,  nay  eA^en  in  quite  different  counties.  The  few 
mistakes  made  by  Birch  in  CS  are  of  a  far  less  serious 
nature.  It  ma}'  be  pointed  out  that  Birch  sometimes  gives 
an    identity    as    certain    on    the  strength  merely  of  an  OE 

^  As  an  additional  source  I  have  used  the  1-inch  maps  of 
the  Ordnance  Survey.  The  names  which  do  not  occur  in  Bai-- 
tholomew  are,  however,   few  in  number. 

form,  when  there  is  no  confirmation  from  boundaries,  etc. 
As,  however,  the  OE  charters  are  more  carefully  rendered 
bv  Birch  in  his  CS,  I  have  found  it  convenient  to  use 
this  edition  (up  to  A.  D.  975),  the  versions  of  other  editors 
(which  in  CS  occur  in  foot-notes)  being  given  in  brackets. 
It  is,  however,  an  unfortunate  fact  that  most  of  these 
forms,  like  the  charters  themselves,  are  not  genuine  but 
ME  falsifications  of  the  originals.  Finally,  as  regards  the 
names  in  the  AS  Chr.,  the  question  of  their  modern  equi- 
valents is,  as  is  well  known,  to  a  great  extent  unsettled. 
The  duty  of  a  philologist  with  regard  to  the  solution  of 
these  problems  is  naturally  to  put  forward  the  philological 
considerations  in  any  contested  case. 

The  place-names  of  Wiltshire  have  not  been  subjected 
to  any  scientific  investigation  before,  with  the  exception 
of  a  few  names,  which  have  been  discussed  more  or  less 
cursorily  in  other  works,  e.  g.  CricMade  by  Duignan  (Notes 
on  Staffs.  PL  Ns,  p.  116),  Devizes  by  Zachrisson  (Anglia 
XXXIY,  p.  319),  Malmeshuri/  by  Miller  (Quellen  u.  Forsch- 
ungen,  Heft   78). 

It  is  ni}^  pleasant  duty  to  express  my  sincere  gratitude 
to  all  those  who  have  assisted  me  in  carrying  out  my 
work.  Above  all  I  am  indebted  to  Professor  Erik  Bjork- 
man,  my  teacher  in  English  philology,  for  invaluable  advice 
on  various  points  and  for  the  great  interest  he  has  always 
taken  in  my  English  studies.  For  many  helpful  suggestions 
my  acknowledgements  are  also  due  to  Mr  Henry  Alexander, 
Lector  at  the  University  of  Uppsala,  who  has,  in  addition, 
revised  my  treatise  from  a  stylistic  point  of  view.  Finally, 
I  beg  to  thank  all  those  who  have  informed  me  about 
dialectal,  topographic,  and  other  local  matters,  which  it 
has  been  necessary  for  me    to    know,    and  especially  Hev. 


E.   H.    Goddard,    Swindon,    Seer,    of    Wilts.    Archaeo].  and 
Nat.    Hist.    Soc,    Mr  J.    E.  Taylor,    Headmaster    of    Marl- 
borough   College,    Mr    J.    C.    Longstaff,    Holt,    and  D:r  J. 
Kjederqvist,  Stockholm. 
Uppsala,  May  1917. 

Einar  Ekhlom. 


I.    Sources. 

Ahhr.  Plac.  =  Placitorum  in  domo  capitulari  Westmonasteriensi 
asservatorum  abbreviatio  (Rich.  I. — Edw.  II.)    Rec.  Com.  1811. 

Itinerarium  Antonini  August!  et  Hierosolymitanum  ;  ed.  G.  Parthey 
et  M.  Finder.      Berlin   1848. 

AS  Chr.  =  Two  of  the  Saxon  Chronicles  parallel;  ed.  Ch.  Plum- 
mer  (on  the  basis  of  an  edition  by  J.  Earle).  2  vols.  Oxford 

Asser  =  Asser's  Life  of  King  Alfred  (together  with  the  Annals 
of  Saint  Neots  erroneously  ascribed  to  Asser);  ed.  W.  H. 
Stevenson,   Oxford  1904. 

Bede  =  Bede's  Historia  ecclesiastica  gentis  Anglorum;  ed.  C. 
Plummer,   2  vols.,   Oxford   1896. 

Birch  =  See  CS. 

Br.  Mus.  —  Index  to  the  Charters  and  Rolls  in  the  Department 
of  Manuscripts  British  Museum.  Vol.  I  ed.  H.  J.  Ellis  and 
F.  B.  Bickley,  London  1900;  Vol.  II  ed.  H.  J.  Ellis,  London 

Col.  France  =  Calendar  of  documents,  preserved  in  France,  illu- 
strative of  the  history  of  Great  Britain  and  Ireland;  vol.  I. 
A.   D.   918— 120G;   ed.   J.  H.   Round.      London  1899. 

C.  Inq.  =  Calendar  of  Inquisitions  post  mortem  and  other  analo- 
gous documents,  prepared  under  the  superint.  of  the  Dep. 
Keeper  of  the  Records  (Hen.  III.— Edw.  III.,  Hen.  VII.). 
London  1898  etc. 

Cal.  Inq.  =  Calendarium  Inquisitionum  post  Mortem  sive  Escae- 
tarum  (Hen.   III.— Rich.   III.).      Rec.   Com.   1806—28. 

Cal.  inq.  da.  -  Calendarium  —  —  —  inquisitionum  ad  quod 
damnum.      See  Cal.  Rot.   Ch. 

Cal.  Rot.  Ch.  =  Calendarium  Rotulorum  Chartarum  (1199 — 1483) 
et  inquisitionum  ad  quod  damnum  (1307 — 1461).   Rec.  Com.  1803. 

CS  -  Cartularium    Saxonicum :     a    collection    of  charters  relating 


to    Anglo-Saxon    history;    ed.    W.    de    Gray    Birch.      3   vols. 

London  1885—93. 
Cat.  A.  D.  —  A  Descriptive  Catalogue  of  Ancient  Deeds,  preserved 

in    the    Public  Record  Office,   prepared  under  the  superint.   of 

the  Dep.   Keeper  of  the  Records,   5  vols.    London  1890 — 1906. 
Ch.  R.  =  Calendar    of    the    Charter  Rolls  (1226—1326),   prepared 

under    the    superint.     of    the    Dep.     Keeper    of    the    Records. 

London   1903—08. 
CI.  R.  =  Calendar  of  the  Close  Rolls,  prepared  under  the  superint. 

of    the    Dep.     Keeper    of    the    Records  (1227 — 1354).      London 

1892,    etc. 
CD  =  Codex    Diplomaticus    Mvi    Saxonici;    ed.    J.    M.   Kemble. 

6  vols.      London   1839—48. 
Crawf.   Ch.  =  The    Crawford  collection  of  early  charters   and  do- 
cuments now  in    the  Bodleian  Library.      Anecdota  Oxoniensa; 

ed.   A.   S.   Napier  and  W.   H.   Stevenson.      Oxford   1895. 
DB  =  Domesday  Book  seu  Liber  censualis   Wilhelrai  Primi  regis 

Anglise.    Vol.   I — II  ed.  A.   Parley.    London   1783;   vols.   Ill — 

IV,   ed.   H.   Ellis.      London   1816. 
Dugdale  =  Dugdale,   William  ;  Monasticon  Anglicanum,     New  edi- 
tion   by  J.   Caley.   H.   Ellis,   and  B.  Bandinel.      8  vols.      Lon- 
don 1846. 
Ellis,  Intr.  —  Ellis.  H.  A  general  introduction  to  Domesday  Book. 

2  vols.      London   1833. 
Eulogiuni  =  Eulogium    historiarum    sive    temporis:     Chronicon   ab 

orbe  condito   usque  ad   annum  domini   1366,  a  monacho  quodam 

Malmesburiensi    exaratum;    ed.    P.    S.   Haydon.      Rolls   Series. 

Vol.   I.      London   1858. 
Exo7i  DB  =  Exon  DomesdajT^  in  DB   vol.   IV. 
Pacsimiles    of    Ancient    Charters  in  the  British  Museum;   ed.   E. 

A.   Bond.   1873—78. 
FA  =  Inquisitions  and  Assessments  relating  to  Peudal  Aids,  etc. 

1284 — 1431,    prepared  under  the  superint.   of  the  Dep.   Keeper 

of  the  Records.      Vol.  V.      London   1908. 
Feet  of  fines  =  Peet  of  fines,   1182—99.     Pipe  Roll  Soc.     4  vols. 

London   1894—1900. 
Fi7ie  R.  =  Calendar    of  Pine    Rolls  (1272 — 1327),   prepared  under 

the    superint.    of    the    Dep.    Keeper  of  the  Records.     London 

1911 — 12. 
Geoffrey    of    Monmouth's    British    History    (in    Six  Old   English 

Chronicles;    ed.  J.   A.   Giles.      London   1848). 
Gild  as'     Chronicle    (in     Six    Old.    English    Chronicles;    ed.  J.   A. 

Giles.      London   1848). 


Henry  of  Huntingdon :  Historia  Ang-lormn;   ed.  Th.  Arnold.  Rolls 

Series.      London   1879. 
H.   Pipe  R.  —  Magnum    Rotulum    Scaccarii,    vel    Magnum    Rot. 

Pipee,  31   Hen.   I.;  ed.  J.   Hunter.  Rec.  Com.  1833. 
Keary    Ch.    F.     and    Grueber    H.    A.      A    Catalogue   of  English 

coins  in  the  British  Museum.      2  vols.      London  1887,   1893. 
Kemhle  =  see  QD. 
Leland  =  The    Itinerary    of    John  Leland  in  or  about  the  years 

1535—43.      11  parts;   ed.   L.  Smith.      London  1907. 
Liber  rub.  =  Liber    rubeus    de    scaccario:    the    red    book  of  the 

exchequer;  ed.   H.   Hall.   Roils   Series.      3  vols.      London   1896. 
Luard,  Ann.  =  Annales  monastici;  ed.  H.  R.  Luard.  Rolls  Series. 

5  vols.      London   1864 — 69. 
LVD  =  Liber  Vitse  ecclesise    Dunelmensis  nee  non  obituaria  duo 

ejusdem  ecclesiae ;  ed.  J.  Stevenson,   Surtees   Soc.    London  1841. 
L.   de  Hyda  =  Liber  monasterii  de  Hyda;   comprising  a  chronicle 

of    the  affairs  of  England,   from  the  settlement  of  the  Saxons 

to  the  reign   of  King  Cnut;   and  a  chartulary  of  the  abbey  of 

Hide,  in  Hampshire.    A.  D.   455 — 1023 ;   ed.   E.   Edwards.   Rolls 

Series.      London  1866. 
Macray  -  Charters   and  documents  illustrating  the  history  of  the 

cathedral,     cit3^     and    diocese  of  Salisbury  in  the  twelfth  and 

thirteenth  centuries.      Selected  from  the  capitular  and  diocesan 

registers    by    the   late  Rev.   W.  R.   Jones,   and  edited  by  the 

Rev.  W.  Dunn  Macray.     Rolls  Series.     London   1891. 
Mig7ie,    Aldh.     ejjist.  =  Sancti  Aldhelmi  Schireburnensis  Episcopi 

Epistolse     —     —    —     accurante     J.     P.     Migne.       Patrologia 

Nennius'   History  of  the  Britons  (in  Six  Old  English  Chronicles; 

ed.  J.   A.   Giles.      London  1848). 
AT  =  Nonarum    Inquisitiones    in    Curia    Scaccarii.      Temp,    regis 

Edwardi  HI.      Rec.   Com.   1807. 
Osmund  —  Vetus  registrum  Sarisberiense  alias   dictum   Registrum 

S.    Osmundi    Episcopi;    ed.    W.   H.  R.    Jones.     Rolls    Series. 

2  vols.      London  1883—84. 
Pal.   B.  =  Calendar    of    the    Patent  Rolls  (1216—1485),   prepared 

under    the    superint.    of    the    Dep.    Keeper    of    the    Records. 

London  1891,   etc. 
Phillipps'    fines   =   Index  of  Wiltshire  fines,   Edw.  III.   to  Rich. 

III.   ed.   Thomas  Phillipps.     Middle  Hill  Press. 
Phillipps'  ped.  fin.  =  Abbreviation    of  pedes  finium,   7  Rich.  I. — 

11    Hen.    III.,     for    Wiltshire;    ed.   Thomas  Philbpps.      Middle 

Hill  Press. 

Pipe  B.  =  The    Great    Roll    of    the    Pipe    for    the    5th   year  of 

Hen.    11. (A.  D.    1158—80).     Pipe  Roll  Soc.     London 

Plac.    Warr.  =  Placita  de  quo  warranto,   temp.   Edw.   I.,  II.,  III. 

Rec.  Com.  1818. 
Reg.  Malm.  =  Registrum    Malmesburiense.      The  register  of  Mal- 

mesbury  abbey;  preserved  in   the  public  rec.   office;  ed.   J.  S. 

Brewer.   Rolls  Series.     2  vols.     1879. 
Reg.  Wilt.  =  Registrum  Wiltunense,  Saxonicum  et  Latinum  in  museo 

Britannico    asservatum,   ab   anno  regis  ^Ifredi  892,   ad  annum 

regis  Eadwardi  1045.     8umptibus  R.   C.     Hoare.    London  1827. 
Rot.   Ch.  =  Rotuli  Chartarum  in  Turri  Londinensi  asservati  (1199 

—  1216);   ed.   T.   D.   Hardy.      Rec.   Com.   1837. 
Rot.  Cur.  =  Rotuli  Curiae  Regis  (Rich.  I. — John);   ed.  F.  Palgrave. 

Rec.   Com.   1835. 

Three  Rolls  of  the  King's  Court  in  the  reign  of  King  Rich.  I. 

A.  D.   1194—95.     Pipe  Roll  Soc.   1891. 
Rot.  H.  —  Rotuli  Hundredorum,  temp.   Hen.   IIL  et  Edw.  I.  Rec. 

Com.   1812—18. 
Rot.   Orig.  =  Rotulorum   originalium  in  curia  scaccarii  abbreviatio, 

temp.   Hen.   IK. — Edw.   III.     Rec.   Com.   1805—10. 
R.   fin.   exc.  =  Excerpta  e  Rotuli s  Finiuni   .   .   .,   A.  D.   1216 — 72; 

ed.   Ch.   Roberts.      Rec.   Com.   1835—36. 
R.  L.   CI.  =  Rotuli  Litterarum  Clausarum  (1204 — 27);    ed.   T.   D. 

Hardy.     Rec.   Com.   1833 — 44. 
R.  L.  Pat.  =  ^Rotuli  Litterarum  Patentium  (1201—1216);  ed.  T.  D. 

Hardy.      Rec.   Com.   1835. 
R.  Ohlat.  =  Rotuli  de  Oblatis  et  Finibus  in  Turri  Londinensi  asser- 
vati;  temp,   regis  Johannis;   ed.    T.    D.  Hardy.  Rec.  Com.  1835. 
R.   Pat.  =  Calendarium  Rotulorum   Patentium    (3  John — 23  Edw. 

IV).     Rec.   Com.   1802. 
Round,  Ancient  ch.  =  Ancient    charters,    royal  and  private,  prior 

to  1200  (1095 — 1200);   ed.   J.   H.   Round.      Pipe  Roll  Soc.   1888. 
T.   Eccl.  =  Taxatio    Ecclesiastica    Anglise    et   Wallise    auctoritate 

P.   Nicholai  IV.   circa  A.   D.   1291.      Rec.   Com.   1802. 
TN  =  Testa  de  Nevill.   sive  Liber  feodorum  .  .  .  temp.    Hen.  III. 

et  Edw.  I.     Rec.   Com.      London   1807. 
Thorpe  —  Diplomatarium  Anglicum  ^Evi  Saxonici:   a  collection  of 

English    charters,  from  A.   D    605   to  William   the  Conqueror; 

ed.   B.   Thorpe.      London   1865. 
W.   Malm  =  W\\\Q\m\   Malmesbiriensis  monachi :    De  gestis  ponti- 

ficum    Anglorum    libri    quinque;    ed.   N.   E.    S.  A.    Hamilton. 

Rolls  Series.   1870. 


11.    other  works  consulted. 

Akerman,   J.   Y..     Some  account  of  the  possessions  of  the  abbey 

of    Malmesbury,    in    North    Wilts.,   in  the  days  of  the  Anglo- 
Saxon    Kings;    with    remarks    on    the    ancient    limits    of  the 

Forest  of  Braden.      (Archseologia  XXXVII.) 
Alexander,  H.,    The    Place-Names  of  Oxfordshire.      Oxford  1912. 
,   The  Genitive   Suffix  in  the  first  element  of  English  Place- 

Xames.     (Mod.   Lang.  Rev.   vol.  VII,   1912). 
,    The    Particle  -ing  in  Place-Names.     (Essays  and  Studies 

vol.   II.   1911). 
Baddeley,    W.    St.    Clair,    Place-Names    of  Gloucestershire.     (A 

handbook.)      Gloucester  1913.      [Baddeley.] 
Barber,    H.,    British    Family    Names,  their  origin  and  meaning. 

London   1903. 
Bardsley,   C.   W.,  A  Dictionary  of  English  and  Welsh  Surnames 

with    special    American    instances.      London  1901.      [Bardsley.] 
Bartholomew,  J.   G.,    The  Survey  Gazetteer  of  the  British  Isles, 

compiled  from  the  1911   census  and  the  latest  official  returns. 

Edinburgh  1914.      [Bartholomew.] 
Behrens,   D.,    Beitrage  zur  Geschichte  der  franzosischen  Sprache 

in  England.     I:   Zur  Lautlehre  der  franzosischen  Lehnworter  im 

mittelenglischen  (Franz.   Stud.   Bd  V,  Heft  2,  Heilbronn  1886). 
Bergsten,  N.,    A    Study   on  Compound   Substantives  in  English. 

Uppsala  1911.      [Bergsten.] 
Binz,   G,,   Zeugnisse  zur  germanischen   Sage  in  England.     (Beitr. 

zur    Geschichte  der  deutschen   Spr.   XX,   Halle  1895.)      [Binz.] 
Bjorkman,     E.,      Scandinavian     Loan-words    in    Middle    English. 

Halle  1900—02.      [Loanwords.] 
,    Nordische    Personennamen    in  England   in   alt-   und   friih- 

mittelenglischer  Zeit.      Halle  1910.      [Pers.   I.] 

Zur  englischen  Namenkunde.      Halle   1912.      [Pers.   II.) 

Bosivorth-Toller   -    An    Anglo-Saxon    Dictionar}^,    based    on    the 

manuscript    collections    of    the    late    J.     Bosworth;   ed.   T.   N. 

Toller.      Oxford  1882—98.      With  supplements  1908,   1916. 
Bradley,    H.,    English    Place-Names  (Essays  and  Studies  vol.   1. 


,   Some   Old  English  Place-Names  (Academy,  June  2.,  1894). 

.   The  Name  of  Robin  Hood  (Academj^   Sept.   15.,   1883). 

Brandl,  A.,   Zur  Geographic  der  altenglisclien  Dialekte  (Abhand- 

lungen    der    Konigl.    Preuss.    Akademie    der    Wissenschaften, 

Jahrgang  1915.      Philos.   Hist.   Klasse). 


Biilbring,  K.  D.,  AlteDglisches  Elementarbuch.  I.  Teil:   Lautlehre. 

Heidelberg  1902. 
,     tjber    Erhaltung    des    kurzen    und    laugen    ce-Lautes    im 

Mittelenglischen.      (Bonner  Beitr.   zur  Angl.   XV.) 
Camden's    Britannia;     ed.    E.   Gibson.      2nd   ed.   vol.   I.      London 

1722.      [Camden.] 
Collingwood,   W.   G.,   Scandinavian  Britain.      London   1908. 
Cornelius,    H.,    Die    englischen    Ortsnamen    auf  -wick,   -ivicli    (in 

Festschrift  fiir  Lorenz  Morsbach,   Halle  1913).      [Cornelius.] 
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II     E.  Ekhlom 


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The  1-inch  Ordnance  Survey  Maps  of  Wiltshire. 

Abbreviations   (not  given  above). 











E.  R.  of  Yorks.' 

f.  (fern.) 









m.  (masc.) 




mun.  bor. 








=    accusative. 

=   Anglo-Norman. 

—  Anglian. 

=   Anglo-Saxon. 
=   Bedfordshire. 
=  Berkshire. 
=   Buckinghamshire. 
=    Cambridgeshire. 

—  Cumberland. 
=    dative. 

=   Dorset. 

=   East  Riding   of  Yorkshire. 

=   feminine. 

=   genitive. 

=   Gloucestershire. 

=   Hampshire. 

=   Hertfordshire. 

=  Huntingdonshire. 

=   Lancashire. 

=   Latin. 

=   Leicestershire. 

=   masculine. 

=   Middle  English. 

=   Middle  Low  German. 

=   modern. 

=   municipal  borough. 

=   neuter. 

=:   New  English. 

=   Northamptonshire. 

=   Nottinghamshire. 

=    Old  English. 

=    Old  French. 

=   Old  High  German. 





p.  n(s) 


personal  name(s). 

pi.  n(s) 



prim.   Germ. 


primitive  Germanic. 



















W.  R.  of  Yorks. 


West  Riding  of  Yorkshire 


West  Saxon. 


Wiltshire  is  an  inland  county,  situated  in  the  south- 
western part  of  England,  S  of  the  upper  Thames.  In  Old 
English  times  it  consequently^  belonged  to  the  territory  of  the 
West-Saxon  dialect.  The  following  old  references  to  the  name 
of  the  county  may  be  quoted:  [A.  D.  800]  Wilscetan,  mid 
Wilscetum  AS  Chr.  [A],  Wilscete  ib.  [E];  {^l^Wiltunscireih. 
[A]  (interpolated);  [878]  Wilscetan  ib.  [A],  WiUscete  ib.  [E]; 
940 — 46  l^m  wiltschire  OS  no.  817;  955  to  Wiltunscire  ib. 
no.  912;  [981]  on  Wiltunscire  AS  Chr.  [C];  [994]  Wiltunscire 
ib.  [A];  996—1006  to  Wiltunesdre  CD  no.  716;  [1003]  of 
Wiltun  scire  AS  Chr.  [E];  1086  Wiltescire  DB;  1160  Wiltescijr 
Macray;  1196  Wiletescf  Feet  of  fines;  1215  in  WiUtesire 
Rot.  Ch.;  1237  Wijltijs  CI.  R;  1317  on  Wiltun  scire  Ch.  E; 
c.   1540  Whileshir{e)  (several  times)  Leland. 

The  oldest  name  was  consequently  Wils^tan,  WilsMe, 
which  denoted  'the  settlers  on  the  Wiley-stream'.  Of  these 
two  forms,  the  former  is  the  genuine  one  [<  prim.  Germ. 
'■''-scetjon-;  cf .  OHG  -sciso,  OLG  (land)setio].  WilsMe  is,  in  its  turn, 
to  be  considered  as  a  secondary  formation  on  the  analogy 
of  such  names  as  Dene,  Engle,  Seaxe,  etc.  If  this  original 
form  had  been  able  to  develop  normally,  the  modern  name 
would  consequently  have  been  '-Wilset  (in  the  same  way  as 
the  adjoining  counties  in  the  west  and  south  are  called 
Somerset  and  Dorset).     Like  most  counties,  however,  Wilt- 

^  The  sign  (f)  indicates  that  the  name  before  which  it  appears 
is  ont  genuine   but  a  later  (ME)  rendering. 

1     E.  Ekhlom 

shire,  came  to  be  called  after  its  chief  town  Wilton,  and  the 
change  of  the  name  has  certainly  taken  place  in  the  later 
OE  period  (probably  before  A.  D.   1000). 

This  would  perhaps  be  the  place  to  give  a  summar}^ 
account  of  the  antiquities,  history,  and  topography  of  the 
county,  things  with  which  place-names  are  often  so  intimately 
connected,  but  as  these  subjects  are  thoroughly  dealt  with 
in  other  places  ^,  I  have  contented  myself  with  calling 
attention  to  such  points  only  in  connection  with  those 
names  which  for  one  reason  or  another  demand  it.  It 
is,  however,  all  the  more  necessary  to  state  what  the 
present  investigation  has  discovered  about  the  ancient 
colonization  of  the  county.  That  the  Normans  in  their 
time  were  predominant  in  these  parts  is  shown  not 
only  by  the  abundance  of  French  family  names,  which 
occur  as  distinctive  names,  but  also  from  the  strong  in- 
fluence that  their  language  has  exercised  on  the  place- 
names.  In  the  treatment  of  this  part  of  the  subject  I  have 
in  most  cases  been  able  to  refer  to  Zachrisson's  work  'A 
Contribution  to  the  Study  of  AN  Infl.  on  Engl.  PL  Ns", 
which  has  proved  most  valuable.  But  I  think  that  the 
present  treatise  will  also  contribute  some  additional  ma- 
terial to  Zachrisson's  own  collection.  Attention  may  here 
be  drawn  to.  a  few  cases  of  AN  influence,  which  are  of 
particular  interest  (for  further  information  on  these  names 
see  below):  Devises,  derived  from  OFrench  devises  (plur.  of 
devise  =  'boundary^);  the  form  Graveling{es),  wdiich  was 
current  in  ME  as  a  variant  of  Oravele,  mod.  Grovely  [prob. 
<  *gr^fan  leak  (lea^e)],  due  to  the  influence  of  Oravelines, 
the  sea-port  on  the  other  side  of  the  Channel.  Note  also 
such  names  as:  Bushton  (<  '■''bise{e)opes  tun),  Groundwell 
[<  '^grinde-  {grinda-1)  wyU{e)],    Landford    (<  ^se  laiiga  ford), 

^  e.  g.  in  R.  C.  Hoaro:  The  Ancient  History  of  Wiltshiro, 
London  1812 — 21;  The  Magazine  of  Wilts.  Archseol.  and  Nat. 
Hist.  Soc;  Devizes,  1854  — ;  F.  R.  Heath:  Wiltsliire,  London 

Roundivay  (prob.  <  '^Hringan  tveg),  and  WinJcfield  [<  '"^Wines 
{Winanl)  feld],  in  which  the  alteration  of  the  first  elements 
has  been  occasioned  by  AN  spelling  and  pronunciation. 

Dunkirk  (a  hamlet  near  Devizes)  is  a  name  borrowed 
from  Dimkerque  [Dunkirk]  (in  the  present  French  Flanders) 
and  therefore  probably  introduced  by  Flemings. 

Continental  p.  ns  occurring  as  first  elements  in  Wilts, 
pi.  ns  are:  Bluncl  (in  Blunsdon),  Boia  (Boyton),  Cort  [Cor- 
{ti7ig)ton],  Eliasl  (Elston),  (^')Fallard  {Faulstone),  Flamhard 
(Flamston),  Hepj^o  (^Heppal)  [Hippenscombe],  Oda  {Odstock, 
probably),  Radbod  (RabsonY- 

The  Scand.  elements  in  Wilts,  pi.  ns  are  limited  to  a 
number  of  p.  ns;  apart  from  these,  as  is  to  be  expected 
from  the  situation  of  the  county,  no  Scand.  influence 
whatever  has  been  traced.  The  only  word  which  might  be 
taken  as  Scand.  is  brink  (in  Brinkivorih),  although  it  is  very 
doubtful  if  we  are  justified  in  assuming  this.  The  most 
certain  of  the  Scand.  p.  ns  occurring  here  are:  "^Aska 
(<  Aski)  [in  Axford],  "^'Buter  (Butr)  [Buttermere],  Estrid 
(Heytesbury),  Oamel  (or  *Qamela)  [Gomeldon],  Orim  (Grims 
Ditch,  Grlmstead),  Hacun  (Haxton),  '"Kale  (Kali)  [Calstone], 
Raf{e)n  {Ramsbiiry),  Rolf  [Rollestone),  Tola  (<  Toli)  [ToUard], 
*Ugga  (<  Uggi)  [Ugford].  Several  of  these  names  have  no 
doubt  been  introduced  by  the  Normans,  but  some  of 
them  probably  also  go  back  to  the  time  of  the  Danish 
Kings,  when  Scand.  p.  ns  may  have  gained  ground  even 
in  those  parts  of  England  which  had  earlier  remained 
quite  untouched  by  Scand.  influence.  But  a  Scand.  settle- 
ment in  the  real  sense  of  the  word  seems  never  to  have 
existed  in  Wilts. 

Finally  it  must  be  noticed  that  a  not  unimportant  Celtic 
element    seems    to  have  survived  in  these  parts  even  after 

^  Only  three  of  these  names  are  Romance:  Blund,  Elias,  and 
probably  Fallard;  one  is  Celtic,  viz.  Boia;  all  the  others  Ger- 

the  Germanic  tribes  had  settled  down  there,  for,  apart  from 
such  names  as  contain  Celtic  words  which  have  become 
current  in  the  English  language  [e.  g.  doivn  {don)  and 
comhe  (coomhe)],  there  are  about  thirthy  pi.  ns  in  Wilts., 
which,  partly  or  entirely,  are  in  all  probability  of  Celtic 
origin.  This  is  really  not  surprising  when  we  consider 
the  proximity  of  Wilts,  to  the  Welsh  borders.  Although 
it  has  been  impossible  for  me  to  interpret  most  of  them, 
their  forms  conclusively  prove  that  they  cannot  be  Ger- 
manic. Names  which  in  all  probability  contain  Celtic  ele- 
ments are  Braydon,  Calne.  Cherhill,  Cheverell,  Chnte,  Conock, 
Corston,  Cricklade,  Deverill  (see  Brixton  De/verill).  Crudivell, 
Keevil,  KeUaivays.  Kemwt,  KnooJc,  Knoyle,  Preshute,  Quemer- 
ford,  Qiudhampton,  SavernaJce,  Shorncote,  Stourton,  Wan- 
horough,  Warminster,  Wellow,  and  Wylye  (Wily).  It  is  also 
most  probable  that  some  pi.  ns  conceal  p.  ns  of  Celtic 
origin.  Of  such  p.  ns  may  be  mentioned  Cada  (in  Cadnam, 
Catcomh(i),  Cead{d)a  (in  ChaddenwicJce)  [both  probably  short- 
ened forms  of  the  Celtic  Ccedwalla  and  its  anglicized  variant 
Ceadw(e)aUa  respectively],  and  Peuf  (in  Pewsey,  Pewsham). 
The  fact,  however,  that  there  existed  such  a  great  number 
of  Germanic  p.  ns  as  well  which  def}^  any  attempt  at  a 
plausible  explanation  (I  refer  especially  to  the  common 
hypocoristic  formations)  makes  it  verj^  dangerous  to  state 
that  an  obscure  p.  n.  is  definitely  Celtic  or  Germanic. 

Abbotston    [locally    pronounced  cebdst'n]  ^  E  of  Downton. 

1272  Abofeston  Pat.  E;  1296  Ahhodesdon  CLE;  1316  Ahhocl- 
eston  YK\  1338  Ahhesseton  Cal.  Inq. ;  1348  Ahhoteston  ib.; 
1404  Abheston  Phillipps'  fines;  1459  Abbeston  Cal.  Inq. 

From  an  orioinal  ^abbodes  tun.  OE  tun,  the  commonest 
of  all  terminations  in  English  pi.  ns.,  meant  'enclosed  place 
or  piece  of  ground",  'farmstead',  ^hamlet',  -ton  is  very  often 
confused  with  -don  [<  OE  dun},  and  it  is  therefore  some- 
times impossible  to  settle  which  of  them  was  the  primitive 
element.  The  contracted  ME  forms  indicate  that  the  modern 
local  pronunciation  was  alread}^  current  in  ME. 

Abiington  N  of  Amesbury. 
1086  Alboldintone  DB;   1223  Ablhiton  Pat.  E;   1227  Ablinton 
Ch.  E;    1252  Eblinton  (twice)  ib.;   1485,   1487  Ablyngton  C. 
Inq.;   1560  Abiington  Br.  Mus. 

I  derive  this  name  from  an  original  '■'Eadbealdinga  tun 
\=  the  farmstead  of  Eadbeald's  descendants].  The  first  I  in 
the  DB  form  is  certainly  a  spelling  mistake,  and  -bold- 
(for  bald)  is  due  to  w^eakened  stress,  -in-  is  an  AN  rendering 
of  -ing-  (see  Bjorkman,  Pers.  I,  p.  137).  The  initial  a-vow^el 
implies  a  shortening  either  of  the  original  diphthong  itself 
or  of  ce  (in  the  transition  period),  while  in  the  case  of 
Eblinton  the  shortening  is  of  a  later  date.  This  explanation 
is  to  be  preferred  to  the  one  given  by  Wyld,  p.  25,  according 
to  whom  the  a-forms  are  due  to  shifting  of  stress  in  the  OE 
diphthong.     It   is  to  be  noticed  that  initial  ea  in  that  case 

^  The    phonetic    transcription    used    in    this    work    is  that  of 
Sweet,   given  in  his  Primer  of  Spoken  English, 


would  more  probably  have  become  ^ea,  id  (see  Sievers  § 
212,  note  2,  and  Zachrisson,  p.  65);  of.  Urchfont  (DB  Jerclies- 
fonte,  Pipe  R  Archesfunte),  below. 

The  present  name  offers  an  opportunity  of  discussing 
those  cases  in  which  a  medial  -m^-suffix  in  pi.  ns.  occurs 
unin fleeted  in  OE  charters  (e.  g.  jEdilutilfing  lond  CS  no. 
303).  Kemble's  opinion  about  such  forms  [in  Proc.  of  the 
Philol.  Soc.  lY]  is  that  this  -ing  has  the  special  function  of 
being  the  equivalent  of  the  strong  gen.  ending  (consequently 
JEdiluulfing  =  JEdiluulfes).  Against  this  opinion  Th.  Watts 
maintains  (in  the  same  volume,  p.  83)  that  the  -ing-iorm.  in 
question  is  a  sort  of  uninflected  adjective  analogous  to 
Pariser,  Londoner,  etc.  in  German. 

Both  these  opinions  are  consequently  based  on  the  suppo- 
sition that  these  -mi^-forms  were  originally  uninflected, 
and  this  seems  also  to  have  been  accepted  by  other  scholars. 
There  is,  however,  strong  reason  to  doubt  such  strange 
functions  of  the  -m^-suffix,  which,  in  addition,  seem  to  be 
quite  unknown  in  the  other  Germanic  languages.  The  fact 
is  that  many  of  those  forms  on  which  Kemble  bases  his 
theory  are  taken  from  charters  bearing  evident  signs  of 
being  ME  copies  (Kemble  himself  marks  several  of  them 
in  CD  as  not  genuine).  Nothing  prevents  us  therefore 
from  considering  all  of  them  simply  as  ME  forms  of 
original  gen.  plurals  (jEdiluulfinga).  Many  examples  show 
that  this  gen.  plur.  ending  may  have  quite  disappeared 
even  as  early  as  in  DB  (when  it  survives  it  is  represented 
by  -e-). 

Another  curious  statement  concerning  this  'non-inflected' 
-m^-suffix  is  made  by  Moorman  (PL  Ns  of  the  W.  Riding 
of  Yorks.  Introd.  p.  xli),  according  to  whom  it  was  used 
in  OE  instead  of  tlie  ending  -an  to  denote  the  gen.  sing, 
case  of  a  p.  n.  of  the  weak  declension.  This  also  has  no 
sound  evidence  to  support  it.  The  fact  of  the  matter  is 
that  OE  -an  sometimes  develops  into  -ing,  a  transition 
which    must    be    due  to  the  analogy    of   the    many    pi.    ns 

containing  a  patronymic  as  the  first  element,  but  this 
change  did  certainly  not  take  place  until  ME  times  (see 
Alexander,  Mod.  Lang.  Rev.  VII,  p.   70). 

Consequently,  in  deciding  the  etymology  of  a  ])\.  n. 
containing  as  the  first  element  a  patronymic  of  a  strong 
p.  n.,  uninflected  even  in  its  oldest  forms,  we  have  to 
assume  an  original  gen.  plur.  case,  but  the  m^-suffix  of  a 
weak  p.  n.  may  sometimes  also  be  derived  from  the  gen.  -an. 

Aicombe  NW  of  Box. 

1496  Alcomhe  C.  Inq. 

This  single  ME  form  does  not  tell  us  very  much.  The 
original  name  may  have  been  "^jEllan,  [or  Allan]  cumh. 
For  the  p.  ns  jElla,  Alia  see  Mliller,  p.  45,  and  Bjorkman, 
Pers.  I,  p.  4,  respectively.  OE  cumh  (=  small  valley)  is 
generally  supposed  to  be  of  Celtic  origin.  Modern  Welsh 
has  civ7n  in  the  same  sense. 

Aldbourne  N  of  Eamsbury. 

1086  Aldehorne  DB;  1181  Aldibmna  Pipe  E;-  1194  Aldeburd 
Eot.  Cur.;  1206  Aldehuru  E.  L.  CI.;-  1214  Audibrh  ib.;  1225 
Audiburh  E.  fin.  exc. ;  1229  Audiburn  Ch.  E;  c.  12^0  Alde- 
hurn{e)T,  EccL;  1310  Aldehorne  C.  Inq.;  1428  Aldehourne  FA. 
Originally  ''"cet  Ealdan  (Angl.  Aldan)  hurne  {human),  re- 
ferring to  the  little  affluent  of  the  Eiver  Kennet  on  which 
the  place  is  situated.  OE  hitrn  f.,  hurne  f.,  hurna  m.  = 
''small  stream^  ^brook'.  The  first  element  was  certainlv  the 
gen.  of  Ealda  (Alda)^,  Avhich  may  be  regarded  either  as  a 
nickname  meaning  ^the  old  one^  or  as  a  shortened  form  of 
some  p.  n.  beginning  with  Eald-  e.  g.  Ealdhelm,  Ealdred 
(or  their  Angl.  equivalents).  The  OE  ending  -an  in  the 
middle  of  pi.  ns  is  most  often  weakened  to  e  in  earliest 
ME.     The    present    pi.  n.  indicates    that    this    e    has    been 

^  The  possibility  that  the  first  element  might  represent  the 
OE  adj.  eald  is  certainly  out  of  the  question  as  this  would  not 
give  a  likely  meaning. 


syncopated  before  the  ME  transition  of  a  >  q.  (For  those 
cases  in  which  the  OE  -an-  is  retained  as  (e)n  or  changed 
into  in,  ing,  see  Alexander,  Mod.  Lang.  Rev.  VII;  see  also 
Bavnton,  below.)     Aude-  shows  AN  vocalization  of  I. 

Alderbury  SE  of  Salisbury. 

972  ^delware  hyrig  CS  no.  1286  [possibly  identicall; 
1086  Ahvarberie,  Alwaresberie  DB;  c.  1115  Ahvarhiri  Os- 
mund; 1139?  Alwardheria  Macray;  c.  1190  de  Alwardebirie 
Osmund;  1194  de  Ahvarhrie  Rot.  Cur.;  1215 — 20  de  Alwar- 
hurie  Osmund;  1222  Ahuardbur.  ib.;  1243  Alwarbire  Macray 
Hen.  Ill  Ayhvardebyr  Rot.  H;  1287  Ahvardesbuii  C.  Inq. 
c.  1290  Alwardbury,  Aylivardbury,  Aldeiverbury  T.  Eccl. 
13th  cent,  in  Aldwardbirice  Ltiher  rub.;  IS18  Aldetvardebury 
Pat.  R. ;  1341  Alrehury  Cal.  Rot.  Ch.;  Edv.  Ill  Ahvardesburi 
C.  Inq.;  1476  Aleivardbury  Cal.  Inq.;  c.  1540  Alivardbyri 
Lei  and. 

Originally  '^cBt  ^Edehveardes  byri^,  or  possibly  jEdelivare  b. 
[although  '■^^delwaru  (fern.)  is  not  recorded  as  an  independent 
p.  n.].  The  development  of  OE  cedel  in  p.  ns  and  pi.  ns  is 
discussed  by  Zachrisson,  p.   LOl  ff. 

The  series  of  old  forms  given  above  proves  that  the 
definitive  change  of  Alwar{d)-  >  Alder-  did  not  take  place 
until  NE  times,  but  tendencies  in  this  direction  seem  to 
have  existed  even  in  ME,  judging  from  the  forms  quoted 
from  T.  Eccl.,  Liber  rub.,  Pat.  R.,  and  Cal.  Rot.  Ch.  This 
change  must  be  due  to  analogy  with  the  many  pi.  ns 
which  contain  Alder-  as  the  first  element.  Such  a  name  is 
found  even  in  the  neighbourhood  of  Alderbur}^  viz.  Al- 
der(s)ton  (see  below).  OE  burh  (dat.  byri^)  denoted  'a  forti- 
fied place\  For  e  as  a  representative  of  OE  y  in  DB  see 
Stolze  §  15.  The  final  e  in  -berle  has  been  added  in  analogy 
Avith  those  names  in  which  -e  in  this  position  represents 
the  OE  dat.  form. 

If  the  origin'^ jEdelweardes  byr'i^  is  correct,  the  two  DB  forms 
are  of  special  interest  because  they  show  that  the  strong  gen.  -s 

might  have  been  dropped  here.  Doublets  of  this  kind  are  not 
rare  either  in  DB  or  in  other  ME  documents.  xA^ccording  to 
Zachrisson,  p.  119.  the  circumstance  that  there  existed  two 
forms  of  the  gen.  in  many  OE  p.  ns  used  as  the  first  element 
in  pi.  ns,  one  with  s,  the  other  without  {Frocles — Frodan,  etc.) 
may  easily  have  led  to  confusion  and  uncertainty  in  the  use 
of  s  between  two  pi.  n.  compounds  in  general.  Alexander 
(Mod.  Lang.  Eev.  VII,  p.  66  f .)  gives  other  explanations  which 
also  seem  reasonable.  Here  may  be  mentioned  another 
circumstance  which  might  have  been  an  even  more  important 
cause  of  the  omission  of  the  s  in  question,  viz.  the  fact  that 
the  French  gen.  had  no  inflectional  ending.  We  may  mention 
such  French  pi.  ns  of  this  type  as  Martin-  hose  (A.  D.  1130), 
Rohert-Camp  (A.  D.  1181)  [quoted  from  Kornmesser,  pp.  53, 
47].  Loss  of  a  medial  gen.  -s  in  English  pi.  ns  may  there- 
fore be  due  to  a  great  extent  to  the  influence  of  such  French 
names.  An  original  name  of  the  type  ^^delwearcl  hyri^  is 
naturally  impossible  ^.  (For  the  insertion  of  an  inorganic  s 
and  the  omission  of  a  stem  s  in  the  composition  joint  see 
under  Gorton.) 

Note,  cewelburhe  {heme  diche)  CD  no.  654  is  identified  by 
Kemble  with  Alderbury,  Wilts.  The  absurdity  of  this  identi- 
fication is  proved  by  Bradley  [Acadeni}^.  June  2,   1894]. 

AIder(s)ton  near  Whiteparish. 

1166  de  Alderestoh  Pipe  E,;  1272  Aderedeston  Pat.  E;  1318 
Aldredeston  R  Pat.;  1314  Aldredestonc  C.  Tnq.;  l^l^  Aldre- 
ston  FA;  1324  Aldredeston  Pat.  R. 

From  '-"•'' Ealdredes  tun,  the  first  element  being'  a  common 
OE  p.  n. 

^  It  seems,  however,  as  if  some  scholars  would  admit  the 
possibility  of  such  a  form.  Thus,  Alexander  (in  Mod.  Lang. 
Eev.  VII,  p.  67)  refers  to  a  suggestion  of  Prof.  Wyld  that  '^a 
usage  without  a  gen.  ending  may  be  due  to  the  fact  that  the 
p.  n.  was  felt  to  be  a  sort  of  adjective  qualif^nng  the  second 


Alderton  NW  of  Grittleton. 

1086  in  Aldritone,  Aldrinfone  DB;  1194  de  Aldrintoh  Rot. 
Cur.;  1261  Audinton  Br.  Mus.;  Edv.  I  Aldrynton,  {in)  Al- 
drintone  ib.;  c.  1290  Aderinton  T.  Eccl. ;  early  14th  cent. 
Audrinton  TN;  1316  Aldrynton  FA;  1428  Aldnjngton  ib.; 
1432  Alderington  E.  Pat.;  1675  Aldrington  Br.  Mus. 

The  first  element  evidentlj"  contains  originallj^  the  patro- 
nymic of  a  p.  n.  beginning  with  Eald-  (Angl.  Aid-)  and 
with  a  second  member  beginning  with  r.  Only  one  name 
of  this  kind  is  on  record  in  OE,  viz.  Ealdred,  but  there 
may  also  have  existed  a  p.  n.  '^'Ealdric.  Alderton  is  conse- 
quently to  be  derived  from  '•'Ealdredinga  (or  possibly  ^^Eald- 
ricinga)  tun.  A  contraction  has  taken  place  in  this  name 
of  exactly  the  same  kind  as  in  Cholderton,  Hilperton',  see 
below.  Loss  of  a  medial  -m^-suffix  in  pi.  ns  occurs  very 
often.  In  the  present  case,  this  seems  to  have  taken  place 
far  on  in  NE  times,  but  it  is  just  as  commonly  lost  in  ME; 
cf.  e.  g.  Gorton  (Cortington),  Dinton,  Hannington.  For  -i- 
as  representing  -ing-  in  DB  see  Zachrisson,  Stud,  i  mod. 
sprakvet.  Y,  p.   11. 

All  Cannings  E  of  Devizes. 

1086  Ccminge  DB;  1166  Chaningis  Pipe  li  (or  =  Bishop's 
Cannings);  1185  Kanenges  (hundr.)  ib.;  1205  de  Aldehmning 
E,  Oblat;  de  Aldehamge  Eot.  Ch.;  Aldechanlgg  11.  L.  CI.;  1296 
Allekanynges  Pat.  E;  1316  Alcanninges  FA;  1428  Cannggges, 
Allecanynges  FA. 

In  OE  times  this  place  was  certainly  called  simply 
'^Caningas  (^'cet  Caningum),  this  name  including  also  Bi- 
shop's Cannings,  the  distinctive  names  being,  as  is  most 
often  the  case,  ME  additions.  "^Caningas  is  a  plur.  patronymic 
of  a  p.  n.  "^'Cana,  recorded  in  DB  [Ellis,  Intr.  II  p.  64]  in 
the  latinized  form  Cano.  The  same  name  occurs  in  Can- 
nington,  Soms.  (1284  Caninton  FA;  1315  Canyngtone  C.  Inq.). 

PI.  ns  of  the  present  kind  are  discussed  by  Alexander 
[Essays    &   Studies  II,  p.    175    ff.].     According   to  him  the 


names  in  -ing  {-inge)  are  derived  from  original  oblique  cases, 
either  from  the  gen.  plur.  (with  -helm,  -tun  etc.  understood), 
or  from  the  dat.  plur^. 

The  epithet  was  originally  the  ME  adj.  aid  (=  old),  which, 
after  the  loss  of  d  between  two  consonants  coincided  with 
all.  For  the  AN  ch  as  a  representative  of  OE  c  {k)  see 
Zachrisson,  p.  32  f. 

AUington  SE  of  Amesbury. 

1086  AUentone,  Alentone  DB;  1178?  Aldintona  Br.  Mus.; 
1199  in  AJdintoh  Rot.  Ch.;  1270  Alletona,  Aldintona  Ch.  Id.; 
c.  1290  Aldyngton  T.  EccL;  1316  Aldynton  FA;  1428  Aldyng- 
ton  ib.;   1486  Aldyngton  C.  Inq. 

This  name,  like  the  following,  goes  back  to  ''"'JEllan  (Allan'^) 
tun,  or  ""'-^Ellinga  (Allinga)  ttin.  For  JElla,  Alia  see  under 
Alcombe.  The  inorganic  d  of  some  forms  must  be  due  to 
the  influence  of  the  numerous  names  beginning  with  Aid-. 

Aliington  NW  of  Chippenham. 

1316  Alynton  FA;  1397  in  Alyngtone  Br.  Mus.;  [n.  d.]  de 
Alyntone  Reg.  Malm.     See  preceding  name. 

Aliington  NE  of  Devizes. 

1086  Adelingtone  DB;  1194  in  Alingetoh  Rot.  Cur.;  1316 
Alington  FA;  1324,  1428  Alyngton  ib. 

From  '■■'^delinga  tun;  cedeling  =  either  a  prince,  member 
of  a  noble  family,  or  a  patronymic  of  the  p.  n.  jEdel, 
^^dela  (the  latter  being  a  pet-form  of  some  name  beginning 
Avith  j^del-).  Medial  OE  d  is  most  often  rendered  by  d  in 
DB  [Stolze  §  38];  see  also  on  this  point  Zachrisson,  p. 
97  ff. 

^  In  the  present  case,  where  the  absence  of  s  is  merely  occa- 
sional, the  s-less  forms  may  naturally  just  as  well  be  explained 
as  shortened  forms,  where  the  sign  {^)  (over  the  final  g),  repre- 
senting the  ending  -es,  has  been  omitted  (in  the  same  way  as 
the  stroke  (-)  over  y  representing  the  following  n  has  been  left 
out  in  one  of  the  FA  forms). 


Alton  Barnes  or  Berners 
Alton  Priors 

\  NW  of  Pewsey. 

1086  Aultone  [=  A.  B.],  Awlione  [=  A.  P.]  DB ;  1189  Aulton  Br. 
Mus.;  1284  Aidton  Ch.  R;  c.  1290  cle  Aultone  Berners,  de  Aid- 
tone  Prioris  T.  Eccl. ;  Edw.  I  in  Aiveltnn'  Berner  E/Ot.  H: 
early  14th  cent.  Aivelton  Prioris  TN;  1316  Aulton  Bernes  FA; 
1428  Aidton  {Berners),  Aulton  Prioris  ib. 

From  '■■ea-ivyll-tun.  A  little  tributary  of  the  East  Avon 
rises  here.  The  WS  compound  ■'■'■ea-wyU{e)  [Angl.  *w-wcell, 
''^r£-weU]  is  to  be  taken  quite  literally  as  'the  source  of  a  brook 
or  river ,  not  simply  'river  as  Middendorff  states,  p.  9.  Cf. 
Alton,  Hants,  (near  the  source  of  the  River  Wey),  which 
occurs  as  jEweltune  CS  no.  390.  For  the  initial  a  see 
p.  5  (under  Ablington). 

'Berner'  is  an  AN  family  name  (see  Bardslej^),  and  'Bar- 
nes' in  the  present  case  can  hardly  be  anything  but  a 
corruption  of  this  name.  Alton  Priors  formerly  belonged 
to  tlie  monaster}^  of  St.  Swithun  at  Winchester;  see  Ch.  li 
II,  p.  288. 

Alton  N  of  Amesbury. 

1086  Eltone  DB;  1281  Alletona  Br.  Mus.;  c.  1290  de  Aletone 
T.  Eccl.;  1310  Aleton  Ch.  R;  1316  Aleton  FA;  1361  Aleton 
CI  R;   1428  Alton  FA. 

Probably  from  ''-''JEllan  tun,  the  first  element  being  the 
gen.  of  the  p.  n.  jElla,  for  which  see  Muller,  p.  45.  For 
the  representation  of  OE  ce  by  e  in  DB  see  Stolze  §  4. 

Alvediston  SSE  of  Tisbury. 

1166  de  Alfwietestoh  Ahbtisse  Pipe  R;  King  John  Alvi- 
theston  xAbbr.  Plac;  1222  Alvitheston  Phillipps'  ped.  fin.; 
1271  Alvedeston  C.  Inq. ;  1287  Alhedeston  ib.;  c.  } 290  Alve- 
destone  T.  Eccl.;  1312  Alvedstone  Cal.  inq.  da.;  1336  Alfe- 
deston  Cal.  Inq.;  1359  Alvidcston  CI.  R;  1428  Alveston 
(twice)  FA. 


The  first  element  was  certainly  the  p.  n.  '■■^Ifhcep,  re- 
corded as  Alfeth  in  CS  no.  641,  and  as  jElfeth  in  DB 
[Ellis,  Intr.  II  p.  5].  The  transition  of  the  medial  -fh-  into 
the  corresponding  explosive  is  in  the  present  case  hardly 
to  be  explained  either  as  an  AN  substitution  or  as  a  dia- 
lectal development  [see  Zachrisson  p.  97  ff.].  It  may  rather 
be  due  to  the  difficulty  of  pronouncing  two  fricative  con- 
sonants next  to  each  other  {th  and  s).  Cf.  the  transition 
of  gh  >  g  in  Brigmerston,  y>h  in  Brixton,  th  >  t  in  Ratfyn. 
As  to  t  for  th  in  the  Pipe  R  form  see  Zachrisson,  p.  115, 
foot-note,  h  for  v,  a  not  uncommon  mistake  in  ME  mss. 
as  well  as  the  reverse,  is  due  to  the  similaritv  between 
these  letters. 

According  to  Jones,  p.  204,  this  place  was  included  in 
the  large  estate  at  Chalk  [Bower  Ch.  and  Broad  Ch.]  which 
in  955  was  granted  to  the  abbey  at  Wilton  (CS  no.  917). 
Hence  the  distinctive  name  in  Pipe  E». 

Amesbury  or  Ambresbury  [eimzhdri]. 

858  -^Amhereshurg  CS  no.  495;  880 — 85  -feet  Amhres  hyrig 
ib.  no.  553;  932  -fAmhreslmrch  ib.  no.  691;  972  -fhamhre.b' 
huruh  ib.  no.  1286;  [995]  -fAmhresbyri  AS  Chr.  [F];  1086 
Amblesherie,  Ambresherie  DB;  1205  Ambresber'  CaJ.  Rot.  Ch.; 
1215  Amhresbyre  Macray ;  1223  Ambresbirie  Osmund;  1227 
Amesbury,  Ambresburi  Ch.  R;  1242  Aumberbiry  Pat.  R; 
1248  Ambesbire  Macray;  1265  Ambrebiry  Pat.  E>;  1267  Am- 
besbyre  Macray;  Ainbrosebury  Cal.  Rot.  Ch.;  1270  Aunbres- 
byry  Pat.  E.;  1290  Ameshury  Ch.  R;  1322  Great  Aumbres- 
buri  C.  Inq.;  1331  Aunbresbury  (four  times)  ib.;  1335  Am- 
bresburye  Magna  Cal.  Inq.;  Amesbury  Ch.  E;  1428  Magna 
Ambresbury,  Parva  A.  FA;  1485  Amysbury  C.  Inq.;  1487 
Ammesbury  ib.;  1495  Ambesbury  ib. 

This  place  is  traditionally  connected  with  the  Roman 
leader  Aurelius  Ambrosius  mentioned  in  Gildas,  Beda, 
Nennius,  and  Geoffrey  of  Monmouth.  Although  a  derivation 
of  this  pi.  n.  from  Ambrosius  would  not  infringe  philological 


laws,  yet  there  is  much  doubt  about  such  an  etymology. 
Tradition  is  after  all  too  unreliable  to  have  much  weight 
in  deciding  the  etymology  of  a  pi.  n.  But  there  is  no 
doubt  that  the  first  element  was  a  p.  n.,  and  if  this 
name  was  Germanic,  it  may  have  been  Eammer  (<  ■^Eanmer) 
or  possibly  Eanheorht.  The  second  element  was  OE  byri^ 
(dat.  of  hurh).  As  to  I  for  r  in  one  of  the  DB  forms  see 
Zachrisson,  p.  142  ff.  Other  pi.  ns  with  a  similar  first 
element  are  Amberley,  Sussex  (see  Roberts,  PL  Ns  of  Sussex), 
Amhrosden  Oxfs.  (see  Alexander,  PL  Ns  of  Oxfs.),  Omhersley, 
Worcs.  (see  Duignan,  PL  Ns  of  Worcs.),  and  Amhrosetown, 

Anstey  or  Ansty  SSE  of  Tisbury. 

1086  Ancstige  DB;  1224  Anesty  Phillipps'  ped.  fin.;  1245 
Ansteya  Macray;  1251  of  Anesty e  Ch.  R;  Edw.  1  Anestye, 
Ahiestye  Eot.  H;  1316  Anestigh  FA;  1428  (in)  Anstye,  (de) 
Anstie  ib. 

Originally  "^'cet  [pcem'\  ansU^an.  The  OE  compound,  ''^'ansfi^a, 
which  is  only  found  in  oblique  cases,  meant  'narrow  path 
(passage)'  [cf .  OW  Scand.  einstigi  =  'a  path,  so  narrow  that  only 
one  can  pass'].  In  the  Epinal  Glosses  the  word  occurs  as  a  trans- 
lation of  termofilas  (see  thermiphilce,  Du  Cange),  consequently 
denoting  ''a  narrow  passage  between  hills',  but  Middendorff's 
conclusion  from  this  single  case  that  it  could  only  have 
that  sense  seems  too  hazardous  to  be  trusted.  In  the  case 
of  the  present  name,  there  is  no  topographical  evidence  to 
support  the  latter  meaning.  As  to  the  intrusive  I  in  Alnc- 
stye  see  Zachrisson,  p.   150. 

[Ashgrove  SE  of  Shaftesbury  (Dors.). 

This  name  has  been  inserted  only  on  account  of  Thorpes 
identification  of  jEscgraf  p.  443  with  this  place.  There 
seems,  however,  nothing  to  support  this  statement.  Ashgi'ove 
may  be  a  comparatively  new  name,  and  its  sense  is  in  that 
case  obvious.] 


Ashley  NE  of  Tetbuiy  (Glos.). 

1086  Esselie  DB;  1194  Esselega  Eot.  Cur.;  1222  Asseleg 
Macray;  c.  1290  Ashle  T.  EccL;  1341  Asshesleghe  Br.  Mus. 
(prob.  identical);  [n.  d.]  de  Hasselleye,  de  Asseleye,  Esseleye, 
Aisseleye,  de  Eshleye  Reg.  Malm.;  1428  Asshele  FA. 

Originally  *cet  [p<^m,  p^re]  cesc-  lea^e  fash-tree  meadow') 
or  "^cet  uEscan  lea^e,  jEsca  being  probably  a  pet-formation 
of  some  p.  n.  beginning  with  jEsc-,  of  which  there  are  a 
great  number.  OE  leak,  m.  and  f.,  is  most  common  in  pi. 
ns,  in  compounds  as  well  as  by  itself.  The  OE  nom.  gives 
modern  lea,  leigli. 

Aiss-  for  Ass-  is  inverted  spelling;  see  Luick,  AngliaXYI, 
p.  505  ff.  For  the  AN  rendering  of  OE  sc  (/)  with  s,  ss 
see  Zachrisson,  p.  37  f. 

Ashley  near  Box. 

Hen.  Ill  in  Asseleye,  in  Hasseleye  Br.  Mus. ;  1428  Asshele  FA. 
See  above. 

Ashley,  Great  and  Little  NW  of  Bradford. 

1492  Aissheley  Cal.  Inq, ;  1494  Assheley  C.  Inq. 
See  above. 

Ashtoti  Gifford  SE  of  Heytesbury. 

1247  Ayston  C.  Inq.;  1281  Aihston  Oh.  R;  1316  (de)  Ashetone 
FA;  1327  of  Asshetone,  Aschtone,  Asshton  C.  Inq.;  1357  Ash- 
tone  Giffard  Cal.  Inq. 

Either  from  '^'cesc-  tun  or  ''^'uEscan  tun.  ^Gifford'  (Giffard) 
is  an  AN  family  name;  see  Hildebrand,  p.  336. 

Ashton   Keynes  W  of  Cricklade. 

1086  Essitone  DB;    1281  Aston,  Ayston{e)  C.  Inq.;    1316  de 
Ashtone   FA;    1404  Assheton  Cal.  Inq.;    1428  Assheton  FA. 
See  preceding  name.    'Kej^nes'  (Kaines)  is  a  family  name, 
according  to  Bardsley  probably  Norman. 

Ashton,   West  SE  of  Trowbridge. 
1256  in  Westastoh  R.  fin.  exc. ;  1485  West  Aisshton,  Ashton  C.  Inq. 


There  are  three  neighbouring  Ashtons  here,  which  cer- 
tainly were  originally  one  and  the  same  estate.  The  other 
two  are  called  Rood  Ashton  and  Steeple  Ashton.  For 
further  information  see  Steeple  Ashton. 

Atworth  NW  of  Melksham. 
1001  jat  Attemvrthe  CD  no.  706;  1316  de  Atteivorthe  FA; 
1324  Ateworth  ib.;  1352  Aieworth  Cal.  Inq.;  14:02  AttewortJi 
CoteM  FA;  1404  Little  Cotels,  alias  Cotels  Attevmrd  Cat.  AD; 
1428  Cotelatteivo7-d,  Farva  Atteivorfh  FA;  1489  Atward  C. 
Inq.;   1495  Atteivorthe  Cotteles  Atteivard  ib. 

Originally  '-Attcm  tveorp  {irorpj  unirp,  ivyrp).  Atta  is  a 
p.  n.  which,  apart  from  its  occurrence  in  pi.  ns,  is  recorded 
on  English  territory  in  LYD;  see  Miiller  §  37.  OFt  weorp  =^ 
'homestead',  'habitation  wdth  surrounding  land^,  'property'. 
The  termination  -ivard  indicates  weakened  stress.  'Cotel(s)' 
is  according  to  Hildebrand,  p.   334,  a  French  family  name. 

Many  scholars  would  perhaps  be  inclined  to  derive  the 
present  name  from  an  original  '-''cet  ]bd;m  iveorde.  Moorman, 
for  instance,  is  of  opinion  that  Attereliffe,  W.  R.  of  Yorks, 
goes  back  to  OE  ''^''wt  pmn  clife.  There  is,  however,  strong- 
reason  to  doubt  an  etymology  of  this  kind,  because  there  is 
not  a  single  authenticated  case  of  the  total  coalescence 
of  the  OE  preposition  and  article  with  the  pi.  n.  itself  ^. 
The  first  element  of  Attercliffe  can  hardly  have  been  any- 
thing but  the  p.  n.  Atta  (r  is  intrusive  as  appears  from  the 
old  forms  quoted  by  Moorman).  Cf  Atherstone,  Atherstone 
{-on-Stoiir),  Warws.,  which  contain  the  p.  ns.  Eadredy  Eadric 
respectively  (see  Duignan,  PL  Ns  of  Warws.),  Atherton,  Lanes., 
probably  containing  the  p.  n.  Atser  (see  Wyld),  and  Atte7i- 
horough,  Notts.,  containing  the  p.  n.  Eada  (see  Mutschmann). 
If  the  OE  prep,  and  article  in  question  had  possessed  such 

^  Zachrisson,  Anglia  XXXIV,  p.  350  f.,  calls  attention  to  a 
few  cases  in  which  the  final  consonant  of  the  OE  article  pdim 
>  ME  then  has  been  prefixed  to  a  pi,  n.  beginning  with  a  vowel 
(although  most  of  these  names,  in  my  opinion,  may  equally  prob- 
ably have  got  their  initial  consonant  from  the  prop.   in). 


great  vitality  as  Moorman  ascribes  to  them,  they  would 
certainl}^  have  survived  rather  frequently  in  those  modern 
pi.  ns  which  consist  of  a  single  subst. 

Note.  The  places  mentioned  in  CD  no.  706  are,  with  two  or 
three  exceptions,  located  by  Kemble  in  Dorset.  It  is,  however, 
quite  evident  that  several  of  them  are  situated  in  Wilts.,  viz. 
jAtte7iwrthe,  yBradeforda  (=  Bradford-on-Avon),  Brochme 
(=  Broughton  Gifford),  jChaldfelde  (=  Chalfield),  ■fCosehdm 
(=  Corsham).  yFarnleghe  (=  Monkton  Farleigh),  yHeselberi  (Hazel- 
bury),  and  -fWitlege  (=  Whitley),  all  of  which  are  situated  at  a 
short  distance  from  each  other. 

Avebury  or  Abury  {ei{v)bdri)  W  of  Marlborough. 

1086  de  Avreherie  DB;  1114  Aveshiria  Cal.  France;  1189 
Aveberia  ib. ;  1194  Auebia  Jiot.  Cur.;  1227  Avehure  Ch.  E,; 
1232  Avehiri  ib.;  1253  Avesberia  ib. ;  Hen.  Ill  Avene(s)bu7', 
[corrupt]  Hot.  H;  1256  Avesbyry  Pat.  R\  1316  Avebury 
FA;  1404  Avesbury  Cal.  Inq. 

Originalh"  "^cet  Afan  byri^,  Afa  being  recorded  as  an  OE 
p.  n.  In  some  of  the  ME  forms  an  s  has  been  inserted 
through  the  influence  of  pi.  ns,  the  first  elements  of  which 
have  the  strong  gen.  ending.  The  first  r  in  the  DB  form 
stands  for  n,  this  substitution  being  due  to  AN  influence 
(see  Zachrisson,  p.  141,  where  several  analogous  cases  are 

Avon  on  the  Lower  Avon  NE  of  Chippenham. 

688  (juxta  f lumen)  Avene  {Abon,  Avon)  CS  no.  71;  940  be 
Afene  ib.  no.  752;  1065  Auene  (terra)  CD  no.  817;  1194 
de  Auene  Rot.  Cur.;  1262  of  Havene  Ch.  H. 

Avon  is  a  Celtic  word  (abond)  meaning  'stream',  'river'; 
see  Stokes,  p.  10,  and  Holder.  An  unetymological  h  initially 
before  a  vowel  often  occurs  in  the  ME  forms  of  Wilts,  names, 
just  as  an  initial  h  of  the  stem  may  have  been  omitted 
(cf.  Etchilhampton,  Hacklestone,  Heddington,  Hippenscombe, 
Oakhill,  Upavon,  etc.).  As  far  as  I  have  been  informed,  a 
certain  irregularity  in  this  respect  exists  in  different  parts 

2     E.  Ekblom 


of  the  county,  but  the  misuse  of  initial  h  seems  nowhere 
to  be  universal  enough  to  form  a  dialectal  characteristic;  see 
also  Kjederqvist  §§  23,  213.  In  many  forms,  however,  the 
addition  or  loss  of  h  may  naturally  as  well  be  an  AN  feature. 

Axford  ENE  of  Marlborough. 

1184  in  AxeforcV  Pipe  R;  1217  Axeford  Pat.  E;  1226  Axe- 
ford  Osmund;  1288  Axeford  C.  Inq. ;  1428  Axeford  FA.  • 

If  the  first  element  is  Germanic^,  there  can  only  be  one 
derivation:  owing  to  the  fact  that  the  combination  sh  in 
East  Wilts,  is  often  represented  by  Tcs,  x  [basket  often  occurs 
as  haxet,  ask  as  ax  (<  OE  acsian,  see  Kjederqvist  §  210), 
cf.  also  Wexcomhe^  below]  we  are  entitled  to  assume  a  p.  n. 
'''Aska  (<  Scand.  Aski)  as  the  first  element.  Under  the  in- 
influence  of  the  above-mentioned  dialectal  peculiarity,  an 
original  '^Askan  ford  would  give  Axford,  in  the  same  way 
as  "west-cumh  (after  the  loss  of  t)  has  given  Wexcombe  (the 
termination  being  retained  even  after  the  metathesis). 

Badbury  SE  of  Swindon. 

955  ■\Baddchuri,  |f/c  Baddehorive  OS  no.  904  (prob.  identical); 
1086  Badeherie  DB;  1280  Baddehyr  Ch.  E;  Edw.  1  Badde- 
hurij,  Badehery  Plac.  Warr. ;  1324  Baddehury  FA;  1330 
Baddehury  Ch.  E;  1428  Badehiiry  FA. 

Originally  '-^et  Bad(d)an  hyri^,  Bad{d)a  being  probably 
a  pet-formation  of  such  names  as  Badufrijj  (Beadufrip), 
Bad{u)/ieard  [Bead{ii)heard],  Badumiind;  see  Miiller,  pp. 
46,  117. 

Bapton  near  Wylye. 

1220  Bahinton  Phillipps'  ped.  fin.;  1311  Bahyngton  C. 
Inq.;  1316  Bahington  FA;  1329  Babeton  C.  Inq.;  1362  5a- 
beton  Br.  Mus.;  1413  Babbeton  ib. 

^  This  is  most  probably  the  case.  There  is  certainly  a  river 
name  Axe  in  England  which  is  most  likely  Celtic,  but  the  Kennet 
on  which  Axford  lies  is  not  known  to  have  ever  had  any  other 


From  "^Bahhan  (or  Bahhinga)  tun,  Babha  being  an  OE 
p.  n. ;  cf.  Baverstock.  h  has  become  unvoiced  through  assi- 
milation with  the  following  t. 

Barbury  (Castle)  E  of  Broad  Hinton, 

[556]  cet  Beran  hyrig  AS  Chr.  ms.  E  [possibly  identical] ; 
1252  Berebyre  Br.  Mus.;  1428  Berhury  FA. 

The  place  ^vhere  Cynric  and  Ceawlin  fought  against  the 
Britons  in  556  is  located  by  Thorpe  and  Plummer  (in  their 
editions  of  AS  Chr.)  at  Barbury  Camp,  Wilts.  Whether  this  is 
correct  or  not  is  doubtful,  but  it  is  most  probable  that  the 
original  form  ot  Barburv  was  the  same  as  that  of  the  AS  Chr. 
*Bera  is  probably  a  hypocoristic  form  of  some  p.  n.  be- 
ginning with  Ber-  e.  g.  Beruidf  (in  LVD,  see  Miiller,  p.  92), 
''^Berweald  {Beruoldus  Ellis,  Intr.  II,  p.  295);  but  it  may 
perhaps  also  have  existed  as  an  independent  name  (applied 
to  a  man  famed  for  his  strength).  The  same  name  occurs 
in  ^tberanforda  CS  no.  264. 

'Castle^,  which  is  the  general  Avord  for  ancient  protective 
earthworks  and  hill  forts,  refers  to  the  ancient  fortifications 
here,  remnants  of  which  are  still  to  be  found.  There  are 
a  great  number  of  such  'Castles^  in  Wilts,  e.  g.  Bratton  C.^ 
Liddington  C,  Oldburj^  C,  Yarnbury  C. 

Barford  St.  Martin  W  of  Wilton. 

1086  Bereford  DB;  1250  Bereford  C.  Inq.;  1286  Bereford 
Ch.  E;  (prob.  identical);  1304  Berevord  St.  Martin  ib.;  1316 
Bereford  FA;  early  Edw.  Ill  Barford  St.  Martin  Br.  Mus.; 
1335  Bereford  St.  Martins  C.  Inq.;  1428  Ber(e)ford  FA; 
1493  Berford  St.  Martin  C.  Inq. 

This  name  goes  back  either  to  *  Beran  ford  (see  preceding- 
name)  or  to  ^ here- ford  'the  ford  by  the  barley(-field).  *^St. 
Martin^  is  the  name  of  a  church. 

Barford  (Park)  N  of  Downton. 

1086  Bereford  DB;  1428  Bereford  FA. 
See  preceding  name. 


Bathampton,  Great  and  Little  [b9p{h)dmfn  or  hed(liyemfn] 
on  the  r.  Wiley  close  to  Fisherton  Delamere. 

1194  de  Bathatoh  Rot.  Cur.;  1229  Bathamton  Pat.  R\ 
c.  1270  Batham'pton  Macray;  early  14th  cent.  Bathamewily 
TN;  1316  Bathehampton  FA;  1328  Bathamwyly  C.  Inq.; 
1367  Batametoune  Wyley  Phillipps'  fines;  1402  Bathampton 
FA;  1428  Badampton  ib.;  c.  1430  Batampton  Br.  Mus. 

Hampton,  which  occurs  so  frequently  both  in  compounds 
and  alone  in  English  pi.  names,  goes  back  either  to  OE 
ham-tun  (this  seems  to  be  the  most  usual  origin),  which  may 
have  been  analogous  in  meaning  with  OE  ham-stede  (home- 
stead), or  to  hean  tune  (dat.)  [like  Hampton,  Worcs.  which 
occurs  as  {xt)  Hean  tune  CS  no.  235].  In  this  case,  how^ever,  the 
low  situation  of  the  place  excludes  the  latter  possibility  (cf. 
Becl:hampton,  Ditchampton,  Etchilhampton?  below,  in  which 
-hampton  has  a  quite  exceptional  origin).  The  pronunciation 
'^hedH-  of  the  first  element  is  due  to  Aveakened  stress.  Names 
in  -hampton  are  generally  stressed  on  the  penultimate  syllable. 

Whether  the  epithet  Bath-  formed  part  of  the  original 
name  or  not,  it  is  impossible  to  say. 

Baverstock  \b(EVd{r)stolc\  W  of  Wilton. 

968  (t)^^  Babanstoce  Reg.  Wilt.;  lOSQ,  BahestocheJ}^;  1230 
in  Bahestoh'  CI.  R;  c.  1290  BaUestol  T.  EccL;  1428  Bahe- 
stol  FA. 

The  first  element  is  the  p.  n.  Bahha,  which  occurs  also 
in  the  adjacent  Bapton.  The  late  change  oi  h>  v  and  the 
insertion  of  r  may  be  due  to  the  analogy  of  Laverstoclc,  a 
parish  not  far  from  here  (though  the  change  oi  h  >  v  may 
be  partly  a  dissimilatory  process). 

Stoch  as  a  first  element  in  pi.  ns  is  as  a  rule  derived 
from  OE  stoc(c)  [<  prim.  Germ.  *stoMo-.z],  e.  g.  OE  stoc{c)- 
tun  =  'an  enclosure  fenced  in  by  stocks  or  posts'  (in  the 
same  way  as  stdn-tun  may  denote  'an  end.  fenced  in  by 


As  a  second  element,  however,  and  when  occnrring 
uncompounded  as  a  pi.  n.,  in  Avhich  cases  it  also  occurs 
as  stolce,  it  certainly  represents  OE  stoc  [<  prim.  Germ. 
"^stolco-z]  (stoke  from  the  OE  dat.  form);  the  few  OE  references 
to  this  word,  apart  from  pi.  ns,  are  quoted  by  Napier,  Trans. 
of  the  Phil.  Soc.  1903—06,  p.  323,  and  Swaen,  Engl.  Stud. 
37,  p.  191.  Note  also  (/  fader r)  stolce,  Ormulum  9778,  and 
stohess  (plur.)  ib.  1049,  15694.  The  meaning  of  this  word 
seems  to  have  been  much  the  same  as  OE  Steele,  stoiv  (in 
Ormulum  the  word  means  'placeV- 

Attention  may  here  be  called  to  the  serious  mistake  in 
Bosworth-Toller  (and  Swaen)  of  assuming  an  OE  stoc  as  the 
origin  of  stoclc,  stolce;  for  even  though  the  nom.  form  might 
have  given  NE  stoclc  (by  shortening),  the  OE  dat.  form 
would  never  have  given  NE  stolce,  but  ^stooh.  It  is  also 
quite  impossible  to  assume,  as  scholars  generally  do,  an 
OE  "^stoce  as  a  dat.  form  of  stoc{c),  as  double  consonants 
could  not  be  simplified  in  the  spelling  of  oblique  cases. 

Note.  Middendorff s  opinion  (which  seems  to  be  adopted  from 
Jellinghaus)  that  OE  stoc{c)  in  pi.  ns  indicates  *^eine  Ortlichkeit 
mit  den  Resten  eines  abgeholzten  Waldes^  can  hardly  be  correct. 
It  is  obvious  that  OE  stoc(c)-ivudu  denotes  a  place  where  a 
wood  had  been  cut  down,  in  the  same  way  as  stoc(c)~leah  may 
be  "^a  meadow  with  stumps  of  trees^  but  there  is  no  reason  to 
assume  that  stoc{c)  alone  could  have  that  sense.  Nor  is  it 
possible  to  adopt  the  suggestion  of  Jellinghaus,  Anglia  XX 
p.  320,  repeated  in  Forstemann,  Ortsn.  p.  896,  that  OE  stoc{c) 
as  a  first  element  in  pi.  ns  could  mean  *^Stamm\  "^Geschlecht , 
denoting  that  the  place  in  question  would  be  Mie  Mutterstadt 
eines  Distriktes'. 

^  Curiously  enough,  the  element  in  question,  which  is  so 
prevalent  in  Engl,  place-nomenclature,  seems  to  be  entirely  absent 
in  the  pi.  ns  of  the  other  Germanic  countries.  For  the  few 
German  names  in  which  stock  occurs  as  a  second  element  or 
uncompounded,  see  Forstemann,  Ortsn.  p.  896.  In  Scand.  pi.  ns 
it  does  not  seem  to  occur  as  a  second  element  at  all.  For  its 
further  occurrence  se  e.  g.  Kygh,  Forord  og  Indledn.  p.  79. 


Baycliff  S  of  Horningsham. 

early  Hen.  Ill  in  Bayleclive  Br.  Mus.;  1316  de  Baylies dyve 
FA;  1386  in  Batjlesclyfe  Cat.  A.  D.;  1428  Baileclyf  FA. 

The  most  probable  etymology  is  *Bea^cles  (Bea^elan)  cUf, 
Bea^el{a)  being  a  diminutive  form  of  *Bea^a,  a  pet-form  of 
such.  p.  ns  as  Bea^mtmd,  Bea^stan:  see  Miiller,  p.  78. 

Note.  Baildon,  W.  Riding  of  Yorks.,  probably  contains  the 
same  first  element  as  the  name  above.  Moorman's  suggestions 
on  this  name  seem  too  improbable  to  be  trusted.  Baycliff, 
Lanes,   is  of  a  quite  different  origin:  see  Wyld. 

Baydon  N  of  B,amsbury. 

1146  Beidona  Macray;    1226  Beidon  Osmund;  1294  Beydon 
Ch.  K;  1316  Bedo7t  FA. 

I  suggest  an  original  '^Bea^an  dun.  For  '^'Bea^a  see  pre- 
ceding name.  OE  dun  (NE  down)  is  generally  supposed  to 
be  of  Celtic  origin.  Bedon  (FA)  may  be  an  example  of  the 
AN  spelling  habits  of  rendering  ai,  ei  by  e,  mentioned 
by  Zachrisson,  Stud,  i  mod.  sprakvet.  V.  p.   16. 

Baynton  NE  of  Westbury. 

1185  de  Beinton'  Pipe  E,;  1330  Benton  CI.  E.,  C.  Inq.;  1428 
Beynton  FA;  [n.  d.]  de  Beyntone  Reg.  Malm. 

This  name  seems  to  contain  the  same  first  element  as 
Baydon  and  is  consequently  to  be  derived  from  "^Bea^an  tun. 
For  the  retention  of  -n-  cf.  Binchnoll,  Cadnam,  Chippenham, 
Harnham,  Mildenhall,  Newnton,  etc.,  below.  The  fact  that 
OE  -an  in  these  names  had  two  different  functions  —  being 
in  some  cases  the  gen.  ending  of  a  weak  p.  n.^  in  others 
the  dat.  ending  of  an  adjective  —  was  naturally  in  suffi- 
cient to  prevent  a  development  on  similar  lines. 

Beanacre  [hi(j)neiJcd(r)]  N  of  Melksham. 

1261    Benacr^    E    fin.    exc;    1286  Benacre  Ch.  E;    Edw.  I 
Benakere  Eot.  H;  Beneacre  Abbr.  Plac. 


'Bean-field\  OE  cecer  meant  1)  'a  piece  of  tilled  land,  a 
field';  2)  "^a  definite  measure  of  land,  originally  as  much  as 
a  yoke  of  oxen  could  plough  in  a  day'  (NED).  The  OE 
compound  %eanland  (heajilcmdes)  occurs  in  CD  no.  724. 

Beckhampton  ( — )  near  Aveburj^ 

1086  Bachentunc  DB:  1199?  de  Bachamtoh  Rot.  Cur.; 
Hen.  Ill  Bechampton  Abbr.  Plac;  1240 — 45  de  Bachamptone 
Macray;  1266  Bechcwipton  Pat.  R;  1314  Bachamptone  C. 
Inq.;  1316  Bahhampton  FA;  1428  Bachampton  ib.;  1485 
BaJcehamton  C.  Inq.;  1493  BaJcehampton  ib.;  1596  BacTc- 
hampton  Br.  Mus. 

Originall}^  '^Bac(c)an  tun,  Bac{c)a  being  an  OE  p.  n.,  re- 
corded in  LYD,  see  Mliller,  p.  46.  -an+tun  was,  however, 
soon  associated  with  the  common  name  element  ham{2))ton, 
and,  in  accordance  with  such  names,  the  stress  has  here 
also  been  shifted  to  the  syllable  -ham-;  hence  BacJc-> BecJc-. 

Bedwyn,    Great    and  Little  SW  of  Hungerford  (Berks.). 

778  (■f)Bedetvinde,  {•\)in  hedeivindan  CS  no.  225;  803—805 
{-\)Bedeivinde  ib.  no.  324;  880 — 85  {'\)cet 
553,  p.  178;  {^)Bedeivynde  ib.  no.  554,  p.  182;  968  {^)Bede- 
wmde,  (to)  Bed{e)uuindan  ib.  no.  1213  (pro"b.  identical);  ^thel- 
red  {'\)Bedeuuinde  CD  no.  1312;  (n.  d.)  {'\)Bedewinde  CD  no. 
941  (possibly  identical);  1086  Bedvinde  (twice),  ad  Bedvine 
DB;  1158  of  Bedetvinde  Osmund;  1177  Esthedewinda  (=  Little 
Bedw.)  Pipe  R;  1194  Bedewinde  Rot.  Cur.;  1199  Bede- 
wyna  Cat.  Rot.  Ch.;  1230—40  Bedeivind  Macray;  1234 
BideivhuV  CI.  R;  1310  Esthedewynde  C.  Inq.;  1376  Byd- 
tvynde  Cal.  Inq.;  1441  Westhedwijnd  Br.  Mus.;  1484  Bede- 
iven  ib. 

This  can  hardly  be  anything  but  the  plant-name  hedwine 
or  hedwindy  which  exists  as  a  dialect  word  in  Wilts,  and 
other  southern  counties  indicating  some  common  species  of 
'Convolvulus';  see  EDD.  cf.  Swedish  vinda,  German  Winde. 
This  was  consequently  a  place,  where  a  rich  growth  of  this 


plant  was  found.  It  seems  as  if  the  sing,  form  of  the  word 
had  been  used  here  originally,  wliich  in  that  case  must  have 
been  taken  collectively  (cf.  Bremhill).  The  loss  of  final  d 
after  I,  n  is  characteristic  of  this  dialect;  see  Ellis,  p.  42  f., 
Kjederqvist,  p.  101.  Contrary  to  Baddeley,  p.  17,  I  take 
Bedwins,  Glos.  to  be  of  the  same  origin. 

Note.  On  account  of  the  etymology  of  Bedtvyn  given  above 
it  is  evident  that  Plummer's  identification  of  Biedan  heafde 
(AS  Chr.  A.  D.  675)  with  this  place  must  be  erroneous. 

Beechin^stoke  ESE  of  Devizes. 

1086  Bichenestoch  DB;  c.  1290  BichenestoJc  T.'Eccl.;  1316  ^e 
StoJce  FA;  1428  in  BychenestoJce,  in  StoJce,  de  BechynstoTce 
ib. ;   1442  Bychyngstohe  Cal.  Inq. 

From  an  original  "^cet  Byc(c)inges  (or  ''^Byc(c)inga)  stoce, 
Byc{c)ing  being  the  regular  patronymic  of  the  OE  p.  n.  Buc{c)a. 
The  long  vowel  in  the  first  syllable  of  the  modern  form  is 
certainly  due  to  popular  etymology  (the  name  having  been 
connected  with  NE  beech). 

Bemerton  [bemd{r)t'n]  WNW  of  Salisbury. 

1086  Bimertone,  in  Bermentone  DB;  1287  Bymerton  C.  Inq.; 
c.  1290  Bymfone  T.  Eccl. ;  1300  Beomertonam  (Lat.  ace.) 
Ch.  R;  1316  Bumerton  FA;  1324  Bymerton  C.  Inq.;  1326 
Bymerton  Pat.  R;  1402,  1428  Bymerton  FA;  14:93  Bemerton 
C.  Inq. 

The  original  form  was  most  probably  ^Beornmceres  tun, 
Beornmcer  being  a  p.  n.  found  on  an  AS  coin  of  the  time 
of  King  Alfred.  The  u-  and  /y-vowels  are  to  be  explained 
as  follows.  It  is  a  known  fact  that  OE  eo  is  sometimes  in 
ME  rendered  by  u  (AN  spelling)  [also  by  o,  oe],  which  are 
taken  to  represent  the  transitional  sound  [oe]  between 
OE  eo  and  ME  e  (OE  bcorn  occurs  occasionally  in  ME  as 
burn,  deorc  as  dure,  etc.)  see  Biilbring,  Bonner  Beitr.  zur 
Angl.  XV:  vii,  Schlemilch  pp.  32,  38.  The  erroneous  use  of 
ME    //    must   be   due   to  the  presence  of  this  u,  which  has 


been  assumed  by  the  scribe  to  represent  OE  y  (of.  ME 
hyrn  <  OE  beorn,  clyrh  <  OE  deorc). 

The  i  in  Bimertone  (DB)  must  be  a  mistake  for  e,  as  eo  is 
not  otherwise  known  to  represent  i  in  DB,  and  n  for  r  in  the 
other  DB  form,  if  not  a  mere  error,  is  to  be  explained  as 
an  AN  substitution ;  see  Zachrisson,  p.   141  ff. 

Bentley  Wood  E  of  Salisbury. 

1178?  Bentlesivuda  Br.  Mus.;  1224  Bentlewud  E.  L.  CI.; 
Hen.  Ill  Bentleivode  Rot.  H;  1270  Bentellestuod,  Bentelivoda 
Ch.  R. 

Bentley  certainly  goes  back  to  an  original  '''^'cet  [pt^m,  §cere\ 
beonet-lea^e ;  cf.  Bentley,  Worcs.  {cet  Beonetlceaye  OS  no. 
1087);  Bentley,  Suffolk  (Benetleia  DB,  Benetlei  TN).  OE 
beonet  (NE  bent)  is  only  recorded  in  pi.  ns  (see  ""bent"  NED). 

Berwick  Basset  {barik,  beriJc)  N  of  Avebury. 

1206  Bereivye  Br.  Mus.;  1221  BerewyJc,  Beretvich  Macray; 
1231  Berewic  Ch.  E;  1271  Bereivyl  C.  Inq. ;  1316  de  Ber- 
loiJce  FA;  1325  BerwyJc  Basset  Ch.  E. 

Berwick  is  a  very  common  pi.  n.  all  over  England  and 
goes  back  to  OE  beretvlc,  a  compound  of  &ere  =^  barley'  and 
ivlc  =  '(dwelling-)place',  'habitation'.  A  bereivlc  may  there- 
fore have  been  either  'a  barley  farm'  or  'a  shed  in  which 
barley  was  stored'.  In  NED  berivick,  beretuick  is  stated 
to  be  obsolete  and  is  translated  by  'demesne  farm'. 
Jones,  p.  XXI  points  out  another  sense  which  the  word 
seems  to  have  had  in  the  time  of  Domesday.  On  the  ground 
of  such  expressions  in  DB  as  'Ad  hoc  manerium  j)ertinent 
4    beretvicce  (I,  128  b)  and  Ad  hoc  man.  jacuit  et  jacet  una 

Berewica (I,  129  b),    he    takes  the  word  to  have 

indicated  'a  small  farm,  subordinate  to  a  manor'.  The  ex- 
plosive in  tvick  is  due  to  the  OE  inflected  cases;  see  Cor- 
nelius, and  Bjorkman,  Loanwords,  p.  145. 

'Basset(t)'  is  an  AN  family  nam.e.   Other  estates  in  Wilts., 


which  have  been  in  possession  of  members  of  this  family,  are 
Compton  B.,  Easton  B.,  Winterbourne  B.,  and  Wootton  B. 

Berwick  St.  James  ENE  of  Wylye. 

C.  1190  Bereivyh  Sancti  Jacohi  Macray;  1316  de  Berewike 
FA;  1324  Berkvyl  ib. ;  1428  Berwijl  {Sancti  Jacohi)  ib. 

Berwick  St.  John  E  of  Shaftesbury  (Dors.). 

1267  de  Berewylce  S.  Johannis  Macray;  1316  de  Bereivyhe 
FA;  1428  BerewyTc  Sancti  Johannis  ib. 

Berwick  St.  Leonard  E  of  Hindon. 

1428  Berivyk  Sancti  Leonardi  FA. 

The  distinctive  names  of  these  three  places  refer  to 

Beversbrook  [hijvd(r)sbruk]  NE  of  Calne. 

1086  Bevresbroc,  BrevreshroJc  DB;  1240 — -45  Beverhroh  Mac- 
ray; 1316,  1428  {de)  BeveresbroJce  FA;  1437  (of)  Beveris- 
brolce  Cat.  A.  D. 

Originally  '^cet  beofores  broce,  broc  referring  to  a  little 
tributary  of  the  Marden,  now  called  *^Fisher's  brook'.  The 
first  r  in  Brevresbroc  (E)B)  is  merely  orthographic. 

Biddestone  [bidsfn]  W  of  Chippenham. 

1086  Bedestone  DB;  1181  de  Bedeston  Pipe  E;  1215  in 
Buddeston  R.  L.  CI.;  1216  de  Betesdoh  ib.;  1258  Biideston 
C.  Inq.;  1285  Budisdene  Cal.  Rot.  Ch.;  1288  Byddiston 
Dugdale;  Edw.  I  Budeston  Br.  Mus.;  1307  Biideston  C. 
Inq.;  1316  Budeston  FA;  1321  Butteston  Fine  R.  [prob. 
identical];  1351  Buduston  Br.  Mus.;  1428  Butteston  FA; 
1464  Buddeston  Br.  Mus. 

Probably  from  ^''Bydan  tun  (with  a  later  substitution  of 
strong  for  weak  gen.;  see  Alexander,  Mod.  Lang.  Rev.  VII, 
p.  70).  For  the  p.  n.  Byda,  which  is  recorded  in  LVD, 
see  Mliller,  p.  49. 


The  c  of  the  first  syllable  in  some  of  the  earliest  forms 
above  stands  for  i  and  may,  on  account  of  the  early  date 
of  the  references,  be  due  to  French  influence  (see  Zachris- 
son,  Stud,  i  mod.  sprakvet.  V,  p.  10).  It  is  to  be  noticed 
in  this  connection,  however,  that  there  also  exists  in  different 
parts  of  the  county  a  well-marked  tendency  to  change  i  into 
e,  and  even  many  of  the  ME  forms  that  show  this  change  may 
be  explained  as  having  been  affected  by  this  tendency  (cf. 
e.  g.  Brinkworth,  Chicklade,  Chisbury,  Chisenbury,  Chitterne, 
Chittoe,  Fittleton,  Grittleton,  Lydiard,  Smithcot,  Tedworth). 

The  change  from  d>  t  in  two  of  the  forms  above  may 
be  due  to  assimilation  with  the  following  s  (the  medial  e 
having  been  syncopated). 

It  is  obvious  that  confusion  of  -ton,  preceded  by  -s-,  and 
-stone  must  be  very  frequent  in  Engl.  pi.  ns. 

Bincknoll  SE  of  Wootton  Bassett. 

1086  in  Bechenhalle  DB ;  1251  Benecnoll  Ch.  E;  1279 
BenJcnoUe  Br.  Mus. ;  1284  BenJcnoU  R  Pat. ;  early  14th  cent. 
Brencnoll  TN;  1316  de  Benhnelle  FA;  1362  Beneknoll,  BienJc- 
nolle  CI.  R;  1367  BiJcenoUe  Cal.  Inq. ;  1428  (in)  BienTcnoUe, 
de  BrenhnoUe  FA;  c.  1430  ByngJcnoll  Br.  Mus. 

The  DB  form  suggests  an  original  ^'Beccan  heall.  OE  heaU  = 
'palace*,  'residence'.  Becca,  which  also  appears  in  the  local 
names  Beccan  ford{a)  CS  no.  309,  Beccan  lea  ib.  no.  553,  and 
beecan  leahe  ib.  no.  1282  p.  586,  was  the  name  of  a  king  in 
Widsith.  This  is  another  example  in  which  the  OE  gen. 
-n  is  retained.  The  development  has  then  been  as  follows: 
After  the  loss  of  e,  metathesis  has  taken  place  so  as  to 
give  a  form  '^'Benkolle  (the  second  syllable  weakened),  which 
at  a  time  must  have  existed  side  by  side  with  "^Behnolle 
{BiJcenoUe  Cal.  Inq.).  Out  of  these  two  forms  has  then  arisen 
a  contaminated  form  Benhiolle,  BincTcnolI.  For  the  transi- 
tion of  e>  i  see  Morsbach  §  109.  Brenk-  for  Benh-  is 
probably  due  to  association  with  the  subst.  hrenJc,  hrink. 


Bishop's  Cannings  NE  of  Devizes. 
1086  Cainingham  DB;  1091  Caninges  Osmund;  1139?  Can- 
enghis  Macray;  1146  Canninges  ib.;  1148  Caningas  ib.; 
1161  Canengis  Br.  Mus.;  1173  Caning  Osmund;  1226  Kaning 
ib. ;  Edw.  I  iyi  Kaningge  Plac.  Warr. ;  1286  Caningges  Macray; 
1294  Canyng  Episcopi  Oh.  E;  1296  Canygges  Bishop  sVsit.  B,; 
1316  Canynges  FA;  1428  Cannyng  ib. ;  1491  Bishops  Can- 
yng es  C.  Inq. 

See  All  Cannings.  The  badly  spelt  DB  form  may 
naturally  represent  an  older  ^Caninga  helm,  but  it  may  also 
be  a  corruption  of  an  OE  dat.  plur.  form  ^cet  Caningum. 
The  term  'Bishop's^  refers  to  the  Bishop  of  Sarum,  the  chief 
tenant  here  in  the  time  of  Domesday. 

Bishopstone  E  of  Swindon. 
1227  Bissopestun  Osmund;  c.  1290  de  Bissopestone  T.  EccL; 
1294  Bisshopeston  Oh.  E.;  1300  Bysshopeston  ib. 

Originally  %isc{e)opes  tun.  This  is  another  example,  in 
which  -5'-  has  later  on  been  added  to  the  suffix,  whence  -stone. 

Bishopstone  S  of  Wilton. 
1227  Bissopeston  Gh.  U;   1243  Bissopiston  Pat.  E;  1316^^5- 
shopeston  FA;  1324  de  Byschopestone  ib.;  1428  Bysshopeston, 
Buschopeston  ib.;  1534  Biissheton  Br.  Mus. 

See  preceding  name.  For  the  form  Biissheton  cf.  Bushton, 

Bishopstrow  SE  of  Warminster. 
1086  Biscopestreu  DB;  1144  bissoppestreu  Eound,  Ancient 
ch.;  1194  Bisuppestru,  Bissupestru  Eot.  Cur.;  Hen.  Ill 
Bissopestru  Br.  Mus.;  1236  Bisshopestre  Ch.  R;  1270  in 
Byscoppestreive  ib.;  c.  1290  de  Bissoppestrowe,  Bissopestre 
T.  EccL;  1300  Troiue  Pat.  E.  (prob.  identical);  Edw.  I 
Bissupestreo  Br.  Mus.;  1316  de  Bisshoppestroive  FA;  1365 
by  Busshepestrowe  CI.  E. 

From  %ise(e)opes  treoiv  (treotv  here  probably  =  cross). 
Jones,    p.   199,    is    of  opinion  that  a  cross  may  have  stood 


here  as  a  memorial  of  Aldlielm,  the  well-known  abbot  of 
Malmesburv  and  bishop  of  Sherborne,  to  whom  the  chnrch 
is  dedicated.  OE  -treow  has  become  -troiv  by  change  of  stress. 

Blackland  SE  of  Calne. 

1194  Blakelancl  Rot.  Cur.;  1218  BlalcelandMB.CTSiy',  c.  1290 
de  Blochelonde,  Blakelond  T.  EccL;  1316  de  BlacMonde¥A; 
1428  BlacMond  ib. 

Originall}^  ^'pcet  bidce  land  (OE  hlcec  and  Mac  being  help- 
lessly confused  with  each  other).  This  name  can  hardly 
denote  anything  but  'a  tract,  covered  with  dark  forests\ 
Guest,  p.  254,  points  out  the  great  probability  of  a  line  of 
forest  having  stretched  almost  uninterruptedh^  from  the 
extensive  Bradon  forest  in  north  Wilts,  to  Selwood  forest 
in  the  south-west.  Blackland  and  Blackmore  (below)  in  that 
case  certainly  formed  part  of  this  wooded  district. 

Blackmore  NE  of  Melksham. 

1338  de  Blakliemore  Pat.  R. 

This  name  answers  to  an  OE  *se  hldca  mor;  OE  mor  = 
^2L  tract  of  waste  (damp)  ground".     See  preceding  name. 

Blunsdon,  Broad  and  Blunsdon  St.  Andrew  N  of  Swindon. 

1086  Blontesdone,  Bluntesdone  Dl^ ;  1171  de  Bluntes den  Pipe 
R;  1207  m  Bluntesdon  Rot.  Ch. ;  1262  Brodebluntesdon  C. 
Inq. ;  early  14th  cent.  Rangindehluntesdon  TN;  1316  de 
Bhmtesdone  Sancti  Leonardi,  B.  Sancti  Andree  FA;  1326 
Blountesdon  C.  Inq.;  1328  Blontesdone  ib.;  1379  Blontes- 
don  Sci.  Andree  Br.  Mus.;  1428  Blontesdon^  de  Blu7itesdone 
FA;  1650  Blountesdon,  Blundeston  Br.  Mus. 

The  first  element  is,  no  doubt,  the  gen.  of  the  French 
p.  n.  Blund  {Blond,  Blont,  Blunt)  [<  med.  Lat.  hlundus, 
Uondus]:  see  Hildebrand,  p.  331.  This  name,  which  occurs 
at  a  later  date  as  a  familv  name  in  Wilts,  as  well  as  in 
other  parts  of  England,  is  not  to  be  confused  Avith  the  W. 


Scand.  nickname  Blundr  (from  the  subst.  hlundr  =  slumber). 
The  termination  is  OE  dun. 

The  distinctive  term  in  TN  indicates  'situation  on  a  steep 
slope^;  cf.  Hanging  Langford.  Hangindehluntesdon  may 
be  identical  with  the  two  farms  in  Blunsdon  which  are 
now  called  "^The  Hangings^  ^St.  Andrew'  is  the  name  of  a 

Boscombe  SE  of  Amesbury. 

1086  BoscumU  {tw\cii)J)B;  1178?  BoscumbaBi\M\\^.\  1199 
in  Borscumbe,  in  Boxcumh  Rot.  Cur.;  1218 — 28  Boscumhe 
Macray;  1270  Boscimiba  Ch.  R;  1286  Boscumhe  ih.;  Edw.  I 
de  Borscumhe  Rot.  H;  c.  1290  Borscumbe,  Borscumbe  T. 
EccL;  1328  Borscombe  Phillipps'  fines:  1362  Borcscombe 
Cal.  Inq. ;  1364  Borescombe  (several  times)  CI.  R;  1386 
Borscombe  Cal.  Inq.;  1428  Boscombe  FA;  1540  Borescombe 

Judging  from  the  DB  form  and  the  other  forms  without 
r,  it  would  seem  as  if  the  name  contained  the  OE  p.  n. 
Bosa,  occurring  among  other  places  in  LVD,  but  on  the 
other  hand  it  cannot  be  a  mere  chance  that  r  is  found  in  so 
many  ME  forms.  An  independent  p.  n.  which  would  fit  in 
here  is  certainly  not  on  record,  but  it  seems  not  improbable 
that  "^Bora  might  have  been  used  in  OE  times  as  a  nick- 
name of  a  ^horn-hora\  ^mund-bora\  ^ sweord-bora\  etc.  Bos- 
combe may  therefore  be  derived  from  '^Boran  cumb  (with  a 
later  substitution  of  strong  for  weak  gen.  ending,  and  assi- 
milation of  r  to  s).  Cf.  the  local  '\to  Boresburghe  CS  nos. 
34,  563,  '\on  bores  tvelle  ib.  no.  776.  Boxeumb  (T.  Eccl.) 
may  have  been  affected  by  the  same  dialectal  influence 
that  gave  x  in  Axford  and  Wexcombe. 

Note.  Kemblo's  identification  of  *hotes  cumb  CD  no.  396, 
mentioned  among  the  boundaries  of  the  land  at  (Steeple)  Lang- 
ford    on  the  Wiley,    with  this  place  cannot  possibly  be  correct. 


Bottlesford  "W  of  Pewsey. 

892  "fto  hotan  wcelle  CS  no.  567;  933  to  botan  ivylle  CS 
no.  699. 

Hoare,  in  his  edition  of  Reg.  Wilt.,  has  called  attention 
to  the  probability  that  the  modern  Bottlesford  is  situated 
at  the  place  to  which  these  two  ancient  names  refer,  and 
there  seems  to  be  really  no  doubt  at  all  about  this  identity. 
The  original  sense  was  thus  *^Bota's  welF,  Bota  being  probabh^ 
a  pet-form  of  such  names  as  Botwine,  Botiuulf^  etc. ;  see 
MuUer,  p.  48.  -ivmlle  CS  no.  567  is  not  an  original  spelling 
[in  OE  ivceU{e)  is  the  Angl.  equivalent  of  WS  tviell{e),  tvyU{e); 
see  Biilbring  §  175].  At  what  time  -ford  was  added  I  have 
not  been  able  to  find  out.  The  insertion  of  -.S'-  is  due  to  the 
influence  of  pi.  ns  containing  a  first  element  with  a  gen.  s. 

Bowden  SW  of  Calne. 

1371  Bouedon  Cat.  A.  D. 

Either  from  '^Bu^an  dun,  or  from  '■^'Bofan  dun,  Bu^a, 
Bo  fa  being  OE  p.  ns,  here  probably  denoting  the  same  Buga 
(Bo fa)  as  occurs  in  the  adjoining  Botvood  (see  below).  For 
the  development  of  '^Bofan  dun  into  Bowden  cf.  Coulston, 
below\  The  fact  that  the  place  is  situated  on  a  plateau 
proves  that  the  second  element  was  originally  dun. 

Bower  Chalk  SW  of  Broad  Chalk. 

955  -fcBt  Cheolcum,  -fwt  Cheolcum  CS  no.  917 ;  974  -fCheolca  (Lat. 
form),  -fto  Cheolcan  ib.  1304;  1086  Chelche  DB  (including 
also  Broad  Ch.);  1175  de  Chelhe  Pipe  Ji  (or  =  Broad  Ch.), 
1226  in  Chalk  R.  L.  CI.  (or  =  Broad  Ch.);  c.  1290  ChelJc  T. 
Eccl.  (or  =  Broad  Ch.);  1316  de  Burchalke  FA;  1377  Bour- 
chalh  Phillipps'  fines;  1428  BorchalJcYA;  14:5b  BurghchalJce 
Cal.  Inq. ;  1476  Burgchalke  ib.;  1481  Bery  ChalJce  ib. 

The  CS  forms  above  (which,  no  doubt,  also  refer  to  Broad 
Chalk)  cannot  possibly  be  correctly  spelt.  They  certainly 
stand  for  *Cealc,  *cet  (p^m)  Cealcum  [='the  chalk-down(s)']. 
Bower  and  Broad  Chalk  are  situated  in  the  so-called  White 


Chalk  district,  for  the  extent  of  which  see  Heath,  p.  17. 
Clieolcan  CS  no.  1304  no  doubt  represents  the  OE  dat.  plur. 
The  DB  form  iinphes  a  late  OE  '^xelCy  see  Biilbring  §  314. 
The  phonetic  value  of  initial  cli  in  DB  before  e  and  i  is 
usually  [k\\  see  Zachrisson,  p.  34.  In  addition  to  the  present 
DB  form  there  are,  however,  several  instances  in  this  treat- 
ise of  die-,  chi-f  for  OE  (tfe),  (tfi);  see  Chaddenwicke,  Chedg- 
low,  Cheverell,  Chilmark,  Chippenham,  Chisbury,  Chisen- 
bury,  Chisledon.  The  spelling  che-,  chi-  in  question  seems 
consequently  not  to  be  quite  so  uncommon  as  appears  from 
Zachrisson's  statement,  p.  25. 

The  distinctive  name  was  originally  ME  hurgh  (<  OE 
bMrh)  which  has  later  on  been  confused  with  hour,  hotver. 
For  this  confusion  cf.  Burton,  below.  Bower  Chalk  appears 
to  have  been  the  site  of  an  ancient  camp. 

Bowood  SW  of  Calne. 

13th  cent.  Borvoda  Liber  rub.;  1319  Boueivode  Pat.  H. 
From  "^Bu^an  wudu  or  *Bofan  wudu;  see  Bowden. 

Box  N  of  Bradford. 

1144  Bocza  Round,  Ancient  ch.  (identical  ace.  to  the  editor); 
1181  La  Boxe  Pipe  li;  late  12th  cent.  La  hoxa  Br.  Mus. ; 
Hen.  Ill  Boxa  ib.;  1249  in  Boxle  C.  Inq.;  1258  La  Boxe 
ib.;   1316  de  Boxe  FA. 

OE  hox  (==  box-tree).  This  word  occurs  in  several  Engl, 
pi.  ns.  Bocza  and  Boxle  seem  to  represent  an  older  "^box- 
ham  and  "hox-leah  respectively. 

For  the  French  def.  article  in  English  pi.  ns  see  Zachris- 
son, Anglia  XXXIV. 

Boyton  SE  of  Heytesbury. 

1086  Boientonc  DB;  1130—35  Bointon  Osmund;  13th  cent. 
Bointoyie  Liber  rub.;  1252  Boyton  Ch.  11;  Edw.  I  Boijnton 
Eot.   H;   1316  Boyton  FA. 

From  *Boian  tun,  Boia  (Boi^a)  being  a  Continental  p.  n. 
of  Celtic  origin;  see  Forssner,  p.   51. 


Bradenstoke  [hreid'nstouk]  SW  of  Wootton  Bassett. 

1086  Bradenestocli,  StocJie  (prob.  identical)  DB  69  c;  1203  Bra- 
denestoke  B>ot.  Cli.;  1204  Bradenestoh  R.\j.  Pat.;  1232  Bradene- 
sfoJc  Ch.  E,;  1285  BradenestocJc,  in  Bradenestolce  ib.;  1290 
Bradestoh  CI.  R;  1318  BradestoTc  Pat.  E,;  1339  Bradinstoh 
CI.  R;  1487  of  Bradnestoke  C.  Inq. ;  l^^b  of  Bradenestoke  \h. 
It  seems  quite  certain  that  the  original  name  of  this 
place  was  simply  *6e^  (p^m)  stoce  (for  OE  stoc,  see  Baver- 
stock),  which  became  Bradenstoke  later  because  of  its  situa- 
tion in  the  Bradon  (Braden)  forest  (see  Braydon,  below). 

Bradfield  SW  of  Malmesburv. 

1086  Bradefelde  DB;  1428  Bradefeld  FA. 

Originally  ^'se  hrada  feld  ('the  wide  field').  In  connection 
w^ith  this  name  attention  may  be  drawn  to  a  strange  mistake 
in  Wyld,  pp.  25,  297,  where  Brad-  in  pi.  ns  is  explained 
from  an  uninflected  OE  hrad-  with  shortening  of  a  be- 
fore the  -(i,  followed  by  another  consonant,  and  Broad-  from 
an  inflected  form.  There  is  no  evidence  for  such  a  state- 
ment. The  most  natural  and  only  possible  way  is  to 
assume  an  original  definite  form  for  both  cases.  If  we 
start  with  an  early  ME  Bradefeld  (<  OE  ^se  hrada  feld), 
then  either  the  a  (in  an  open  syllable)  is  shortened  in 
accordance  wdth  Luick's  theory,  or,  on  the  other  hand,  if 
the  medial  -e-  was  lost  before  this  happened,  the  a  would 
still  be  shortened  because  of  its  position  before  two  con- 
sonants (cf.  Aldbourne).  The  forms  in  Broad-  are  on  the 
other  hand  due  to  the  influence  of  the  independent  adjec- 
tive. In  the  same  incorrect  way  are  explained  Lang-  and 
Long-  in  pi.  ns  (Wyld,  p.  367). 

Bradford(-on-Avon)  NW  of  Trow^bridge. 

[652]  cet  Bradan  forda  he  Afne  AS  Chr.  [A] ;  705  ■\Bradanford 
{-\Bradeneforde)  CS  no.  114;    1001  -feet  Bvadeforda  CD.  no. 

3     E.  Ekblovi 


706;    1086    Bradeford    DB;     1130    Bradeford    H.    Pipe  R; 
Hen.  Ill  Bradeford  Br.  Mus.;  1816  Bradford  FA. 
No  comments  needed. 

Bradley,  North  S  of  Trowbridge. 

c.  1291  de  Bradelei/e  T.  Eccl;  1316,  1428  Bradele  FA. 

From  an  original  ''-'cet  pd:m  (pcerc)  hradan  lea^e;  (OE  leah  = 
meadow,  arable  land). 

Bratton  ENE  of  Westbury. 

1249  Bratton  C.  Inq.;  1255  in  Brettou  R.  fin.  exc. ;  1256 
Bretton  Pat.  E.;  1257?  (versus)  Bratthonam  Macray;  1267 
Bretton  Pat.  E;  1275  Bratton  C.  Inq.;  1304  Bratton  Ch.  E; 
early  14tli  cent.  Bretton  TN;  1316  de  Brattone  FA. 

Undoubtedly  from  *se  hrada  tun.  The  forms  with  e,  if 
not  merely  spelling  mistakes,  may  be  explained  as  due  to 
association  with  the  corresponding  ME  subst.  hrede  = 
'breath';  cf.  Lindkvist,  p.  28,  foot-note^. 

Braydon  E  of  Malmesbury. 

688  {silva)  -fBradon  CS  no.  70;  796  (silva)  •\Braden  ib.  no. 
279;  901  •\Bradene{weye)  ib.  no.  586;  (circa)  Bradenam 
Asser;  [905]  on  Bradene  AS  Chr.  [A];  on  Brcedene  ib.  [D]; 
1065  -fBradon  CD  no.  817;  1230  (forest  of)  Braden  Br.  Mus.; 
1286  de  Bradon  CI.  E;  1281  (forest  of)  Braden(e)  C.  Inq.; 
1828  Braden  Ch.  E;  1364  of  Bradenne  CI.  E. 

This  name  was  formerlj^  applied  to  the  extensive  wood- 
land which  occupied  nearly  the  whole  of  the  north  of  Wilts. 
(for  its  boundaries  see  Akerman,  Archa3ologia  XXXVII). 
Braydon  cannot  possibly  be  derived  from  ''-'seo  hrade  diin 
(or  dene)j  as  the  Parker  ms.  [A]  of  AS  Chr.  in  that  case 
would  certainl)^  have  shown  that  form.  The  first  element 
is  no  doubt  of  Celtic  origin,  and  I  am  even  inclined  to 
believe    that    -dene    of    the    OE  forms  above  stands  for  an 

•"■  Mr.  J.  C.  Loiigstaff  has  certainly  informed  me  that  a  lends 
to  e  in  the  west  Wilts,  dialect,  but  that  this  tendency  is  not 
well  marked.     Bratton   is  at  the  present  day  pronounced  hrceVn. 


older  -dun{e).  Confusion  between  dun  and  dene  (denu)  is 
very  common  in  pi.  ns,  and  it  seems  by  no  means  im- 
possible that  a  substitution  may  have  taken  place  even  in 
OE.  ay  in  the  modern  form  must  be  a  phonetic  spelling 
(the  original  a  having  been  lengthened  in  an  open  syllable) ; 
cf.  Laycock,  below. 

Bremhill  E  of  Chippenham. 

937  Breomeh  Bremel,  Broemel  CS  nos.  716,  717;  1065 
Bremela  (latinized)  CD  no.  817;  1086  Breme  (corrupt)  DB; 
1194  Bremleia  (prob.  identical),  Bromel  Rot.  Cur.;  1219 
Bremel  Macray;  1226  Bremleshill  Phillipps'  ped.  fin.;  1233 
Bremhle  Macray;  1316  Bromell  FA;  1428  Bremel,  de  Bremele 
ib.;   1468  BremhiU  Br.  Mus.;  1540  Bremijll  Dugdale. 

OE  bremel,  brmmel^  (brcembel),  [<  prim.  Germ,  '^brt^milo-^] 
=  'bramble\  eo  and  oe  in  Breomel,  Broemel  no  doubt  re- 
present the  sound  oe  (see  Btilbring  §  166).  The  form 
Bromel{l)  is  due  to  confusion  with  the  cognate  broom  (<  prim. 
Germ,  brcemo-s).  -hill  is  consequently  not  original  but  a  late 
development,  due  to  popular  etymology  (the  village  being- 
situated  on  a  hill).     Cf.  Cherhill,  Fonthill,  below. 

Bremhill  Wick  NW  of  Bremhill. 

1426  Brmnelivik  Cal.  Inq. ;   1428  in  Wyh'  FA. 

Originally  this  place  w^as  certainly  called  simply  'Hvlc, 
*(]6t  {pmn)  wlce;  in  order  to  distinguish  it  from  other  places 
of  the  same  name  it  was  then  called  Bremhill  Wide,  because 
of  its  proximity  to  Bremhill  (cf.  Farleigh  Wick,  Haydon 
Wick,  etc.).  Bramel-  is  based  upon  an  OE  brmmel  Avith 
shortening  of  m  before  ml  (in  oblique  cases). 

Bremilham   SW  of  Malmesbury. 
1065  Bremelham  CD  no.  817;    1178?  BrumUham  Br.  Mus.; 
1199  Brumelham,  Rot.  Ch.;  Bruinelha  Rot.  Cur.;   1218  Bre- 
nielam    Macrav;    1270    Brimelham,  Ch.  R;   1404  Bremulham 
Cal.  Inq.;  [n.  d.]  Bremelham,  Brumelham  Reg-  Malm. 

^   On  this   form   see   Btilbring  §   192,    anm. 


Originally  '■■■hremel-(brcemel-)hdr)L  The  second  element  may 
have  been  OE  hcmi  (=  home,  dwelling)  as  well  as  ham{m)  as 
it  is  obvious  that  in  most  cases  it  is  impossible  to  distinguish 
these  words  in  ])L  ns.  The  latter  is  connected  with  German 
hemmen  (to  'hem  in )  [<  prim.  Germ.  Viammjan],  and  its 
original  meaning  may  therefore  have  been  'a  meadow  (near 
water)  enclosed  and  defended  by  a  ditch  or  paling^;  see 
NED,  Bosworth-Toller,  and  Wyld,  p.  342.  Ham{m)  still 
exists  as  a  dialectal  word  in  the  southern  counties,  indica- 
ting 'flat,  low-l3'ing  pasture  land  near  a  stream'. 

The  u  in  Brumelham  stands  for  y  (<  i),  the  latter  vowel 
having  been  looked  upon  as  original.  According  to  Mors- 
bach  §  109,  a  change  of  e  >  i  is  not  to  be  expected  in  a 
position  before  m,  but  in  note  I  of  the  same  paragraph,  ME 
hrimhel  is  stated  as  a  sporadic  form  of  brembel,  and  NED 
quotes  ME  hrimhel  as  well  as  hryinhle. 

Bremilham  is  also  called  'Cowage';  see  below. 

Bridmore  E  of  Shaftesbury  (Dors.). 

1312  Brudemere  Pat.  E;  1318  Brudemere  C.  Inq.;  1428 
Brydmere  FA. 

Most  probably  from  "^Brydan  mdre  (=  ^emclre).  An  OE 
p.  n.  *Bryda  is  certainly  not  on  record,  but  the  existence 
of  such  a  name  is  indicated  by  the  local  Brydancumhe  CS 
no.  714  (=  Burcombe,  Wilts.),  and  hrydinga  die  ib.  no.  917, 
-\hridinglie  dich  ib.  no.  970,  both  obviously  representing  the 
same  earthwork  in  the  vicinity  of  Bridmore.  Was  "^'Bryda 
possibly  a  pet-name  formation  of  hryd-gumal:  cf.  *Cyppa, 
which  may  perhaps  be  considered  as  a  shortened  form  of 
cypman;  see  under  Chippenham. 

Brigmerston   [hrigm9{y)sfn'\  N  of  Amesbury. 

1086  Brismartone  DB;  1199  in  Brictmariston  Rot.  Ch. ;  1270 
Briggemareston  Ch.  R;  1273  Brylit^nerston,  Brigemarsto}i 
C.  Inq. ;  Edw.  I  Brichmston,  de  Bristmeston''  Plac.  Warr. ; 
1316    Brightmershton    FA;    1361    Bryglitmanston  {n  mistake 


for    r)    Cal.   Inq. ;  1428  Brightmerston  FA;  (n.   d.)  Brihtma- 
rcstun  Cat.  A.  D. 

From  '-'Beorht^nceres  tun.  Beorhtmcer  (later  Brihtmer)  was 
a  common  OE  p.  n.,  of  which  Brismar  (<  '^Bristmar)  is  the 
AN  rendering^.  (Perhaps  the  place  got  its  name  from 
the  Brismar  who  was  a  land-holder  here  in  the  time  of 
Edw.  Confessor.)  After  the  loss  of  t  in  ME,  the  fricative  (/) 
was  voiced  and  then  changed  into  the  corresponding 
explosive  g  (on  account  of  the  difficulty  of  pronouncing 
gli  before  ni)  cf.  the  transition  oi  d  >  d  before  s  in  Alvediston, 
X>h  before  s  in  Brixton,  and  p  >  t  before  /"in  Ratfijn. 
The  spelling  sh  for  s  in  the  FA  form  of  1316  is  due  to 
the  influence  of  the  common  ME  Mershton  (<  OE  mersc-tun). 
Brigmilston,  as  the  place  is  sometimes  called,  is  due  to  the 
neighbouring  Milston. 

Brinkworth  NW  of  Wootton  Bassett. 

1065  ■fBrinJceicrda  CD  no.  817;  1086  Brenchetvrde,  Breche- 
orde  (corrupt)  DB;  1194  de  Brinceivrtlie,  de  Brnchewrth,  de 
Brhikewrthe  Eot.  Cur.;  1220 — 25  Brinleivorth  Osmund; 
c.  1290  Brenlcew'rth  T.  EccL;  early  14th  cent.  BrunJcwurth 
TN;  1316  de  BrynJceivorthe  FA;  1340  Brenleicorth  Ch.  E; 
[n.  d.]  in  Bregnkewrthe  Reg.  Malm. 

'The  homestead  on  the  brink',  the  place  being  situated 
on  the  extremitv  of  the  ridg-e  of  a  down.  Brinlc  (=  the 
edge,  or  border  of  a  steep  place)  is  suggested  by  Bjorkman 
to  be  a  Scand.  loan  (Loanwords,  p.  232).  This  would  be 
curious,  however,  as  there  are  no  other  Scand.  elements 
(except  Scand.  p.  ns)  in  Wilts,  pi.  ns.  As  to  e  for  i  in 
some  ME  forms  see  under  Biddestone.  Brunk-  (in  TN) 
stands  for  BrgnJc-. 

^  Cf.  Brislinga.  Bristelme{s)tune  DB  =  Brighthng,  Brighton. 
Sussex;  5mi^e?mesfo?2e  DB  =  Brighthampton,  Oxfs.;  Dreslin{g)tone 
DB  -  Drighlington  W.  R.   of  Yorks.,   etc. 


Britford  or  Burford  SE  of  Salisbuiy. 

670  ('\)to  Bryt.  for(J(htgea  landsccere)  CS  no.  27;  826  -^to  brnt- 
forda  ib.  no.  891;  905  {^)to  hri/t  ford(inga  land  sceare)  ib. 
no.  690;  997  (|)/o  Bri/tford{inga  landsceare)  CD  no.  698; 
[1065]  -feet  Brytfordan  AS  Chr.  [C]  (possibly  identical);  1086 
Brctford  (twice),  Bred  ford  (twice)  DB;  c.  1115  Britford 
Osmund;  1158  Brutford  ib.;  1200 — 10  Bretford  ib.;  1285 
Bretford  Macray;  1278  Brutford,  Brcdford  C.  Inq.;  Edw.  I 
Britford  Br.  Mas.;  1815  Brutford  ib.;  1486  Birfford  C.  Inq.; 
1491  in  Byrtforde  ib.,   1494  Birtford  ib. 

Originally  ''Brytta  {Britta,  Bretta)  ford,  or  Brytford 
{Bretford)  =  'the  ford  of  the  Britons'.  The  latter  form  is 
assumed  on  account  of  hretland  ^,  wdiich  occurs  in  Orosius. 
AVith  regard  to  the  AS  Chr.  form  there  is  no  doubt  that 
the  original  ms.  had  '■'cet  Bryt(ta)forda  which  the  ME  scribe 
took  to  be  an  OE  nom.  and  therefore  treated  as  belonging 
to  the  weak  declension;  [cf.  Cellanwirdan  (Chelworth),  which 
may  be  due  to  a  latinized  ^CeUcmwirda]. 

The  modern  variant  Burford  is  easily  explained  from  the 
same  OE  form:  '•^Bryt{ta)ford  >  ME  Byrtford  >  ^Burtford 
(AN  spelling)  >  Burford,  the  first  element  of  which  has 
been  associated  with  the  common  Bur-  (<  OE  burh)  in  pi. 
ns.  Cf.  Biircomhe,  below,  Burlington,  a  variant  of  Brid- 
lington, E.  R.  of  Yorks.  (DB  Bretlinton),  and  Burcot,  Oxfs. 
(see  Alexander,  PI.  Ns  of  Oxfs.).  On  the  AN  interchange 
of  t  and  d,  in  final  position  see  Zachrisson,  p.  115,  foot-note. 

Brixton   Deverill  S  of  Warminster. 

1086  Devrel  DB  68  c.-;  c.  1290  de  Briglitrichestone,  Br/gli- 
richeston    T.    EccL;    early    14th    cent.    Brichtrickeston    TN; 

^  This  form  is  certainly  genuine  and  not  to  be  derived  from 
an  earlier  '*hretta  land.  The  compound  was  probably  formed  at 
a  very  early  period,  before  the  Celtic  hret  liad  yet  adopted  OE 

-  All  the  five  Deverills  (Brixton  D.,  Hill  D.,  Kingston  D., 
Longbridge  D.,  and  Monkton   D.)   are  certainly  represented  in  DB, 


1316  Brighteston  FA:  1428  Bryghteston,  Brighricheston  ib.; 
1435  Brighston  Deverell  Cal.  Inq. ;  1442  Brigteston  Deverell 
R.  Pat. 

This  place  has  been  widely  considered  to  be  identical 
with  Ecghryhtes  stan  {he  eastan  Seal  wyda)  AS  Chr.  [A] 
A.  D.  878.  As  far  as  the  names  are  concerned,  however, 
this  identification  cannot  be  right,  for  Brixton  is  evidently 
derived  from  ^BeorJitrices  (Brihtrices)  tun  (Beorhtric  perhaps 
identical  with  the  Brictric  who,  according  toDB,  was  the  tenant 
here  in  the  time  of  Edw^ard  Confessor).  After  contraction 
to  Bright{e)ston,  t  has  been  lost,  and  Brighston  has  then 
become  Brixton;    see  Jespersen  2,  324,  Horn  §  253. 

Deverill,  the  name  of  the  stream  on  which  this  place  and 
the  other  Deverills  are  situated,  must  be  Celtic  and  mav 
possibly  be  cognate  Avith  Celtic  dubro-n,  Welsh  dwfr,  dwr 
= 'water'  (usually  occuring  as  Dover  in  modern  names);  see 
Stokes,  p.  153.  The  oldest  form  of  Deverill  that  has  been 
found  is  Defereal  (anglicized),  mentioned  in  a  charter  of 
King  Eadgar,  dated  968  (Eeg.  Wilt.). 

Broad  Chalk  SW  of  Wilton. 

1316  de  Chalice  FA;  1415  Brodechalke  Cat.  A.  D.;  1440 
BrodechaJhe  Cal.  inq.  da.     See  Bower  Chalk. 

Broad  Hinton  SE  of  Wootton  Bassett. 

1086  Hantone  [prob.  identical],  Hentone  DB  71  a,  c; 
1232,  1236  Henton  Ch.  R;  c.  1250  Henton  Br.  Mus.;  1316 
Henton  FA;  1333  Brodehenton  Phillipps'  fines;  1428  Henton 
Columhers,  H.  Waas  FA. 

From  an  original  '-^cet  p^m  hean  tune.  The  place  has  an 
elevated    situation    on    the    ledge    of    a    chalk-down.      The 

where  they  occur  as  simply  Devrel;  but  it  is  rather  difficult  to 
decide  which  of  these  places  each  Devrel  (in  DB)  refers  to.  In 
the  present  case,  however,  the  identity  seems  indicated  by  the 
fact  that  Brictric  is  mentioned  as  tenant. 


rt-form    in    DB    is    due  to  an  earlier  shortening  of  the  OE 
diphthong.     For  the  transition  of  e>i  see  Morsbach  §  109. 
'Columbers'    (Columbels)   and  'Waas'  (Wace)  are  AN  sur- 

Broad  Town  SE  of  Wootton  Bassett. 

1220  cle  la  Bradetime  Cat.  A.  D.;  1230  in  Bradeton'  CI.  E: 
1271  Brodeton  C.  Inq. ;  1274  La  Bradeton  CI.  R;  1300  in 
Brodetoune  Ch.  E;  1322  Broddeton  Pat.  E;  1324  de  Brode- 
tone  FA;  1428  Brodetoun  ib. 

'^se  brdda  tun,  which  may  give  Bratton  as  well  as  Broad 
Town;  see  under  Bradfield. 

Brokenborough  NW  of  Malmesbury. 

956  -^Brolceneberga,  ^Bro'keneher{eg)ge  CS  nos.  921,  922;  1065 
■\Bro7ceneberge  CD  no.  817;  1086  Brocheneherge  DB;  c.  1125 
Brocheneberg  W.  Malm.;  1185  BroJcenesberga  Pipe  E;  1232 
Brokenburgh  Ch.  E;  1235  in  Brokeberwe  CI.  E;  1251  in 
BroJceberge  Pat.  E;  c.  1290  BroJceneborwe  T.  Eccl.;  1316  de 
Brolcenboroive  FA;  1340  Brokenbergh  Ch.  E;  1421  Brohijn- 
borgh  Cat.  A.  D.;  1428  BroJcynborgh,  Brokynbergh  FA;  (n.  d.) 
in  Brokeneberue  Cat.  A.  D. 

The  OE  name  was  obviously  ""'se  brocena  beor^  (beorh), 
probably  denoting  'a  crumbling  hilF^.  The  second  element 
has  later  on  been  confused  with  burgh,  borough  (<  OE 
bur{u)h)  and,  as  is  most  often  the  case  when  this  happens 
in  pi.  ns,  borough  has  survived;  cf.  Marlborough,  Wan- 
borough,  Woodborough,   below. 

Note.  Kemble's  identification  of  t(ow)  brochenen  berge  CD  no. 
284,  and  (to)  brocenan  heorge  ib.  nos.  1002,  1186  with  this  place 
is  obviously  incorrect.  The  first  of  these  places  is  mentioned 
among  the  boundaries  of  Tefunte  (=  Tef font)  in  south  Wilts. ; 
the  two  latter  names  represent  one  and  the  same  place,  probably 
in  Soms. 

^  This    meaning    is    strongly    supported    by  the   fact  that  the 
ground  in  this  part  is  composed  of  oolitic  chalk. 


Bromham  NW  of  Devizes. 

1086  Bromham  DB;  c.  1090  Bromham  Br.  Mus.;  1312  Brom- 
ham Ch.  li. 

Originally    ''''hrdm-ham    (or    possibly   -ham(m));  OE  brom  = 
'broom'.     For  ham  see  under  Bremilham. 

Broughton  Gilford  NE  of  Bradford. 

1001  at  Broctune  CD  no.  706;  1086  Brodone,  in  Broctune 
DB;  1194  hi  Broctou  Rot.  Cur.;  1267  de  Brochetone  Ma- 
cray;  1281  Brochton  Ch.  R;  c.  1290  de  Brodone  T.  Eccl.; 
1293  Broiiton'D\xgdi^\Q\  1328  Broghton  C.  Inq.;  l^lb  Brogh- 
fon    Giffard    Phillipps'  fines;   1428  Broughton,  Brodon  FA. 

Original!}"  hroc-tun.  The  place  is  situated  on  a  little  af- 
fluent of  the  Lower  Avon.  The  Broughtons  in  England 
are  numerous.  It  is  to  be  noticed  that  the  OE  combina- 
tion d,  arisen  in  the  formation  of  pi.  ns,  as  a  rule  develops 
into  ht  in  early  ME,  consequently  coinciding  with  ht 
<  pre-Germ.  Jet  [on  this  point  see  Wyld,  p.  300];  cf. 
Wroiighton,  below.  The  few  cases  in  which  this  transition 
has  not  taken  place  may  be  due  to  the  fact  that  the  original 
sense  of  the  first  element  was  kept  in  mind  while  the 
sound-law  in  question  was  in  force.  Such  names  are  e.  g. 
Aden  (TrusseU),  Staffs.  (<  OE  clc-tun),  Brodon,  Staffs,  and 
several  BrocJctons,  Salop.  [<  OE  "^broc-tim].  c  may  also  have 
been  assimilated  to  t  in  some  names,  as  is  assumed  in  the 
case  of  Latton,  beloAv. 

'Gifford'  (Gifard)  is  an  AN  family  name;  see  Hildebrand, 
p.  336;  see  also  Jones,  p.  201. 

Bugley  W  of  Warminster. 

1256    in    Buggel    R.    fin.    exc.  (prob.  identical);    EdAV.  I  in 
Biigelighe,  Bogelegh  Br.  Mus.;  1536  Biiggeley  Dugdale. 

Apparently  from  an  original  "^'cet  Buggan  lea^e.  Whether 
the  first  element  represented  a  male  or  female  name,  we 
cannot  say.  Bugge  was  the  name  of  the  daughter  of  King 
Centwine    (Migne,    Aldh.    epist.,    p.    290)    and    also    occurs 


in  CS  no.  156  (Bucgan)^,  but  a  masculine  equivalent  is  not 
on  record. 

Bulbridge  [bulhrid^]  near  Wilton. 

c.   1200  de  Bolehiggc,  de  Bulebrige  Macray;    1248  de  Bulc- 

driggc  ib.;   c.   1290  Bolehrygg  T.  Eccl. 

Probably  from  '-^'Bidan  bryc^;  '-^'Bula  may  well  have  been 

a  hypocoristic  form  of  such  names  as  ^Bideferth  (<  *Bul(c)- 

frip)  occurring  in  the  local   -fBuIeferthes  steort  CS  no.  687, 

or    of    Bulercd    (on    a    coin    of   the  time  of  Eadweard  III). 

Note  also  such  pi.  ns   as  BiiUnga  fenn  CS  no.   1351,  hulan 

JioJ  ib.  no.  144,  Bidan  ham  ib.  no.  218,  hulan  mcedce  ib.  no. 

491,    hidlanholt    ib.    no.  565,  on  hulan  tvyllan  ib.  no.  1282, 

p.   589,  Bui  and  un  CD  no.   707. 

Note.  Middendorff s  explanation  of  the  element  hul  in  Engl. 
pi.  ns  seems  untenable.  How  could  the  OE  element  hulan- 
( which  moreover  is  recorded  in  the  early  8th  cent.)  represent  0. 
Norse  holr,  hulrl  His  assumption  of  an  OE  adj.  ''"^'bul  (=  *^ge- 
schwollen^)  seems  also  too  hypothetical  to  be  credited. 

Bulford  [bulfd(;r)d]  NE  of  Amesbury. 

1178?  Bultisford  Br.  Mus.;  1199  de  Bidtiford  Rot.  Ch. ; 
1270  Bulteford,  Bultesford(a)  Ch.  R;  1286  Bultisford  ib.; 
1316  de  BoUforde  FA;  1331  Bulteford  C.  Inq.;  1428  Boltc- 
ford  FA;   1566  Bulford  Br.  Mus. 

From  '^Bidtan  ford,  Bidta  probably  representing  some 
p.  n.  beginning  with  Btdt-,  of  which  '"^Bidtfrip  {Bultfridi 
Lat.  gen.)  is  found  in  CS  no.  91.  The  same  name  evidently 
occurs  in  BoUintone  DB,  situated,  like  Bulford,  in  the 
hundred  of  Ambresbury. 

Bulkington  [bdlhiyjfn]  W  of  Potterne. 

1224  in  Bulhintoh  R.  fin.  exc. ;  13th  cent.  Bolkintone  hiher 
rub.;   1316   BuTkmgton  FA;  1324    Btdhynton  ib.;   1330  Bul- 

^  From  this  dat.  form.  Searle  erroneously  gives  a  nom,  form 
*Bugga,  and  he  makes  the  same  mistake  in  the  case  of  Cillan, 
dat.  (CS  nos.  29,   101);   sec  Chilton. 


Icentou  C.  Inq. ;  1332  Bu/lyngton  Ch.  li;  1417  BulJcindon 
Cal.  Inq.;   143-1:  BidJcijngdon  ib. 

Originally  "^'Bidlciiiga  {Bulcaiil)  tun,  ''-'Bulca  being  probably 
a  petform  of  some  OE  p.  n.  beginning  with  Bide-.  Of  such 
names  Bulcred  alone  is  recorded.  Note  also  (to)  hidcan 
pytte  CS  no.  225,  evidently  situated  in  east  Wilts,  near 

Bupton  S  of  Wootton  Bassett. 

1232  in  Biihheclwe  Ch.  R  (identical  according  to  editor); 
1344  Bohheton  Hot.  Grig.;  1346  Buhheton  Cal.  Inq.;  1428 
Bohuton  FA;   1488  Biibton  C.  Inq. 

From  Biibhan  tun,  Buhha  being  an  OE  p.  n.  ii  for  r  in 
Bohuton  is  merely  orthographic. 

Burbage  SE  of  Marlborough. 

961  Burlibece,  ^Burgbeche,  '\hurg  beces  CS  no.  1067;  ^Ethelred 
"fBurhbec  CD  no.  1312;  1086  Biirbetce,  Burbetc,  Buberge 
(corruj^t)  DB;  c.  1115  Bitrbach  Osmund;  c.  1140  Burbeclia 
Macray;  1177  Burbache  ib.;  1194  Burggebge  Rot.  Cur.; 
1199  Burebache  Rot.  Ch. ;  1200  Biirbech  Osmund;  1204 
Biirbeche  R.  L.  Pat.;  1227  Burbech,  Burbach  Ch.  R:  1232 
Burbeche  Macraj^;  1314  Burghbach  Sauvage  C.  Inq.:  1316 
Borebache  FA;  1S20  Burbachesauvage  CI.  R;  1338  Bourbach  ib. 

The  first  element  is  obviousty  OE  burh\  the  second  pro- 
bably OE  bece  (=  beech-tree)  ^,  which  may  have  had  a  collec- 
tiA^e  sense  here  (i.  e.  =Svood  of  beeches')  just  like  OE  bed{e)- 
winde  and  bremel  (mod.  Bedwyn,  Bremhill).  The  supposi- 
tion of  a  plur.  sense  is  also  supported  by  the  form  burg 
beces  CS  no.   1067.     For  Bourbach  see  Burton,  below. 

The  modern  -age  is  due  to  weakened  stress;  cf.  Cotuagr 
(<  OE  -u'lc),  below,  Stevenage,  Herts.  (<  OE  -h(Bc{c)),  see 
Skeat,  PI.  Ns  of  Herts,  p.  65. 

'Sanvage'  is  an  AN  family  name. 

^  A  derivation  from  OE  bece  (=^brook',  see  NED  under  "^bache', 
"^beck')  is  out  of  the  question  for  topographical  reasons. 


Note.  Biirhheca  CD  no.  916  and  yBurbagh  ib.  no.  939,  which, 
like  the  places  above  (CD  nos.  1236,  1312),  have  been  located 
by  Kemble  in  Berks.,   are  identical  with  Burbage,  Leics. 

Burcombe  W  of  Wilton. 

987  Bvijdancumh  CS  no.  714;  1086  Bredecumhe  {twicQ)jyB\ 
c.  1290  de  Briideciimbe,  Bridecumhe  T.  Eccl. ;  liMQ  de  Brid- 
combe,  de  Brudecombe  FA;  de  Brideciimbe  CI.  R;  1428  in 
Brudecombe,  de  Brutcombe  FA;  1481  Northbritcombe^r.  Mus.; 
1540  Burdcombe  Dugdale. 

For  '■Bri/da  see  Bridmore.  The  development  of  the  present 
name  is  analogous  with  that  of  Burford  (Britford). 

Burford  see  Britford. 

Burton  near  Mere. 

1286  de  Burton'  CI.  R;  1M4  Mereburton  V^it.  11:  1398  Mere 
Bourton  Cal.  Inq. ;   1428  Bourton  FA. 

Most  probably  from  %urh-tun  ^.  In  ME  the  first  element 
has  been  confused  with  the  subst.  bour  (<  OE  bur);  cf. 
Bourton,  Glos.  and  Berks.,  both  of  which  are  derived  from 
OE  burh-tun  (see  Baddele}^,  p.  28;  Skeat,  PL  Ns  of  Berks. 
]).  92). 

The    distinctive    name    refers    to  the  neighbouring  Mere. 

Bury  Blunsdon  near  Blunsdon,  Broad. 

early  14th  cent.  Burihluntesdon  TN;  1319  Burbluntesdon 
Pat.  E;  1882  Buribluntesdon  CI.  R. 

Originally  '^'cet  {pcere)  byri^.  There  are  still  remnants  of 
ancient  fortifications  at  this  place.  For  Blunsdon  see 

Bushton  [buff if]  S  of  Wootton  Bassett. 
1816  Bisshoppeston  FA. 

^  An  OE  '''hur-tun  is,  on  the  other  hand,  a  most  unlikely  name, 
as  hur  seems  to  have  been  chiefly  a  literary  word  and  not 
much  in  use. 


From  %isc{e)opes  [bijsc{e)opes]  tun.  The  modern  form  is 
due  to  an  AN  rendering  of  '^'BysMon,  a  contraction  of  ME, 
'-•'BijsJwjjestoii,  with  a  later  association  of  the  first  syllable 
with  the  subst.  bush.  Cf.  Biissheton,  Br.  Mus.  [=  Bishops- 
tone,  above]. 

Buttermere  SE  of  Shalbourne. 

863  ■\Butermere  CS  no.  508;  931  -fBufer  mere  ib.  no.  678; 
1086  Butremare  (twice),  Butremere  DB;  William  I  Bivtcer- 
mcerce  Br.  Mus.;  1284  Butermere  Ch.  E;  c.  1290  Botemere, 
Boiemere  T.  EccL;  1330  Botermere  Br.  Mus.;  1373  Botur- 
mere  Cal.  inq.  da. 

Names  beginning  with  Butter-  are  not  uncommon  in 
England,  and  in  some  cases  this  may  well  be  derived  from 
OE  butere,  e.  g.  Butterton,  Staffs.,  see  Duignan,  PI.  Ns  of 
Staffs.,  and  Butterivorth,  Yorks.,  see  Goodall.  In  the  pre- 
sent case,  however,  it  can  hardly  be  anything  but  a  p.  n. 
'^Buter  (<  Scand.  Butr).  For  the  retention  of  r  see  Bjork- 
man,  Pers.  I,  p.  184.  The  same  name  probably  also  occurs 
in  the  latinized  Buicrus  Ellis  Intr.  II  p.  300.  The  second 
member  is  OE  ni^re  {gem^re)  =  'boundary',  'landmark'.  There 
is  another  Buttermere  in  Cumb.,  which  certainly  contains 
the  same  p.  n.  (see  Sedgefield). 

Cadnam  N  of  Calne. 

1468  Cadenham  Br.  Mus. 

Undoubtedly  from  '^Cadan  helm  (or  hamm),  Cada  being 
perhaps  the  same  person  as  has  given  his  name  to  the 
adjoining  Catcombe  (see  below).  For  this  p.  n.  see  Mtiller, 
p.  49. 

Calcutt  [kolJcdt]  near  Cricklade. 
1086  Colecote  DB;    1327   Colcote  C.  Inq.;    1334  Coleeote  ib.; 
1342  Colecote  Cal.  Inq.;    1404  Calcote  ib.;    1416    Colcote  ib.; 
1493  in  Ccdecote  C.  Inq.;   1623  Callcott  Br.  Mus. 

Probably  from  '-^Colan  cot(e);  the  p.  n.  Cola  may,  according 
to  Bjorkman,  Pers.  I,  p.  84,  possibly  be  an  anglicized  form 


of  the  Scand.  Coli.  (yolcutt  is  one  of  those  pL  ns,  the 
development  of  which  has  been  influenced  by  a  tendency 
among  the  dialects  of  Wilts,  to  change  o  >  a,  which  seems 
to  have  been  in  force  since  the  1 5th  cent.  The  other  names 
showing  this  change  are  Eatfyn,  Wansdyhe,  and  Wraxhall 
{North  and  South)  ^. 

The  modern  pronunciation  of  Calcutt  is  merely  a  spelling 

Calne  \kmi,  haan]. 

955  Calne  CS  no.  912;  [978]  CaJne  AS  Chr.  [E]  (prob.  iden- 
tical); 997  Calnw  CD  no.  698;  1086  Cauna'DB;  1091  Calna 
Osmund;  c.  1108  Kalii  ib.;  1160  Canna  Macray;  c.  1180 
Cauna  Osmund;  1194  Canne,  Calne  Rot.  Cur.;  Hen.  Ill 
Kaune  Rot.  H. 

This  name  must  be  Celtic,  probably  the  same  word  as 
Colne,  Lanes,  (occurring  as  Calna,  Caiine  in  the  13th  cent.); 
see  Wyld. 

Calstone  Wellington  {kolsfn'l  SE  of  Calne. 

1086  Caledone  (three  times)  DB;  1130  Calestona  H.  Pipe  11; 
1194  de  Calestoh,  de  Karletoh  Rot.  Cur.;  1204  in  Calestou 
R.  Oblat. ;  1225  de  Calestun  R.  fin.  exc. ;  1273  Calston, 
Calestou  C.  Inq. 

The    first    element    is    evidently    the    Scand.  p.  n.  '■'•Kale 
(Kali),  for  w^hich  see  Bjorkman,  Pers.  II,  p.  50.  The  termina- 
tion   is  OE  tiln.     According  to  Jones,  p.  203,  'Wellington 
refers  to  John  de  Wilinton,  a  baron  of  the  time  of  Edw.  III. 

Castle  Combe  NW  of  Chippenham. 

1086  Come  BB;  1269  Ciimhe  C.  In(|.;  Camba  Br.  Mus.; 
1270,    1283    in   Cumbe  Ch.  R;    1315  Casteleomhe  ib. ;    1322 

'  The  existence  of  this  tendenc}^  in  the  districts  where  these 
places  are  situated  lias  been  confirmed  by  all  those  people  I 
have  consulted  on   the  question. 


Castelcoumbe  ib.;  1328  Castelcomhe  C.  Inq.;  1-1:'22  Castelcome 
Cal.  Inq.;  1428  in  Comhe  FA. 

OE  ciimh  (=  small  valley).  In  DB  h  is  sometimes  lost 
medially  after  m\  see  Stolze  §  34;  cf.  Elcombe,  Stitchcombe, 
Tidcombe,  Whitcombe,  below.  'Castle'  refers  to  an  ancient 
Norman  castle,  of  which  there  are  still  traces. 

Castle  Eaton  NE  of  Cricklade. 

1086  Ettone  DB;  1218  Etun  Pat.  R;  c.  1290  Eaton  Meysif 
T.  EccL;  1316  Eton  Meijsij  FA;  1371,  1375  Eijton  Meisy 
Cal.  Inq.;  1428  Eaton  Meysy  FA;  1503  Castell  Eton  Cat. 
A.  D.;  c.   1540  Elton  Castelle  Leland. 

Originally  "^'ea-tun  ("enclosure  by  water ,  here  the  Thames). 
Eyton,  Eiton  are  AN"  spellings;  see  Zachrisson,  Stud,  i  mod. 
sprakvet.  Y.  p.   16. 

"Meisy'  was  a  family  name,  possibly  of  French  origin. 
'Castle'  may  refer  to  some  mediaeval  castle,  of  which,  however, 
there  are  no  visible  traces  at  the  present  time. 

Catcombe  N  of  Calne. 

1240  in  CadecumV  CI.  R. 

From  ^Caclan  cumh;   see  Cadnam,  above. 

Chaddenwicke  \tftvcVnivilc\  E  of  Mere. 

1086  Chedelwich  DB;  1283  Chadewiz  C.  Inq.;  1322  Chaden- 
tviche  Cal.  inq.  da.;  1324  Cliadewych  Pat.  E,;  1414  Chadnes- 
wyche  Cal.  Inq.;  1428  in  Chademvyche  FA]  \A^^  of  Chaden- 
wiche  C.  Inq. 

From  an  original  "^-'cet  Cead(d)an  ivtce,  Cead{d)a  being  pro- 
bably a  shortened  form  of  Ceadw(e)alla,  the  anglicized  form 
of  the  Celtic  Ccedivalla.  The  substitution  of  I  for  n  in  the 
DB  form  is  due  to  AN  infl.;  see  Zachrisson,  p.  141  ff., 
and  also  s:  for  ch  in  Chadetvic,  see  ib.  p.  26  f. 

Chalcot  SW  of  Westburv. 
1269  (de)  Chaldccote  11.  fin.  exc. ;  1318  (in)  Chaldecote  Ch.  R. 


Originally,  '''pcet  cealde  cot,  '-'seo  cealde  cote.  This  name, 
of  which  the  Anglian  equivalent  CaIdecot{e),  Caulcott  is 
rather  common,,  may  have  indicated  a  'shelter^  or  'abandoned 
cottage'.  Cf.  cold  harhoiir  (also  frequently  used  as  a  pi.  n.) 
=  'a  place  of  shelter  for  wayfarers  by  the  wayside'  (see 
'harbour'  NED). 

Chalfield,   Great,  and  Little. 

1001  ■fChaldfelde  CD  no.  706;  1086  Caldefelle  DB;  1194 
Chaudefeld  Rot.  Cur.;  1199  Chadesfeld,  Kaldefeld,  in  Caudi- 
feld  ih.;  1201  Chaudefeld,  Scaudefeld  Phillipps'  ped.  fin.;  1216 
in  Chaldefeld  R.  L.  CI.;  1254  de  Chaudefeld'  E,.  fin.  exc. ; 
1318  Shaldefeld  Parva  Pat.  E;  1428  Est  Chaldefeld  (=  Ch. 
Great),  West  Chaldefeld  (=  Ch.  Little)  FA. 

Originally  "^'se  cealcla  feld  (ceald  to  be  taken  in  the  sense 
of  'bleak',  'windswept').  As  the  phonetic  value  of  c  before 
a  in  DB  is  Jc  (Zachrisson,  p.  34),  it  may  be  the  Angl.  form 
that  has  influenced  the  scribe  in  this  case;  cf.  the  1199 
forms  (Rot.  Cur.).  The  orthographic  confusion  of  ch,  sc  and 
s{c)Ji  is  discussed  by  Zachrisson,  p.  38.  For  the  loss  of 
medial  d  in  DB  see  Stolze  §  37. 

Chapmanslade  [tfcepmdnslei(l\  SW  of  Westbury. 

1396  Chepmanslade  Cal.  Inq. ;  1455  Chijnnanslade  ib.;  1463 
Chapmanslade  ib.;  1476  Chipmanslade  ib. 

Originally  '"^'cet  ceap-  \cepe-,  cype-]  mannes  lade  (with  ME 
shortening  of  a  in  the  second  element).  OE  lad^  ^eldd  seems 
to  have  denoted  'road'  as  well  as  'water-way';  see  'load', 
'lode'  NED,  and  'lode'  EDD.  In  the  name  under  discussion 
the  former  meaning  is  jDresent.  Cf.  Chicklade,  Cricklade. 
The  mod.  pronunciation  {-leid)  is  due  to  the  spelling. 

Charlton  NE  of  Malmesbury. 

680  -fde  Cherl{e)tone  CS  no.  59;  844  -^Cherltune  {'\Choerletune) 
ib.  no.  447;  965 — 71  mt  Ceorlaiunoe  CS  no.  1174;  1065 
'\Cheorletuna  CD  no.  817;  1086  Cerletone  DB  I:  67  a;  1316 
Cherlton  FA;   1428  Charl{e)ton  ib. 


From  an  original  '^ceorla  tiin.  In  the  OE  constitution,  a 
'ceorr  was  'a  man  without  rank',  'a  member  of  the  third 
or  loAA^est  rank  of  freemen".  For  oe  as  a  representative  of 
OE  eo  in  early  ME  see  Biilbring,  Bonner  Beitr.  zur  Angl. 
XV:  VII.  The  three  following  names  are  explained  in  the 
same  way. 

Note,  {in)  Ceorletune  Thorpe,  p.  443.  and  (^0  Ceorlatune  ib.,  pp. 
534,  535  are  in  the  index  located  in  Wihs.  This  seems,  however, 
very  doubtful,   at  least  as  far  as  the  former  place  is  concerned. 

Charlton  SW  of  Pewsey. 

1225  Cherhfon  Pat.  II  (prob.  identical);  1290  Cherleton  T. 
EccL;  1316  Cherleton  FA;  142-4  Charleton  ib. 

Charlton  SSE  of  Salisbury. 

1311  Cherlefone  C.  Inq.;  1316  Cherleton  FA;  1428  Charle- 
ton ib. 

Charlton  ESE  of  Shaftesbury  (Dors.). 
1216  in  Cherleton  Eot.  Ch.;  1282  Cherleton  Br.  Mus. 

Chedglow  \tfeclglou\  N"  of  Malmesbury. 

1086  Chegeslaue,  Chegeslei,  Cheieslave  (corrupt)  DB;  1167 
Cheggeslaiva  Pipe  R;  1176  Cheggeleiva  ib.;  1194  de  Chegelawe, 
de  Seggelaive  Rot.  Cur.;  E/ic.  I  de  Seggelaive  Abbr.  Plac. ; 
1203  Chicheleive  Phillipps'  ped.  fin. ;  1222  m  Cheggelauwe 
Macray;  1257  Chigelawee  C.  Inq.;  Edw.  I  Cheggelegh  Rot.  H; 
Edw.  Ill  de  Cheggelewe,  Cheggelegh  (several  times)  NI; 
1361  Chechelawe  Gal.  Inq.;  in  Chicheloive  CI.  E,;  1428  in 
Cheggelewe  FA;   1540  Chegislotv,  Cheggeley  Dugdale. 

The  second  element  was  obviously  OE  hlaiv  Qilmv)  = 
"(funeral)  mound'.  As  to  the  first  element,  it  most  probably 
represents  an  OE  p.  n.  There  is  one  on  record,  which 
would  fit  in  here,  viz.  ^Cecc{e)  [signum  Cecces  CS  no.  183]. 
Chedglow   maj^   therefore    possibly   be  derived  from  "^Cecces 

4     E.  Ekblom 


hlaw  Qilceic).  s  for  cli  is  merely  orthographic;  see  Zachrisson 
p.  37  f.  The  termination  has,  in  DB,  NI,  and  Dugdale,  been 
confused  with  the   common  -lei,  legh;  cf  Winterslovv,  below. 

Chelworth  NE  of  Crudwell. 

Alfred  '\de  ChocUeivrthe,  '\CeUanivurd  CS  nos.  568,  569;  c. 
900  "fCellewird  ib.  no.  584;  '\Chelleivrth,  ■fChoellewiihe  [\Cel- 
lanwirdan,  '\CeoIiuurde\,  'fcJteleivorpe  ib.  nos.  585,  586;  956 
•\de  cheleivrthe  ib.  no.  922;  1065  ■\Chelleivrda  CD  no.  817; 
1086  in  Celeorde  DB;  1158  Chelesivurda  Pipe  11  (or  =  Chel- 
worth, below);  1322  C/«7?^'(9r/A  Pat.  E  (or  =  Chelworth,  below); 
1490  Chelwourth  C.  Inq. ;  (n.  d.)  {de)  Chocllewrpe,  (de)  ChoI{l)e- 
ivrthe  (several  times)  Reg.  Malm. 

From  '"'-'' Ceol{J)an  u-eorp  (luorp,  tviirp,  tvyrp),  Ceol(l)a  being 
probably  a  shortened  form  of  some  p.  n.  beginning  with 
Ceol-,  of  which  there  are  numerous  examples;  see  Miiller,  p. 
50.  The  final  d  for  tli  in  the  second  member  may  be  due 
to  weakened  stress.  In  DB  medial  th  is  generally  rendered 
by  d;  see  Stolze  §  38.  Chol{J)ewrthe  indicates  change  of 
stress.  The  form  Cellanivirdan  is  probably  due  to  a  latini- 
zed ^Cellanivirda  (cf.  Bvitfordcm  under  Britford),  Avliich  has 
been  treated  by  the  ME  scribe  as  if  it  belonged  to  the  OE 
Aveak  declension. 

Chelworth  SW  of  Cricklade. 

1086  Celewrde  DB;  1272  CheUewrth  Br.  Mus.;  1281  Chele- 
wiirth  (or  possibly  Chelworth,  above)  C.  Inq.;  Edw.  I  in 
Cheleswortli  Plac.  Warr.;  1316  de  Cheleworthe  FA;  1327 
Chelleivorth  Cinq.;  1334  Great  Cheleworth  ib.;  1?>^1  Magna 
Scheletvorth  Phillipps'  fines;  1485  Chelleivorth  C.  Inq. 

See  preceding  name.  Scheletvorth  is  another  example  of 
the  ortliographic  confusion   discussed  by  Zachrisson,  p.  37  f. 

Cherhill  E  of  Cahie. 

1158  Ceriel  Pipe  11;  1215  de  Chlriel  P.  L.  CI.;  1240  Cyriel 
Macray;  1267  Chyrielih.;   127  b  Churiel  C.  Inq.;  1315  Uiynjel 


lb.;  1316  de  Chyrrele  FA;  1324  CheHel  ib.;  1428  Chynjell 
ib.;  1490  CMriell  C.  Inq.;  1577  Cheriell  Br.  Mus.;  1664 
CherhiU  ib. 

The  etymology  of  this  name  is  obscure.  All  that  is  clear  is 
that  the  /?27^element  is  a  very  late  formation,  due  to  popular 
etymology  (cf.  BremhJll,  Fonthill). 

Cheverell,  Great  and   Little  SSW  of  Potterne. 

1086  Chevrel  DB;  1217  Cheverel  E.  fin.  exc. ;  1249  Chy- 
verel  C.  Inq.;  1274  Great  Chyverel  ib. ;  1279  Cheveroil  Fine 
Rolls;  1286  Chiverel  C.  Inq.;  1301  Little  Cheveroill  Ch.  R; 
1316  ChyvereU  Magnet^  Ch.  Parva  FA;  1402  Cheveryll 
Magna  ib. 

This  name  is  probably  not  Germanic. 

Chicklade  [tfiMeid]  N  of  Hindon. 

1199  de  ChiJcelad  Rot.  Cur.;  Edw.  I  in  ChiJcelade  Plac. 
Warr.;  1296  de  Chiklede  Pat.  R;  1316  de  ChicJclaude  FA; 
1396  CheJclade  Cal.  Inq.;  1408  Chekelade  ib.;  1428  in  Chy- 
Icelade,  de  Chyclade  FA;  1491  in  Chykelade  C.  Inq. 

Probably  from  an  original  '"^'cet  Cices  (Cicanl)  lade  (lad 
here  =  'road^;  cf.  Chapman slade).  Judging  from  the  latinized 
CicliKS,  which  occurs  among  the  signatories  of  several  OE 
charters,  we  are  entitled  to  assume  the  existence  of  an 
OE  p.  n.  *Cic  (perhaps  also  ''^Cica).  This  p.  n.  seems 
moreover  to  be  found  in  other  pi.  ns,  e.  g.  in  Chick  Hill 
Sussex  (1284  Chikehull  Cal.  Inq.),  Chichsands  Beds.  {Chice- 
sane  DB;  Chikesaund  FA,  Rot.  H).  Chi cJcs grove ^,  SE  of 
Chicklade,  no  doubt  also  contains  the  same  p.  n.  -laude 
(in  FA)  seems  to  indicate  a  tendency  towards  the  retention 
ol:  the  long  vowel  in  the  development  of  the  name;  cf. 
CreJcJcelaude  (Phillipps'  fines)  =  mod.  Cricklade. 

^    Unfortunately    I  have   not  been   able  to   find   any  old   refer- 
ences to  this  name. 


Chilhampton  ^  [—  —  — ]  N  of  Wilton. 
1291  Childhamjjfoii  Cal.  Inq. ;   \W3  Childliampf on  C\.  11;  esirly 
14tli    cent.   ChihUimpton  TN;    1828  Childchampton  Cal.  inq. 
da. ;   1481   ChUhampfon  Br.  Mus. 

This  name  is  derived  from  ''■''cilda  hdm-tun  ('the  children's 
homestead'),  cf.  cilda  stan  C8  nos.  767,  1164,  1287;  Cilda 
fan  CD  nos.   796,   1810. 

Chilmark  E  of  Hindon. 
929—940    jChieldmearc    CS    no.    745;    1086    Chilmcre    DB; 
1166    Chilmerc    Pipe  E;    c.    1290    Chilm'k    T.    Eccl. ;    1296 
ChiUmarlc  Pat.  R;   1816  de  Chilmerle  FA;  1428  ChilmarJc  ib. 

The  original  form  seems  to  have  been  '•'' cilda  mearc;  OE 
meare  f.  =  'boundary',  'landmark'.  For  cUda  see  preceding- 

Chiiton   Foliat  NW  of  Hungerford  (Berks.). 
1086  CiUetone  BB;  1221   Chilton  Foliot  I'sit.  li;  1227  Chilton 
FoUot  Ch.  E;    1807   Chylton  C.  Inq.;  1816  de  Chiltone  FA: 
1321  Chilton  Tois  Cal.  Rot.  Ch.;  1822  Chilton  Tieys  Ch.R; 
1386  Chilton  Tijeis  ib. 

The  DB  form  indicates  an  original  ''•''CiUaii  tun.  A  Aveak 
niasc.  p.  n.  '''Cilia  is  not  on  record,  but  a  f em. '••(7i//e  existed 
[recorded  in  dat.  (Cillan")  in  CS  nos.  29,  101].  A  strong 
masc.  Cille  is  also  found  (CS  no.  75,  and  on  a  coin  of  the 
time  of  Harold  I). 

'Foliat'    (Foliot)    is   a  French  family  name,  probably  also 

'T3^eis'  (Tois).    In  TN,  p.  145,  Sampson  Foliot  is  mentioned 

as  the  holder  of  Chilton  and  Dreycot  (=  Dra^^cot  Foliat). 

Note.  Kemble's  identification  of"  Cioltan  ford  CD  no.  320 
with  Chilton  is  impossible,  as  this  place  is  mentioned  among  the 
boundaries  of  Nordniwetune  (=  Newnton,  North). 

^  There  are  no  less  than  four  'Hamptons'  in  the  vicinity  of 
Wilton,  each  with  a  distinctive  first  element,  viz.  Chilhampton, 
Ditchampton,   Netherhamptou,   and  Quidliampton. 

"  As  in  the  case  of  Buggan  (see  under  Bugley),  Searle  here 
makes  tlie  same  mistake  of  assuming  a  nom.  ''^Cilla  from  this 
dat.   form. 



[878]  to  Cipimnhamme  AS  Chr.  [A];  880—85  (Et  Ci2)pan 
hamme  [^cet  Cippenhamme]  CS  no.  553;  •fSchyppenam  ib.  no. 
554;  Chippenam  ib.  no.  555;  901 — 24  cet  Cippan  homme  ib. 
no.  591;  940  'fChippenham  CS  no.  751  (prob.  identical); 
1086  Chepeham,  Cepcham,  Clupeham  DB;  1176  Chypeliam 
Pipe  R;  1178  Chep{p)eham  ib.;  1200  Chipcham  Eot.  Ch. ; 
J204  Chippeha  ib.;  1217  Chipham  Pat.  E;  1225  Chipeslia 
E.  L.  CI.;  1227  Chip(p)eham  Ch.  E;  Sipeam  CI.  E;  1240 
Sypeham  ib.;  1249  Chuppeham,  Chipeham  C.  Inq.;  1264 
Cliippenham  ih.',  1319  Shippenham  CI.  E;  1376  Chepenham 
Eot.  Orig.;  1420  Chippyngham  Pliillipps'  fines;  1424  CMppen- 
kam  FA. 

The  first  element  can  hardly  be  anything  but  the  gen. 
of  a  p.  n.  *Cyppa,  the  patronymic  of  which  occurs  in  DB 
as  Chipinc  (Ellis,  Intr.  II,  p.  68).  The  same  name  is  contained 
in  {to)  Cyppanhamme  CS  no.  246  (=  Chippenham,  Glos.), 
possibly  also  in  {■\)cipes  broc  CS  1111  (with  substitution  of 
strong  for  Aveak  gen.  ending).  One  may  be  inclined  to  explain 
'■^•Cyppa  (<  ■^Cypa)  as  a  pet-name,  formed  from  OE  cypman. 
The  second  element  was  OE  ]tam{m),  for  which  see  Bremil- 
ham.  On  the  orthographic  interchange  of  5',  ^(c)/?,  and  ch 
see  Zachrisson,  p.  37  f. 

Chirton  SE  of  Devizes. 

1086  Ceritone  DB;  1194  Cherint,  Eot.  Cur.;  1221  Chirituh 
E.  L.  CI;  1229  de  Chiriton'  CLE;  1285  Churitone  C.  Inq.; 
c.  1290  de  Chirtone  T.  EccL;  1316  Churughton  FA;  1321 
CJmrghton  C.  Inq.;  1324  Churughton  Pat.  E;  Chereton  FA; 
1348  Chirghton  Phillipps'  fines;  1373  Chirughton  Cal.  Inq.; 
1428  Cheryton,  Shirghton,  Chernton,  Chyryton  FA;  1473 
Cherghton  Cah  Inq. 

This  name  seems  impossible  to  explain. 

Note.  Cyricestun  CD  no.  1065  can  obviously  not  be  identical 
with  this  place,   as  is  suggested  b}^  Kemble. 


Chisbury  NE  of  Burbage. 

1086  Cheseherie  DB;  1247  de  Chessehure  Uacvdy;  1260,  1270 
Chissebury  Ch.  E,;  1270  Cliysehmj  Pat.  E,;  1279  Chessehury 
Br.  Mus. ;  1285  Chussehuria,  Chesshuria  ib. ;  c.  1290  Chise- 
bury  T.  Eccl.  (prob.  identical);  1316  Chussebury  FA;  1360 
Chessebury  Cal.  Inq. ;   1402,   1428  Chissebitry  FA. 

Most  probably  fi'om  an  original  '^'wt  Cissan  byri^,  Cissa 
being  an  OE  p.  n.,  occurring  i.  a.  in  LYD ;  see  Mulle]-, 
p.  50.  ^t  in  Chussehury  stands  for  a  ME  secondary  y  (looked 
upon  as  original).  As  to  e  for  i  in  the  first  syllable  of 
some  ME  forms,  see  under  Biddestone. 

Chisenbury  N  of  Enford. 

1086  Chesigeherie  DB;  1226  de  Chesingebefie  Osmund;  1227 
Chisingebiir  Cli.  R;  1270  Chisingbury  ib. ;  c.  1290  Chesyng- 
bury  T.  Eccl.;  131Q  Chusingbury  ¥  A;  14:28  Chesyngbury  ib.; 
1485,   1493  Chesyngbury  C.  Inq. 

Originally  ''^''cet  Cissinga  byri^.  For  Cissa  see  preceding 
name.  In  the  DB  form  a  stroke  (-)  over  i  (representing 
the  following  n)  has  been  left  out. 

Chisledon  or  Chiseldon  SSE  of  Swindon. 

880 — 885  cet  Cyseldenc^  OS  no.  bbS;  "fat  Kyseldene^  ih.  554; 
Alfred  Ciseldenu  ^  ib.  565 ;  900  •\Ceolseldcne  ^  ib.  594 ;  -jCeo- 
seldene^  ib.  598;  903  -fCeoseldene^  ib.  602;  925—941  Cysel- 
dene  ^,  t(^^^)  Chcseldene  ^  "fde  Chiseldene  ^  ib.  648 ;  1086  Chisel- 
dene  DB;  c.  1290  Chiseldene  T.  Eccl.;  1299  Chuseldene 
Pat.  II;  1306  Cheselden  Ch.  R;  1316  de  Chuseldone  FA; 
1428  Cheselden,  Chyselden  ib.;  1457  Chiseldeen  Cat.  A.  D. ;  1495 
Cheselden  C.  Inq. 

The  first  element  is  WS  cisil,  cysel  [Angl.  Kent,  eeosel] 
= 'graver,  'shingle\  The  second  element  was  OE  denu  = 
Valley'.  Tlie  village  is  situated  on  a  brook  (a  sub-affluent 
of    the    r.    Cole);    -don    in    the  modern  name  refers  to  the 

^  The  identity  is,   if  not  quite   certain,   at  least  very  probable. 


down  on  its  south  side,  over  which  the  greater  part  of  the 
village  now  extends,    h  in  Ki/seldene  is  merely  scribaL 

Chitterne,    AH    Saints  and  Ch.   St.  Mary  [tfit9{r)n]  ENE 
of  Hey tes  bury. 

1086  Chetre  (three  times),  Cheltre  (prob.  identical,  but  cor- 
rupt) DB;  1166  Cettra  Pipe  E;  1205  Cettre  Rot.  Ch. ; 
1232  Cettra  Ch.  E;  1248  Cettre  ib.;  1255  Cetter  Cal.  Eot. 
Ch.  (prob.  identical);  1289  Chytterne  Br.  Mus.,  c.  1290 
Cettre  T.  Eccl. ;  Edw.  I  in  Chytterne,  in  Chyttijrne  Plac. 
Warr. ;  1316  de  Chuterne  FA;  1324  Chitterne  Maiden  (=  St. 
Mary)    Pat.  E;    1428    in  Chitterne,  Cettre  Beats  Marie  FA. 

The  second  element  probably  represents  OE  cern  =  'house\ 
Mwelhng',  *^place^  which  was  very  common  as  a  termination 
in  OE  (e.  g.  her(e)-ceni,  eorp-cern,  heal-cern,  hord-cern)  ^.  The 
first  element,  which  is  most  probably  the  same  as  in  Chittoe, 
may  be  a  p.  n.,  although  no  suitable  independent  name  is 
on  record.  The  local  Cytanforde  CD  no.  714,  cytan  seohtres 
ford  CS  no.  963,  and  "fcytan  igge  ib.  no.  1002  indicate, 
however,  the  existence  of  a  p.  n.  ^Cyta,  which  may  possibly 
be  concealed  in  the  name  under  notice  and  in  the  next 
one.  Zachrisson  (Stud,  i  mod.  sprakvet.  YI,  p.  293,  foot- 
note 2,  calls  attention  to  the  probability  of  Cyta  in  these 
OE  pL  ns  being  nothing  but  the  bird's  name  (NE  'kite^),  ap- 
plied as  a  nick-name.  This  also  agrees  with  the  initial  cJi 
in  the  DB  form,  but  the  mod.  pronunciation  is  in  that  case 
a  spelling  pron.  For  the  change  of  i  >  e  in  some  forms  see 
under  Biddestone. 

The  distinctive  names  refer  to  churches. 

Chittoe  [tfitu]  SW  of  Calne. 

1167  de  Cheteive  Pipe  E;  1227  in  Cheteweye  Macray;  1260 
Cheteive  Ch.  E;  1389  Chutuwe  Cat.  A.  D. ;  1390  Cheteive 
Philhpps'  fines;  1418  Chutewe  Cal.  Inq. ;  1634  Chittoe  Br. 

^  Other  Wilts,  pi.  ns  in  -erne  are  Colerne,  Potterne,  and  Vasterne. 


Possibly  from  an  original  ''Ve^  Gijtan  we^e  (see  above).  The 
second  element  was  obviously  OE  ive^^  which  after  weakening- 
has  coincided  with  the  common  ending  -oe  {-hoc)  ^  in  pi.  ns. 

Cholderton  E  of  Amesbury. 

1086  Celdrintone  (twice),  Celdretone  DB;  llT-i  Cheldrintona 
Pipe  11;  1180?  Cheldretona  Br.  Mus.;  1194  de  CheJdritoh 
Rot.  Cur.;  1256  Chedermton  C.  Inq.;  1257  Cheldrinton  ib.; 
1270  Cheldrington  Ch.  E,;  c.  1290  Cheldertone,  Chelnjngton  T. 
EccL;  Edw.  I  de  Childerington  Plac.  Warr. ;  1296  Chelde- 
r'mgton  Pat.  li;  1307  Chcldnjngton  C.  Inq. ;  ISIQ  Chaldryii- 
ton  FA;  1318  Childerfon  C.  Inq.;  1428  Chaldnjngton  FA; 
1482   Chcddryngton  Cal.  Inq. 

From  ^'Ceolredinga  (or  ^'Ceolricinga)  tun,  Ceolred  and  Ceolric 
being  recorded  OE  p.  ns.  For  the  development  of  this 
|)1.  n.  cf.  Alderton  and  Hilperton.  o  in  the  mod.  name  is  due 
to  the  dialectal  pronunciation  of  e  in  this  position,  which 
tends  to  o.  The  early  insertion  of  d  between  I  and  r-  and 
its  subsequent  occurrence  is  probably  due  to  the  influence 
of  the  ME  adj.  cJiald,  cheld  (<  ceald),  the  influence  of  this 
adj.  being  particularly  indicated  by  the  form  Chcddr'ijn{g)ton 
(quoted  three  times),  in  which  a  can  hardly  be  explained 
in  any  other  way. 

For  Child-  see  Morsbach  §  109. 

Christian  Malford  NE  of  Chippenham. 

937  '\ Crist emcde ford  CS  no.  717;  940  ■\Cristemalford  ib.  no. 
752;  1086  Cristemeleforde  DB;  1166  de  Cristesmeleford  Pipe 
E/;  1167  Cristes  Melesford  ib.;  1181  de  Cristemeresford' 
ib. ;  1194  Cristesmaelford  Rot.  Cur.;  1196  in  Cristcmaleford 
Feet  of  fines;  1207  de  Crustemeleford  Eot.  Ch.;  1227  Crist- 
melford  Ch.Bj;  1232  Cr istemelef or d  ih.;  12S0  C{h)ristemeleford 
ib.;  P]dw.  I  Cristc{s)malcford  Plac.  Warr.;   1316  Cristemallc- 

^  On  this  element  see  Skeat,  PL  Ns  of  Beds.  p.  29  fi".,  Moor- 
man,  p.   52,    Wyld,   p.   95. 

^  In  the  case  of  alder  (<  OE  idor)  for  instance,  d  does  not 
appear  till   the  14tli  cent. 


ford  FA;  1540  Christen  Malford  Dugdale;  c.  IMO  Ckrist'me 
Maleforde  Leland. 

Originally  ''Crlstes-mcel-ford  ("the  ford  at  the  cross^).  The 
ME  forms  exhibit  two  different  types:  one  with  an  early 
shortening  of  the  medial  ce  (by  weakening),  which  has 
sarvived,  the  other  with  a  later  shortening,  r  for  /  in 
Cristemeresford  maj^  be  due  to  AN  infl. ;  see  Zachrisson. 
p.  143.  The  e-voAvel  between  I  and  f  is  merely  a  con- 
necting vowel. 

Chute  (Forest)  [ffuwf]  NE  of  Ludgershall. 

1178?  Celt  Br.  Mus.;  1199  Chett  not.  Ch.;  1215  Cet  U. 
Oblat.;  1222  Cet  Pat.  E;  1245  Schet  ib. ;  1255  of  Cette  ib. ; 
de  Chete  E.  Pat.;  1258  Chut,  Chet  C.  Inq.;  1284  of  Choete 
CI.  E;  of  Chute  Ch.  E;  1288  Chw/t  Pat.  E;  Chiet  CI.  E; 
1291  Shut  Pat.  E;  1295  Chiiet  ib.;  1296  Cheote  ib. ;  1328 
Cheut  CI.  E;  1334  Cheut  Br.  Mus.;  1428  Chiujt  Fi^;  1485 
in  Chute  C.  Inq. 

This  is  certainly  a  Celtic  name,  perhaps  the  same  as  is 
contained  in  Preshrtte,  below. 

Clarendon  ESE  of  Salisbury. 

1164  Clarendon  Br.  Mus.;  1204  Clarendon  E.L.Pat.;  1227 
Clarendon  Ch.  E;  1279  at  Clarijndone  C.  Inq.;  12S4:  Clarin' 
don  Ch.  E;  1287  Claryndon  C.  Inq.;  1316  Claringdon  E. 
Pat.;  1341  Clarington  ib.;  1491  Claryngdon  C.  Inq.;  c.  1540 
Clarington  Leland. 

From  *Claringa  dun,  Claring  being  perhaps  a  patronymic 
of  Clare,  occurring  as  the  name  of  a  witness  in  CS  no.  882. 

Clatford  W  of  Marlborough. 
1086    Clatford   DB;    c.   1290  Clatford  T.  Eccl.;    1316,  1428 
Clatford  FA. 

The  first  element  is  no  doubt  OE  elate,  a  plant-name, 
denoting  'burdock',  'goose-grass',  'clivers'.  At  the  present 
day,  clote  in  the  southern  counties  is  also  applied  to  other 


plants,  e.  g.  'the  coltsfoot',  'the  yellow  water-lily'  (see  EDD), 
but  it  is  very  doubtful  whether  the  latter  meanings  are 
old  enough  to  have  been  present  in  the  pi.  n.  under  notice. 

Note.  Clatford  CD  nos.  1177,  1265  is  located  by  Kemble  in 
Wilts.,  although  it  obviously  refers  to  some  place  in  the  south- 
west of  Berks. 

Clench  see  Clinch. 

Clevancy  [klev-censi]  E  of  Hilmarton. 

1086  {in)  Clive  J)B\  1232  in  Clive  Wancij  Gh.  E;  early 
14th  cent,  m  Clive  Waiicy  TN ;  1316  de  Clyve  Wauncij  ¥A; 
1428  in  Clyve  Aimcy  ib. 

Originally  '"^'clif  \cFt  (pa^m)  clife].  It  is  interesting  to  notice 
the  amalgamation  of  the  distinctive  'Wancy'  with  the  gen- 
uine name.  The  change  of  i>  e  in  the  first  syllable  is 
due  to  weakened  stress. 

The  AN  'Wancy'  refers,  according  to  Jones,  p.  207,  to 
Radulf  de  Wancy,  who  held  lands  here  towards  the  end 
of  the   13th  cent.  (TN  p.   137). 

Ciiffe  Pypard  [generally  pron.  Iclijv]  S  of  Wootton 

1086  (in)  Clive  DB;  1230  in  Clive  Pipart  CI.  E;  1281  Ciiffe 
Piparcl  Br.  Mus.;  1284  Pypardesclive  E,.  Pat.;  1290  ad.  Clivam 
Ch.  R;  c.  1290  de  Clive  (Pippard)  T.  Eccl.;  1304  in  Ptj- 
pardesclyve  Ch.  E;  1332  Clivepipard  Br.  Mus.;  1340  Piperes- 
clyve  ib.;  1428  in  Clyve  {Pypard)  FA. 

Originally  "^''clif,  '"^'cet  {pcem)  clife,  the  modern  name  being 
orthographically  a  contamination  of  the  OE  nom.  and  dat. 
form  (the  pronunciation,  however,  representing  cleve,  cleeve, 
for  which  see  NED).  'Pypard'  is  an  AN  name,  referring 
to  the  Eicus  Pipard  who  is  mentioned  as  a  tenant  here  in 
TN,  pp.   140,   149,   156  (see  Jones,  p.  207). 

^  There  are  several  places  called  Clive  in  DB,  and  most  of 
them  seem  to  refer  to  manors  at  the  present  Clevancy  and 
Ciiffe  Pypard. 


Note.  CUve  CD  no.  460  cannot  possibly  be  identical  witli 
Cliffe  Pjpard  (or  Clevancy)  as  it  is  mentioned  among  the  boun- 
daries of  Brokciieherge  (=  Brokenborongh,   Wilts.). 

Clinch  or  Clench  S  of  Marlborough. 

1329  Cleynche  C.  Inq. ;   1354  Clench  Cal.  Inq. 

It  seems  impossible  to  explain  this  name.  There  is  a 
dialectal  word  clench  in  Northants.,  applied  to  a  plant  ('the 
corn  crowfoot'),  but  as  this  word  is  quite  unknown  in  Wilts. 
at  the  present  day  ^,  it  is  naturally  very  doubtful  if  it 
occurs  in  this  pi.  n. 

Coate  E  of  Devizes. 

1282  Cotes  Pat.  R;  c.  1290  Cotes  T.  EccL;  1316,  1428  Cotes 
FA;  1490  Cotes  C.  Inq. 

Originally  "^'cotan  (plur.  of  cote  f.)  or  '^cotu  (plur.  of  cot 
n.).  OE  cote^  cof  = 'cottage'.  The  ME  forms  quoted  show 
substitution  of  the  strong  masc.  plur.  ending.  Cf.  Coates, 
Sussex  (Roberts,  p.  49),  which  is  to  be  explained  in  the 
same  way ;  (Roberts'  derivation  of  this  name  from  an  ori- 
ginal gen.  sing.  (OE  cotes)  is  quite  impossible).  Cf.  also 
the  rather  frequent  Coton  (e.  g.  in  Cambs.  and  Staffs.)  < 
'■■cotan^  '-'cet  (pd^m)  cotum. 

Codford  St.  Mary  and  Codford  St.  Peter  SE  of  Heytesbury. 

901  ■\codan  ford  CS  no.  595;  1086  Coteford  (three  times) 
DB;  1130—35  Codeford  Osmund;  1167?  Cutiford  Br.  Mus.; 
1180?  Cotesford  ib.;  1281  Est  Codeford  C.  Inq.  (=  St.  Mary); 
1309  Estkodeford  ib.;  1316  Coteford  FA;  1322  Westcodeford 
Ch.  R  (=:St.  Peter);  1327  C{h)odeford  C.  Inq.;  1413  IVest- 
coteford  Cal.  Inq.;  1428  Codeford  Sancti  Petri,  C.  Sancte 
Marie  FA. 

Most  probably  from  ^Ciidayi  ford;  for  the  p.  n.  Ciida  see 
Miiller,  p.   51.     As  to   Mor  ^  in  the  DB  and  Br.  Mus.  forms 

^  The  dialectal  word  for  the  common  crowfoot  species  is  crazy 
(craisey)  in  Wilts. 


see  Zaclirissoii,  Stud,  i  mod.  spmkvet.  5,  p.  8  f.  The  t  in 
the  later  forms  above  is  due  to  assimilation  with  f  (after  the 
syncope  of  c).  'St.  Mary^  and  'St.  Peter  are  names  of  churches. 

Colerne  [kald{r)]i^  W  of  Corsliam. 

108G  Colcrnc  DB;  11.77  Citlerna  Pipe  R:  128:>  de  Oiderne 
Ch.  E;  1269  Cullerne,  CoUcrn  C.  Inq.;  1283  in  Culernc  C\\. 
II;  1316,  1324  de  Colerne  FA;  1330  de  Colorne  li.  Pat.; 
1428   {in)  Colerne  FA. 

This  name  may  be  derived  from  '^(Udan  cern  (cf.  Chitterne). 
The  existence  of  a  }).  n.  '-'Cnla  (■'Cull)  is  indicated  by 
eulinga  gemcere  CS  no.  227,  Ctdingas  ib.  no.  326,  '\'fet  Cidingon 
{<*Cidingum)  ib.  no.  1064,  CuUingus  Ellis,  Intr.  11  p.  306, 
to  cidan  fcnne  CS  no.  1082,  Cf)to  odes  felda  ib.  no.  620. 
The  same  ]).  n.  occurs  in  the  local  Condinge  Suffolk  (see 
Skeat:  PI.  Ns  of  Suff.  p.   72). 

CoUingbourne  Ducis  \  xtxtw     p  t      ^         i    ii 

\  NNW  ol   Luao-ershall. 
„  Kingston    J 

903  Colengahiinmni  (Lat.  ace.)  CS  no.  602;  921  on  Collenga- 
hiirnan,  "^at  Colinghurne  ib.  no.  635 ;  931  wt  ColUnga  human 
ib.  no.  678;  1086  Colingehurne  (=  C.  Ducis),  Colehurnc  (=  G. 
Kingston)  DB  ;  1234  Colighnrn  (^  Ducis  or  Kingston)  CI.  1\ ; 
1256  Colingehurne  (=  Ducis)  Pat.  R;  c.  1290  Colingehurn  Comit.: 
Colingehurn  Ahhis  (=  Kingston)  T.  Eccl. ;  1323  Colynghurn 
Valence  (=  Ducis)  C.  Inq.;  1402  Colynghorne  Valence  FA; 
1428  Colgnghourne  Comitis,  Coh/nghourne  Ahhatls  ib. ;  1479 
Colinghourne  Valaunce  R.  Pat. 

The  stream  on  which  these  places  are  situated  is  now 
called  simply  'the  Bourne'  (a  tributary  of  the  East  Avon), 
the  same  which  in  OE  times  was  called  Winferhuma  in 
its  lower  course;  see  Winterbourne  (Dauntsoy),  below.  The 
patronymic  is  most  probably  formed  from  Cola,  for  A\hich 
name  see  Calcutt,  above. 

For  the  distinctive  names  see  Jones,  p.  208. 


Combe  near  Enford. 
1279  de  Combe  Cal.  Rot.  Cli.;    1329   Connibe  C.  Inr,.:     U2S 
in  Comhe  FA. 

OE  cunib  (see  Alcombe). 

Compton  XW  of  Enford. 
c.    1080    of    C untune    (or  =  C.    Cliamberlayne)    Cal.  France; 
1086    Contone  DB,  p.  69  a;   1329  Co7nptou  C.   Inq.:    (n.   d.) 
Cumppton  Cat.  A.  D. 

Originally  '•'cimib-tun.  n  for  m  is  due  to  assimilation 
Avitli  t. 

Compton  Bassett  NE  of  Calne. 
1086  Contone  DB,  p.  70  d;   1182  Comtona  Bi\M.\\^.\  1220— 
28    de    Cumptone  Macray;    c.  1225  Ciimton  Br.  Mus.;    1271 
Cumpton  Bassett  C.  Inq.;    1324.  1402  Compton  Bassett  FA. 

See  preceding  name.  The  manor  was  formerl}^  in  pos- 
session of  the  Norman  Bassett-f amily ;  see  TX,  p.  141. 

Compton  Chamberlayne  WSW  of  Wilton. 

1086  Contone  DB,   65a;  1250,   1275  Cumpton  Cinq.;   1316 
Compton    Chamberleyne    FA;    1318    Cumpton  Chaumberiayne 
Ch.  R;   1325   Compton  Chamherlayn  C.  Inq. 
For  the  distinctive  name  see  Jones,  p.  209. 

Conock  SE  of  Devizes. 
1316  de  Coneke  FA;  1348  de  ConnolceR.  F-a.t.;  1372  ConnoJc 
Br.  Mus. 

This  is  undoubted^  a  Celtic  Avord,  the  same  as  Irish  and 
Gaehc  enoe  (=  hillock,  knoll);  see  'knock'  NED,  and  Mac- 
bain.  The  svarabhakti  vowel  is  due  to  AN  infl. ;  see 
Zachrisson  p.  49  f.     Cf.  Knook,  below. 

Coombe  Bissett  SAY  of  Salisbury. 
1086  Cumbe  DB;  c.   1115,   1158  Cumba  Osnuind;  early  14th 
cent,    de  Cumbe  TN;    1385  Combebysset  Cal.  Inq.;    1402  de 
Coiimbe  Byset  FA. 


OE  cumh.  'Bissett'  is  certainly  an  AN  family  name.  In  the 
time  of  Henry  III,  Johis  Biset  was  tenant  here;  see  TN, 
p.   155. 

Corsham  [Regis]  WSW  of  Chippenham. 

1001  'fCosehdm  CD  no.  706;  [1015]  -fCosham  AS  Clir.  [E]: 
1086  Cosseham  DB;  1130  Cosseham  H.  Pipe  li;  1157  Cosse- 
liam  Cal.  France;  1194  Cossam  Hot.  Cur.;  1225  Corshd  R. 
fin.  exc. ;  1230  Cosham,  Corsham  Ch.  R;  1243  Corsham  ib.; 
Edw.  I  Cossam  Plac.  Warr.;  1284,  1302,  1309,  1310  Cosham 
ib. ;  1316  Cosham  FA;  1334  Cosseham  Eot.  Orig.;  1394 
Cosham  Br.  Mus. ;  1428  Cosham  FA. 

The  first  element  is  difficult  to  account  for.  The  old 
forms  quoted  show  that  it  cannot  possibly  have  the  same 
first  element  as  Corsley,  Corston,  or  Corton  (below).  Corsham 
may  therefore  be  derived  either  from  ''''Cusan  ham,  Cusa 
being  recorded  as  an  OE  p.  n.,  or  from  ''''Cosan  ham,  *Cosa 
being  perhaps  a  hypocoristic  form  of  the  Celtic  Cospatric. 
The  change  of  Cos  >  Cors-  may  simply  be  due  to  the  in- 
fluence of  Corsley  and  Corston.  In  DB  the  King  is  mentioned 
as  chief  tenant  here. 

Note.  It  is  obvious  that  Corsham  cannot  be  identical  with 
(to)  cartes  hamme  CD  no.  436,  as  has  been  suggested  by  Kemble. 
Tiie  latter  place  was  moreover  situated  in  the  extreme  south  of 
the   county   (in    the   vicinity   of  Bower  and   Broad   Chalk). 

Corsley  WNW  of  Warminster. 

1086  in  Corselie  DB;  1166  Corselea  Vi\)Q  E;  1232  Corslegh 
Ch.  R;  1233,  1245  Corsleg  ib.;  1265—70  de  Corsleyghe 
Macray;  c.  1290  Corsle  Magna  T.  EccL;  1316  de  Corseleghe 
FA;  1369  Cossteye  Cal.  Inq.;  1402  Corsle  Magna  FA;  1428 
Parva  Corslegh  ib. 

This  name  may  be  derived  from  '-''cors-leah  {-lea^e),  cars 
being  the  same  Celtic  Avord  that  seems  to  occur  in  the 
following  name,  but  we  may  also  assume  an  original  '^wf 
Corsan    lea^e    [Corston    (W.    of    Bath),  Soms.,    occurring  as 


Corsan  tan  {on  corsan  streame)  CS  nos.  767,  1287].  Whether 
Corsan  is  identical  with  the  above-mentioned  Celtic  Avord 
or  is  a  p.  n.,  it  is  impossible  to  determine. 

Corston  S  of  Malmesbur}^. 

1065  Corstuna  CD  no.  817;  1086  in  Corstone  DB;  1817 
Crostone  C.  Inq. 

The  place  is  situated  on  an  affluent  of  the  Lower  Avon, 
which  is  now  called  'Gauze  brook".  This  stream  is  no  doubt 
identical  with  {'\)Coysahiirna,  "fCorshorne,  mentioned  in  CS 
nos.  103,  470,  probably  also  with  '\Corsbroh  CS  no.  922, 
'\CoreshroJc  CD  no.  632  (see  besides  Akerman's  map  in 
Archseologia  XXXVII:  I).  The  first  element  is  most  pro- 
bably a  Celtic  word,  the  same  as  Welsh  cors  =  'bog',  *^marsh"; 
see  Pughe-Pryse. 

Note.  Corsantune  CD  no.  457  is  not  identical  with  this  place, 
as  is  stated  in   Kemble,   but  with  Corston,   Soms. 

Corton  or  Cortington  SSE  of  Heytesbury. 

1086    Cortitone    DB    (prob.   identical);   1130—35  Cortun  Os- 
mund; c.   1290  Cortyngton{e)  T.  EccL;  Edw.  I  de  Cottyntton 
Plac.  Warr. ;   1316  cle  Cortone  FA;  1428  Cortyngton  ib. 

Originally  ''"'Cortinga  tun,  Corting  being  certainly  a  patro- 
nymic of  the  Frisian  p.  n.  Cort  {Coert,  Curt),  for  which  see 
Winkler,  p.  219,  and  Stark,  p.  136.  The  same  p.  n.  occurs 
in  to  cartes  hamme  CS  no.  917,  which  was  situated  in  south 
Wilts,  (in  the  vicinity  of  Bower  and  Broad  Chalk),  probably 
also  in  ■fCortimwde  ib.   1009  (near  Bath,  Soms.)^ 

^  This  explanation  of  the  latter  name  seems  far  more  plausible 
than  the  one  given  by  Middendorff,  p.  30.  according  to  whom 
the  first  element  contains  an  unrecorded  OE  adj.  '-'cort,  parallel 
to  OFris.,  OS  kurt,  OHG  (MHO,  mod.  G)  kurz  (adopted  from 
Lat.  curtus).  As  a  matter  of  fact,  there  is  no  evidence  in 
support  of  an  OE  '^'cort  (""''curt)',  coiiimeede,  which  is  tlie  only 
name  that  Middendorff  adduces  to  support  his  assumption  of  this 
adj.,   is   quite   satisfactorily  explained   as  above. 


Gorton  E  of  Hilmarton. 

1086  Crosfone  DB  (prob.  identical);   1428  Corston  (twice)  FA. 

The  original  form  may  have  been  "^'cros-tun.  OE  cros 
{=  rod),  found  only  in  local  nomenclature,  is,  according  to 
NED,  the  Norse  Jovss,  which  is  adopted  from  Olrish  cros. 
In  the  present  case,  however,  cros  is  naturally  to  be  con- 
sidered as  an  ordinary  Celtic  survival,  as  the  Wilts,  pi.  ns 
seem  to  be  quite  free  from  Scand.  elements  (except  p.  ns). 

Gorton  offers  an  example  of  the  omission  of  a  stem  -6'  in 
the  middle  of  a  pi.  n.  (another  instance  is  Garclone,  the  DB 
form  of  Garsclou;  see  below).  Hoav  are  we  to  explain  a  loss  of 
this  kind?  In  connection  with  Alderbury,  attention  has  been 
draAvn  to  the  common  omission  of  the  gen.  5  of  a  p.  n., 
Avhen  it  occurs  as  a  first  element  in  pi.  ns.  In  the  light  of  this, 
a  plausible  reason  for  the  loss  of  a  stem  -s  in  such  cases  as 
Gorton,  Gardone  w^ould  be  that  the  first  element  even  in 
these  names  has  been  considered  by  the  Anglo-Normans 
as  the  gen.  of  a  p.  n.   and  treated  as  such. 

Note.  The  numerous  cases  in  which  an  unetymological  s  has 
been  inserted  in  the  composition-joint,  on  the  other  hand,  ought 
to  be  explained  simply  as  due  to  analogy  with  those  pi.  ns 
which  have  a  gen.  s  after  the  first  element,  i.  e.  exactly 
the  same  explanation  as  has  been  given  for  the  intrusive  -ing- 
(-in-)  suffix  in  such  forms  as  ME  Geresindon  {-  Garsdon),  Lut- 
lyngton  (=  Littleton  Drew),  mod.  Sherrington,  Uppington,  etc.,  viz. 
the  analogy  of  pi.  ns,  in  which  the  first  element  is  a  patronymic. 

Coulston,  East  and  West  SW  of  Potterne. 

1086  Govelestone  DB;  1199?  de  GouelestoTi  Hot  Cur.;  c.  1290 
de  Govelestone  T.  Eccl.;  1800  Goucleston  Ch.  R;  1316  Gouleston 
FA;  1824  Goimeleston  Fine  It. ;  1428  Gouueleston,  Goueles- 
ton  FA. 

Obviously  from  ''-'Gufeles  tun,  ''-'Gufel  being  a  diminutive 
of  the  p.  n.  Gufa.  v  has  here  been  vocalized  to  u  in  ME, 
which  u  together  with  the  preceding  one  has  given  u.  Cf. 
Gowesfield,  below,  and  Goivley  Oxfs.  (<  '''cct  Gufan  lea^e)  (see 
Alexander,  PL  Ns  of  Oxfs.,  p.  86);  cf.  also  NE  liaivh  (<  hafoc). 


Co  wage  another  name  for  Bremilham. 
1275    at    Cotviche    C.  Inq. ;    c.   1290    CozvyJc    T.  Eccl.;    15-10 
Coivych  Dngdale. 

From  OE  cii  (=  cow)  and  Wic  (here  to  be  taken  in  the 
sense  of  'farm').  The  mod.  -age  is  due  to  weakening.  Cf. 

Cowbridge  near  Malmesbiiry. 

1409    Coiibryge    Phillipps'    fines:    (n.  d.)    de  Couhrigg{e),  dr 
Choubrigge  Reg.  Malm. 
No  comments  necessary. 

Cowesfield   E  of  Whiteparish. 

1086  Colesfelde  (possibly  identical),  Cuulestone'^  DB;  1166 
Cuuelesfeld  Pipe  R;  1206  in  Cidefeld  Bj.h.  CI.;  1211  Cuveles- 
feld  Phillipps'  ped.  fin.;  1272  Colneston  Sturmy^  (corrupt), 
CoJeston  Spileman^,  Coleston  Loveraz^  Pat.  R;  12^1  Coles f eld 
CI.  R;  1294  Covelesfeld  Cal.  Inq.;  1316  de  Couelesfelde  FA; 
1319  Covelesfeld  Pat.  R;  1337  Couuelesfeld  Loveras  Ch.  R: 
1402  Coulesfeld  Sturmy  et  Spylma)/,  C.  Loveras  FA;  1490 
Coulesfild  Esturmy,  Coulesfeld  Spilman  C.  Inq. 

The  first  element  is  no  doubt  the  same  as  in  Coidsfon. 
The  name  is  consequently  derived  from  *Cufeles  feld.  The 
loss  of  I  in  the  present  name,  as  compared  with  its  survival 
in  the  case  of  Coulston,  is  due  entirely  to  sound-physiological 
reasons^.  'Esturmy'  (Sturmy),  'Loveras',  and'Spileman  are 
family  names,  the  tAvo  former  AN,  the  latter  Continental- 

^  On  account  of  the  different  terminations  there  may  naturally 
be  some  doubt  about  the  identity  here  too,  but  the  places  were 
at  least  situated  in  the  same  hundred  (Frustfield),  and  the  first 
elements  are  undoubtedly  the  same.  Cf.  the  forms  quoted  from 
Pat.  R. 

"  Identical  according  to  the  editor  of  Pat.   R. 

^  If  I  had  been  kept  in  the  present  name,  a  much  more 
difficult  combination  of  sounds  would  have  arisen  than  in  the 
case  of  Coulston  (on  account  of  the  fricative  f). 

5     E.  Ekblom 


Cricklade  [hiJcleid]. 

[1)04]  ad  Criccaladam  Assei-;  [905]  to  Creeca  gelade  A.  Clir.  [A], 
to  Creoccgelade  ib.  [D];  [1016]  cet  Cncgelade  ib.  [D],  cet  Crceci- 
lade  ib.  [E],  cet  Crecalade  ib.  [F];  1086  de  Crichelade  DB: 
1130  Grechelada,  Crelcelade  Macray:  c.  1170  CriecheladaC^l. 
France;  1231  Crikelad  Ch.  R;  Hen.  Ill  Kerkelad'  Rot.  H; 
1255  de  CriMelade  Pat.  R:  1260  Kyrhclad  ib. ;  1276  CreJcelad 
Ch.  R;  c.  1290  CreeMade  T.  Eccl. ;  1316  f?e  Crelldade 
FA;  1319  KiriJcelade,  Creeldade  Cal.  inq.  da.;  1376  r>eZ':A-e- 
laude  Phillipps'  fines. 

The  first  element  of  this  name  is  certainly  not  Germanic, 
For  the  mere  fact  that  we  find  such  a  variet}^  of  spellings 
in  the  AS  Chr.  indicates  that  it  did  not  contain  an  element 
Avhich  was  part  of  the  AS  yocabulary.  The  name  has 
alread}^  been  the  subject  of  some  discussion.  Thus, 
Mc  Clure,  p.  261,  foot-note  3,  takes  Click-  to  be  connected 
either  with  Welsh  eraig  =  'rock\  or  Avith  cruc  =  'mound'. 
Pearson,  p.  11,  also  identifies  the  element  with  craig.  These 
suggestions  seem,  however,  most  unlikely,  particularly  when 
compared  with  the  explanation  given  by  Duignan  in  connec- 
tion Avith  his  discussion  of  the  etymology  of  Penlcridge 
(Notes  on  Staffs.  PL  Ns,  p.  115  f.).  According  to  him,  Crick-  is 
a  Celtic  word,  meaning  'boundary^  'frontier  (the  same  as 
Irish  crioc,  crich);  see  Stokes,  p.  98.  Consequently  Cricklade 
would  originally  indicate  '^the  boundary  between  Mercia  and 
Wessex,  which  was  formed  by  the  Thames  (OE  ^elad  here 
=  Svater-waj^';  cf.  Chapmanslade,  Chicklade).  Crekkclaiide 
(Phillipps'  fines)  indicates  retention  of  the  long  vowel  in 
the  termination;  cf.  Chicklaudc  FA  (Chicklade).  The  form 
Grechelada  (Macray),  if  not  a  mere  error,  may  be  due  to 
{)opular  etymology;  (according  to  Camden,  p.  102,  a  Greek 
school  is  said  to  have  been  founded  here  bv  a  certain 
Theodorus,  Archbishop  of  Canterbury). 



Crockerton  S  of  Warminster. 

1350    CroJcerton    Phillipps'   fines;    1463  CroJcerton  Gal.  Inq. ; 
1467  N.  CroJcerton  Br.  Mus. :  1495   Crokerton  C.  Inq. 

Originally  "^'croccera  (or  possibly  crocceres)  tun.  OE 
'"croccere  [a  nomen  agentis  from  crocc{a)]  =  'potter .  This 
explanation  of  the  first  element  seems  far  more  probable 
than  assuming  with  Roberts,  p.  52,  a  p.  n.  '■'Crochere. 

Crofton  ENE  of  Burbage. 

1194    in    Corfton    Rot.    Cur.  (possibly  iclent.);    1288   Crofton 
C.  Inq.;  1316,  1428   Crofton  FA. 

Originally  '■' croft-tun  (=  enclosed  croft). 

Croucheston   E  of  Broad  Chalk. 

1328    Criichesfon{e),    Croiicheston    C.    Inq.;    1340  Cruchedon 
Phillipp's  fines;  1373  Cryiicheston  ib. 
The  etymology  is  obscure. 

Crudwell  N  of  Malmesbury. 

854  fat  Croddewelle  CS  no.  470;  at  (Jriddamvijlle  Thorpe; 
901  -^de  criid{d)ewellc  CS  no.  586;  [956  •\Cruddesetene  imere 
CS  no.  922];  1065  Creddewilla  CD  817;  lOSQ  Credvelle  T>B 
1180  Credewella  Pipe  R;  1194  de  Credewalle  Rot.  Cur. 
1222  Credewellie)  Macray:  c.  1290  de  Cnidewelle  T.  Eccl. 
1316  Credewell  FA;  1428  Crudetvell  ib. 

The  fact  that  this  place  is  situated  near  the  source  of  one 
of  the  head-streams  of  the  Thames  points  to  the  probabilit}^ 
that  the  first  element  represents  the  ancient  (Celtic)  name  of 
this  stream  (the  mod.  name  is  'Swill  brook').  This  supposi- 
tion is  strong!}^  supported  by  the  term  -\Cniddesetene  imere 
(=  ^emcere)  CS  no.  922  (in  the  same  neighbourhood),  Crudde- 
sefene  (originally  gen.  plur.)  probably  denoting  the  people 
living  on  this  stream':  cf.  Wilscetan  AS  Chr.  A.  D.  800  (see 
Introduction)  and  '\fromesetinga  (gen.  ])lur.)  CS  no.  1127 
(referring  to  the  r.   Frome.  Soms.). 


Dauntsey  [daan(t)si]  SE  of  Malmesbuiy. 

850  -fDometesig  CS  no.  457 ;  "fidd)  Daunteseye,  ■\{in)  Dametes- 
eye  ib.  no.  458 ;  "fide)  Damices  eye.  '\{in)  Dameces  eye  CD 
no.  263;  854  at  Domeccesige  CS  no.  470;  1065  -^Dometesig 
CD  no.  817;  1086  Dantesie  DB;  1142—50  Dantesia  Os- 
mund; 1162  Danteseia  Pipe  R;  1178?  Dantesi  Br.  Mus. 
Hen.  Ill  Dantese  C.  Inq. ;  1257  of  Donteseye  Cat.  A.  D. 
1270  Dauntesa  (lat.)  Cli.  R;  c.  12^0  de  Daimtes eye  T.¥jCq\. 
1316,  1428  Daimtesey  FA. 

Originally  '^'Domices  le^  {te^  here  =  'marshy  land',  as  is 
always  the  case  in  Wilts,  pi.  ns).  *Ddmic  is  to  be  regarded 
as  a  diminutive  form  of  '^Doma  (<  ■^Doma),  a  pet-formation 
of  some  p.  n.  beginning  with  Dom-  (e.  g.  Domfrith,  Dbm- 
liere).  For  the  diminutive  suffix  -ic  {-ec)  see  Eckhardt,  p.  345. 
The  fact  that  OE  o  before  nasals  only  occurred  as  a 
variant  of  a  (W.  Grerm.  o  before  nasals  >  u  in  OE)  explains 
the  a  vow^el  in  the  first  syllable.  The  m  has  in  the  earliest 
ME  been  changed  into  n  by  assimilation  with  the  following 
(tf).  Moreover,  the  fricative  (/)  has  disappeared  through 
assimilation  with  the  following  .y.  \t  for  e  in  the  earliest  of 
the  forms  quoted  above  may  naturally  as  w'ell  be  due  to 
orthographical  confusion,  on  account  of  the  similarity  of 
these  two  letters.  Alexander,  PL  Ns  of  Oxfs.,  p.  32,  gives 
several  examples  of  such  errors.] 

au  is  due  to  AN  influence;  see  Zachrisson  §  9. 

Dean,  West  SE  of  Salisbury. 

1086  Duene  DB;  1269  Westdune  C.  Inq.;  12SI  Dene,  Deone 
ib.;  1296  Westdoene  Pat.  U;  1309  Westdeene  C.  Inq.;  1314 
at  Westdune,  Dene,  Duene  ib.;  1320  Westden  Pat.  R;  1324 
Deone  FA;  1371  Westden  Br.  Mus.:  1402  Deone  ¥K;  1485 
West  Dene  C.  Inq. 

OE  denu,  dene  (=  valley),  the  place  being  situated  in  the 
valley  of  an  affluent  of  the  r.  Test.  The  ME  forms  give 
a  good  picture  of  the  complete  confusion  of  don  (OE  diln) 


and  dene  (OE  denu,  dene)  which  is  so  common  in  English 

Deptford  \detfd{r)d\  on  the  Wiley  near  Fisherton  Delamere. 

1086  Depeford  DB;  1236  Depeford  Ch.  R;  early  14th  cent. 
Dujjeford  T^ ;  VdU  Dej^e ford  FA;  1SS6  Deope ford  Vhillipps' 
fines;  1428  Depeford  FA. 

Originally  '^'se  deopa  ford.  In  the  NE  pronunciation  the 
p  has  been  replaced  by  t  for  sound-physiological  reasons. 
For    u    as    a  representative  of  OE  eo  see  under  Bemerton. 

Derriads  SW  of  Chippenham. 

1227  Derierd  Ch.  E. 

This'  single  ME  form  which  has  been  found  indicates 
that  the  termination  was  OE  ^eard  (geardasl)  =  'enclosed 
place',  the  loss  of  r  in  the  mod.  form  being  due  to  weaken- 
ed stress.  The  plur.  .;?  may  quite  well  be  of  a  later  date. 
The  first  element  may  go  back  either  to  deor{a)  (cf.  e.  g. 
on  deor  leage  CS  no.  1108,  Deorham  ib.  no.  1282)  or  to 
Deoran,  gen.  of  Deora,  a  pet-form  of  some  p.  n.  beginning 
with  Deor-,  of  which  there  are  a  great  number. 

Devizes  [ddv-cdziz\. 

1141 — 42  Divisas  Br.  Mus.;  1146  Divisis  Macray;  1149  Divises, 
apud  Divisas  ib.;  1227  Devizes  Ch.  R;  1229  Devises  ib.; 
1279  Divises  C.  Inq.;  1290  Dyvises  Br.  Mus.;  1331  Vises 
CI.  li;  La  Wyses  C.  Inq.;  1333  Dyvyses  ib.;  14:72 'the  vyse' 
Cat.  A.  D.;  1485  Le  Devisee  C.  Inq. 

This  name,  Avhich  has  been  discussed  by  Guest,  p.  254  f., 
and  by  Zachrisson,  ilnglia  XXXIV,  p.  319,  is  an  angliciza- 
tion  of  the  OFrench  plur.  devises,  and  here  certainly 
denotes  some  boundary  line.  The  suggestion  offered  by 
Gaest  and  Zachrisson  that  the  present  name  may  have 
originally  indicated  the  frontier  forest  between  Wales  and 
Wilts,  seems,  however,  not  to  fit  in  with  the  geographical 
conditions.     It    may    rather    have    referred  simply  to  some 


boundary  line  between  two  properties,  a  meaning  of  devise, 
d'vise,  which  is  still  retained  in  Normandy. 

For  the  French  article  and  the  shortened  ME  forms  see 
Zachrisson.  loc.  cit.  According  to  Guest,  p.  255,  Devizes 
was  founded  in  the  J  2th  cent. 

Dilton  8SW  of  Westbury. 

1221  in  Dultuh  R.  fin.  exc;  1249,  1264,  1275  Didhm  C. 
Inq. ;  early  14th  cent.  Bolton  TN;  1324,  1402,  1428  Dul- 
ton  FA. 

The  most  [)lausible  etymology  of  this  name  is  '''DyUan 
tun,  the  first  element  being  a  p.  n.,  the  same  as  the  one 
contained  in  Dillington  Hunts.  (<  '''DylUnga  tun,  see  Skeat, 
PI.  Ns  of  Hunts.,  p.  349),  and  IhdUnghmn  Cambs.  (<  '"^Dyllinga 
ham,  Skeat,  PL  Ns  of  Cambs.,  p.  22).  It  is  very  probable, 
as  Skeat  has  suggested,  that  this  p.  n.  is  a  nick-name, 
identical  with  the  ME  adj.  dill,  dylle  (=  dull),  which  point 
to  an  OE  '^'dyl,  dylle  (<  '-'duljo-),  cognate  to  OE  dol  (<  ''''dido-); 
see  \luir  NED.  Whether  the  element  Dil-  in  the  p.  ns  Dilmun 
{^Dilmund)  and  Dilra  is  the  same,  it  is  impossible  to  say. 
0  in  Dolton  (TN)  stands  for  u,  which  has  been  considered 
as  original,  (a  not  infrequent  mistake). 

Note.  Dihvorth,  Lanes.,  of  which  Wyld  gives  an  unsatis- 
factory explanation,  probably  contains  the  same  first  element. 
0  in  ME  Dolleworth  (quoted  by  Wyld)  is  in  that  case  easily 
explained   (as  in  Dolton). 

Dinton  W  of  Wilton. 

1086  Domnitone  DB  [partly  corrupt];  1268  Donington  Pat. 
R;  1816  Donington  FA;  1324  JDonynton,  Dynton  ib.;  1375 
Duyupiton  CI.  R;  1428  Donyngton  FA:  Dimyton  Cal.  Inq. 
(prob.  identical);  1492  Dynton  C.  In(j. 

On  account  of  the  comparatiA^ely  great  number  of 
forms  with  o  in  the  first  syllable,  it  seems  necessary  to 
assume    an    original    name    of    two    types:    '■Dunninga  tun 


(without  mutation),  and  '""Dipininga  tun  (which  has  sur- 
vived). The  patronymic  is  formed  from  the  p.  n.  Dunn 

On  -'/-  for  medial  -ing-  in  DB  see  Zachrisson,  Stud,  i 
mod.  sprakvet.  V,  p.  10  f. 

Ditchampton  [ ^  — ]  near  Wilton. 

1045  cet  Dicha^matune  CD  no.  778;  1086  Dechementone,  in 
Dicehantone  DB;  1195  de  Dichamtoh  Feet  of  fines;  142S 
Dychampton  FA;  1491  Dychehampion  C.  Inq. 

The  CD  form  is  obviously  the  original  name.  D'lc-hcema 
(beside  "^D'lC-hcemena,  a  form  which  is  indicated  by  the  first 
DB  form)  is  the  gen.  of  '-dlc-hceme,  a  plural  i-stem  like 
Engle,  Mierce,  Nordhijmhre,  etc.  (consequently  denoting  'the 
inhabitants  of  '^cMc-hant') ;  see  on  this  point  Napier  &  Steven- 
son, Crawf.  ch.,  p.  116  f.,  where  several  instances  of  a 
similar  formation  are  given. 

Association  Avith  the  common  element  -hampton  has  then 
taken  place  in  the  earliest  ME  (cf.  Beckhampton). 

Ditteridge  or  Ditcheridge  near  Box. 

1086  Digeric  DB;  1167  Digeriga,  Dicherigga  (latinized  forms) 
Pipe  11;  1284  Ditherigg  CI.  E;  1285  in  Dichrugge  Ch.  R; 
1375  Dykerigge  Cal.  Inq.;  1378  Dicherich  ib.;  1428  in 
Dycherygge  FA;   1443  Dylcerygge  Cal.  Inq. 

From  ''■'die-hryc^,  the  sense  of  which  is  obvious.  The 
change  of  tf  >  t  in  Ditteridge  is  due  to  dissimilation  with 
the  final  fricative  consonant. 

The  medial  p  is  merely  a  connecting  vowel. 

Note.  Alexander  is  certainly  incorrect  in  explaining  Ditchley 
(PI.  Ns  of  Oxfs.,  p.  94)  from  '^dice-leage  or  "dica-lea^e  (dice 
being  the  gen.  of  the  fern,  die,  and  dica  gen.  plur.),  for  these  forms 
would  on  the  contrary  have  given  mod,  ^'Dickleij.  OE  dlc-leage, 
on  the  other  hand,  would  become  Ditchley  by  the  influence  of 
tho  independent  subst.   die  (>  ditch). 


Donhead    St.  Andrew  )  „.^„      p  oi     p.     i  .^ 

^      .       ,    ^      „  ENE  ot  Shaftesbury  (Dors.). 

Donhead    St.   Mary        j  J    v  / 

871  -fDunheued,  -\Dunehefda  (latinized)  CS  no.  531;  955  f^o 
dun  heafdan  ib.  no.  917;  956  ■\D'unheued  ib.  no.  970;  1086 
Duneheve  DB  (partly  corrupt);  1199  Dmineheued  Feet  of 
fines;  1235  Dunheved  Pat.  R;  Hen.  Ill  Doneheved  Rot.  H; 
1279  Donhaved  C.  Inq.;  1284  de  Donhevede  (alias  Dunhefd) 
ib.;  c.  1290  Dunhef{de  See  Marie)  T.  Eccl. ;  1316  Doimheved 
FA;  1334  Dounhevid  Cat.  A.  D. ;  1345  Donehevede  St.  Andr 
Cal.  Inq.;  1364  Dounehead  St.  Mary  Phillipps'  fines;  1428 
Dunhed  Andree,  D.  Marie  FA. 

From  *dun-h6afod  ('head  or  top  of  a  down'),  -heafdan  in 
the  955  form  may  stand  for  the  dat.  plur.  -heafdum, 
but  it  may  quite  as  probably  be  explained  in  the  same 
way  as  Brytfordan  and.  Cellamvirdan  (see  Britford  and 
Chelworth).     The  distinctive  names  refer  to  churches. 

Downton  SSE  of  Salisbury. 

about    670    {to)    Duntun{e)  CS  no.  27;    826  Duntun  ib.  no. 

391;    905    to    Duntune    ib.    no.    690;    909    Duntun  ib.  nos. 

620,    621    (prob.    identical);    948    in    Duntune    ib.  no.  862; 

997  wt  Duntune  CD  no.  698;    1086  Duntone  DB;    1199  de 

Dunnetoh    Feet    of    fines    (prob.  identical;    cf.  Dunneheued, 

above);  1284  Dunton  Ch.  R;  1316,  1402  Dounton  FA. 

The  sense  is  obvious. 

Note.  Kemble's  identification  of  Duntun,  in  the  charters  nos. 
599  and  610,   with  this  place  is  not  convincing. 

Draycot  Cerne  N.  of  Chippenham. 

1086  Draicote  DB  74c;  c.  1170?  Draicot  Osmund;  c.  1180 
Draycotha  (latinized)  Macray;  1228  Draycot  Ch.  R;  1304 
in  Draycote  ib. ;  1402  in  Draycote  Cerne  FA. 

Originally  *dr()e^-cot(e).  The  element  dray  (OE  '''drce^), 
which  occurs  both  in  Draycot{t)  and  Drayton,  two  very 
common  pi.  ns  all  over  England,  is  difficult  to  account 
for.    It  seems  likely,  however,  as  Skeat  (PI.  Ns  of  Cambs., 


p.  9)  has  suggested,  that  this  word  is  connected  with  the 
dialectal  dray  (of  unknown  origin)  =  'a  squirrel's  nest',  a 
probable  sense  of  the  element  drceg  in  pi.  ns  being  therefore, 
according  to  Skeat,  ^place  of  shelter',  'retreat'.  However 
this  may  be,  the  fact  that  the  element  in  question  is  so 
common  in  pi.  ns,  while  there  is  otherwise  no  trace  of  it 
in  the  language,  indicates  that  it  is  a  Celtic  word.  As  a 
second  element  it  occurs  in  Dundrceg  CD  no.  816  (probably 
=  Dundry,  Soms.).     *^Cerne'  was  a  French  familj^  name. 

Draycot  Fitz  Payne  NW  of  Pewsey. 
1086  Draicote  DB  66  b  (prob.  identical). 

See  preceding  name.  'Fitz  Payne'  is  a  French  family  name. 

Draycot  Follat  SSE  of  Swindon. 
1086  Dracote  DB  71  b  (partly  corrupt);  Edw.  I  hi  Draycote 
Plac.  Warr. ;  1307  Dreyhote  FolijoM  C.  Inq. ;  1309  Draicote 
Foliot,  of  Dreicote  ib.;  1327  Draycote  Folyot,  Drey  cote  F.  ib.; 
1428  in  Draycote  FA. 

See  Dravcot  Cerne.  For  the  distinctive  name  see  Chilton 

Dunkirk  near  Devizes. 

Although  no  early  references  have  been  found  to  this 
small  place,  I  have  preferred  not  to  leave  out  the  name 
on  account  of  its  great  interest.  It  is  obvious,  that  this  place 
has  been  named  by  the  Anglo-Normans  after  the  Flemish 
DunJcerque  (DunJcirh).  Dunkirk  in  Kent,  Glos.,  and  Staffs, 
are  certainly  all  to  be  explained  in  the  same  way. 

Durnford  SSW  of  Amesbur}^. 
1086  Diarneford,  Darneford  DB  (prob.  identical);  1142 — 50 
Derneford    Sancti    Andrece    Osmund;     1158    Durneford    ib. 
c.  1163    Durneford  Macray;    1198  Derneford  Feet  of  fines 
c.  1220    Deorneford    Macray;    c.    1235    de    Derneforde    ib. 
c.  1290  Durneford  Br.  Mus.;  1308  Great  Durneford  Cinq. 
1309    Derneford    ib.;    Edw.  Ill    Deorneford    NI;    1428  M:a 
Durneford,  P:a  D.  FA;   1540  Durriesford  Dugdale. 


From  an  original  *se  dierna  {dyrna)  ford  ('the  secret  or 
hidden  ford').  The  first  element  is  rather  common  in  Engl, 
pi.  ns.  Beside  its  regular  OE  forms  dierne,  dyrne,  derne, 
there  must,  however,  have  existed  (sporadically)  the  variants 
'^dearne,  ^"deorne.  This  is  indicated  by  the  ME  dearne, 
deorne  (beside  derne),  which  are  also  represented  among  the 
ME  forms  above  [cf.  also  {'\)deornan  mor  CD  no.  570,  p.  78, 
{-f)diornaniviel  CS  no.  200].  These  unmutated  forms  are 
certainly  due  to  the  analogy  of  OE  deamunga,  deornuyiga, 
the  adv.  of  dyrne;  (for  eo  in  the  latter  form  see  Biilbring 
§   144). 

Durrington  N  of  Amesbury. 

1086  Dermtone  DB;  1178?  Durentona,  Hinedorintona  Br. 
Mus.;  1199  in  Sineduriiiton,  Hindorintona,  de  Durintoh 
Ivot.  Ch.;  c.  1200  Derinton  Osmund;  1201  de  JJerintoh  R. 
Oblat, ;  King  John  Ihirenton  Dugdale:  1215  in  Durintone 
Macray;  1228  in  Dirintoh  ^.  fin.  exc. ;  1256  Durinton  C 
Inq.;  1270  Durentona,  Hinedurintona,  Hinedurnetona  Ch.  E/.; 
1286  Kingderinto7i,  Hinderinton  ib.;  c.  1290  IJiryngtone  T. 
EccL;  1816,   1324  Durynton  FA;  1428  Dunjngton  ib. 

Originally  '"Dyringa  tun.  Whether  the  patronymic  is  formed 
from  Deora  (a  shortened  form  of  some  name  beginning 
with  Deor-)y  or  from  Dyra  (found  on  a  coin  of  the  time  of 
^thelred  II,  and  in  the  local  to  dyran  treotve  CS  no.  721),  it  is 
naturally  impossible  to  decide.  It  is,  hoAvever,  by  no  means 
impossible  that  Dyra  is  merely  a  variant  of  Deora,  formed 
from  Dyring,  the  patronymic  of  the  latter  name.  Cf.  Tud{d)a, 
'^'Tyd(d)a,  see  Ted  worth.  For  the  e-vowel  in  the  first  syllable 
see  under  Biddestone. 

How  are  we  to  explain  the  distinctive  Hin{(')-  {King-) 
in  some  of  the  ME  forms?  The  Secretary  of  Wilts.  ArchcBol. 
Soc,  Rev.  E.  H.  Goddard,  has  informed  me  that  IIin{e)- 
can  hardly  be  a  misspelling  for  Ki^tg-,  as  the  place  never 
seems  to  have  been  crown  property;  (this  is  also  unlikely 
from    the    fact    that    only    one    form  wdth  King-  has  been 


found).  It  appears,  however,  from  Rot.  Ch.  and  Ch.  E,  that 
there  were  formerly  two  manors  here,  and  it  seems  therefore 
probable  that  Hine-  stands  for  the  (ME)  adv.  In,  Inne,  Hine- 
durinton  being  the  inner  part  of  the  land  w^hich  is  encircled 
by  the  bend  of  the  r.  Avon  at  this  place.  For  the  initial 
h  see  under  Avon. 

Earl  Stoke  or  Eriestoke  SAY  of  Potterne. 

1239  Eriestol-  Ch.  E;  1316  de  Eriestoke  FA;  lS2d  ErhjsfoJc 
CI.  E;  1391  EorlestoJce  CaL  Inq. ;  1431  ErIestoJc  Br.  Mus. 
Originally  '^'cet  eorles  (or  eorla)  stocc.  OE  eorl  =  'a  man 
of  noble  rank'  (distinguished  from  a  ceorl  or  ^ordinary  free- 
man')^.    For  OE  stoc  see  under  Baverstock. 

Eastcott  SE  of  Potterne. 

1349  Estcote  Cal.  Inq.;  1500  m  Est  cote  Br.  Mus.:  1546—48 
in  Escotte  ib. 

ISTo  comments  needed. 

Eastcott  near  Swindon. 

1488  Escot  C.  Inq. 

Note.  Kerable's  identification  of  jEstcote  CD  no.  329,  yEasi- 
cotim  ib.  nos.  584,  817,  jEscote  ib.  no.  585,  and  ^eastcoten  ib.  no. 
1099  with  Eastcott,  Wilts,  (which  of  them  he  refers  to  we  are 
not  told)  must  be  incorrect.  Of  these,  Estcote  no.  329,  and 
Eastcotun  no.  817  are  obviously  identical  with  Eastcourt,  probably 
also  Eastcotun  no.  584  (see  below).  eastcote7i  no.  1099  was  situated 
in  south  Beds,  (see  GS  no.  659).  Escote  CD  no.  585  seems 
impossible  to  identify.  There  are  however  no  reasons  for  taking 
it  to  be  one  of  the  present  Eastcotts  in  Wilts. 

Eastcourt  NE  of  Malmesburv. 


901  -fde  Escote  CS  no.  586;  974  -f Eastcotun  ib.  no.  1301 
(prob.  identical);  1065  ^Eastcotun  CD  817;  1222  de  Estcote 
Macray;  (n.  d.)  Escote,  Estcote  Eeg.  Malm. 

^  The  late   OE  eorl  denoting   'a  Danish  under-king'  (see  Bjork- 
man,   Loanwords,   p.   23f>)   can  hardly  come  into  consideration  hero. 


Originally  '''*''east-cot{e),  with  a  late  substitution  of  cou?i  for 
cot.  Eastcotun  may  have  been  Avritten  under  the  influence 
of  pi.  ns  in  -tun. 

Easton  NE  of  Devizes. 

1428  Eston  FA. 

Original^  '^east-tun. 

Easton  (Royal)  E  of  PeAvsey. 

1232    Eston    Ch.  E;    1251  Eston  ib.  (prob.  identical);  1349 
Easton  E.  Pat.;  1428  Eston  ¥K. 

Jones  states  as  his  opinion  (p.  228)  that  this  place,  not 
being  specially  mentioned  in  DB,  may  have  been  a  portion 
of  the  large  manor  of  Otone  (mod.  Wootton  Eivers),  of 
which  the  King  himself  was  the  chief  tenant.  This  would 
consequenth^  explain  the  epithet  "Eoya?. 

Easton   Bassett  E  of  Shaftesbury  (Dors.). 

956  fto  Estune  CS  no.  970;  Edw.  I  in  Estone  Eot.  H. 
'Bassett'  is   an  AN  family  name  (see  Berwick  B.). 

Easton   Grey  W  of  Malmesburj^. 

1086  Estone  DB  72  c;  Edw.  1  in  Eston'  Grey  Plac.  AVarr.; 
1316  de  Estone  Grey  FA;   1323  Estone  Grey  C.  Inq. 
'Grey'  is  a  famil}"  name. 

Easton   Piercy  NW  of  Chipj)enham. 

1086    Estone    DB    70  b;    Estone    ib.   73  a    (possibl}^;    1^-^57 
Eston  C.  Inq. 

'Piercy'    is    certainly    an    AN    family   name,  the  same  as 
'Piers',  'Pierce'  (see  Bardsley). 

Eastridge  NE  of  Eamsbury. 

1221  Estrigg  Pat.  E;    1316  de  Estrygge  FA;    1438  Estrygh 
Cat.  A.  D. 

OF  ''■'east-hryc^;  kryc^  =  'ridge'  (of  a  down). 

1 1 

Eastrop  near  Highwortli. 

Hen.  Ill  or  Edw.  I  Esthrop  Br.  Mus. ;  Edw.  I  in  Estthropii 
Rot.  H:  1328  Estthrop  Br.  Mus.;  1333  Estrop  C.  Jnq.:  1335 
Estthorp  Cal.  Inq.;  1336  Hcsthorp  Rot.  Orig.;  1Sd2  Esfhorp 
Phillipps'  fines;  1402  Esthropp  FA. 

OE  '^east-porp{-])rop)  =  'farni ,  'hamlet',  throp  >  trap  is 
due  to  AN  influence:  see  Zachrisson  §  2.  Cf.  Westrop, 

Ebbesborne  Wake  on  the  r.  Ebble  near  Alvediston. 

about  670  {^)07iYhhles  human,  "^on  Ebhleshurnan  CS  no.  27; 
826  l/o  cbles  human  ib.  no.  391;  902  •\(Ef  Lhleshurnan  ib. 
no.  599  (prob.  identi(3al):  905  "fori  Ehlcs  human  ib.  no.  690; 
909  \m  Ehles  human  ib.  nos.  620,  621  (prob.  identical):  948 
\in  Ehles  human  ib.  no.  862;  {^)on  Yhlcshurnan  {^Ehleshurnan) 
ib.  no.  863;  955  ^of  ehheles  human  ib.  no.  917;  956  ^fo 
Ehhshurnan  ib.  no.  962  (prob.  identical);  957  ^cet  Ehles- 
hurnan  ib.  no.  1004  (prob.  identical);  961  -^(Et  Eblesburnan 
ib.  no.  1071  (prob.  identical);  986  -\asf  Ehleshurnan  CD  no. 
655;  about  995  ■\a't  Ehheleshurnan  ib.  no.  1290;  997  "^on 
Ehleshurnan  ib.  no.  698;  1086  Ehleshorne  DB;  1184  Ehlehurn 
Pipe  E;  1205  Ehleshume  Cal.  Rot.  Ch.;  1222  Ehelehom 
Osmund;  1224  Elehurne  Walce  Macray  (corrupt);  1243 
Ehlehurne  Pat.  R;  1250  Ewelburn,  Evelhuru  R.  fin.  exc; 
c.  1260  Eheleshurne-waJce  Macrav:  1270  Ehheleshum  WaJc 
C.  Inq.;  Edw.  I  Eivleshurnc  WaJce  Rot.  H;  early  14th  cent. 
Ehheshurn  TN;  1345  EhhleshomeswaJce  CI.  R;  1402,  1428 
Ehleshourue  {Walce)\  1428  Ehheshorn  FA. 

Originally  "^wt  Yb{h)eles  hurne  (human),  viz.  the  affluent 
of  the  East  Avon  which  is  now  called  'the  Ebble'  ^  '^'Yh(b)el 
is  a  diminutive  form  of  the  common  OE  p.  n.  Uh{h)a  [also 
occurring  in  Upton  (Lovel):  see  below].  The  development  of 
the  initial  y  into  e  cannot  possibly  be  regular,  because  OE 
'festes'  2/  develops  into  i  in  the  Wilts,  dialects.    The  e  in  the 

^  This    is    evidently   a   back-formation   from   the  original   name. 


j)resent  name  must  therefore  be  due  to  the  influence  of 
some  special  name  or  word,  possibly  that  of  the  Continental 
p.  n.  Ehulo  (see  Forssner,  p.  62),  or  perhaps  rather  of  the 
subst.  ebh.  Cf.  Nettleton  <  '^Nytfelan  {Nyttelinga)  tiln,  in  all 
probability  from  association  with  the  subst.  nettle  (see  below). 
V,  w  in  some  of  the  ME  forms  is  a  mistake  for  b,  t)h. 

The  manor  was  in  possession  of  the  famil^^  of  'Wake'  in 
the   13th  and  14th  cent.     For  this  name  see  Bardsley. 

Edington  ENE  of  Westbury. 

[878]  to  Epan  dune  AS  Chr.  [A]  (prob.  identical);  880—85 
cet  Edandune,  "fde  Ethandtune  CS  no.  553  (prob.  ident.); 
957  Edandun  ib.  nos.  999,  1347  (prob.  ident.);  968  Edyndoyi 
ib.  no.  1215:  1086  in  Edendone  (twice)  DB;  c.  1290  de 
Edyngdonc,  Edinton  T.  Eccl.;  1354  Edyngdon  CI.  E.;  1428 
Edyngdon  FA;  \ ^^2  Edyngdon  ^i\lsi\x^.\  1485,  14:9Q  Edyng- 
don C.  Inq. 

This  place  has  been  claimed  as  the  scene  of  King  Alfred's 
victory  over  the  Danes  in  878,  on  account  of  the  ancient 
camp  in  the  neighbourhood  (at  Bratton  Castle).  Among 
those  Avho  maintain  this  theory  is  Stevenson  (Asser's  Life 
of  King  Alfred,  p.  273),  where  he  also  calls  attention 
to  the  probability  that  Edand/un{e)  CS  nos.  553,  999,  1347 
is  the  same  place.  Edan  may  represent  the  gen.  of  a  p.  n. 
'■'Eda  of  unknown  origin.  For  the  change  of  d  >  d  see 
Zachrisson,  p.  97.     The  termination  was  originally  diln. 

Eisey  [aisi]  near  Cricklade. 

775 — 778  "fE.^eg,  ('})Esig  CS  no.  226  (prob.  identical);  855  (et 
■\Esege  ib.  no.  487  (prob.  identical);  1086  Aisi  DB;  1428 
Eysy  FA;   1540   Eysy  Br.  Mus. 

The  termination  was  certainly  OE  le^  (=  marshy  land), 
the  hamlet  being  situated  on  low  ground  near  the  Thames. 
For  the  etymolog}^  of  the  first  element,  it  is  impossible  to  make 
an\^  suggestion  from  the  evidence  of  the  old  forms  which 
have  been  found.     The  modern  pronunciation  must  be  due 


to  the  influence  of  Isis,  the  name  of  the  branch  of  the 
Thames  that  passes  here, 

Elcombe  SW  of  Swindon. 

1086  Elecome  DB;  1167  Ellecuha  Pipe  R:  1179  Helleciimha 
ib.  (prob.  identical);  1250  Ellecumh  Ch.  R;  1268  of  Ellecumhe 
ib.;  1286  Elecumhe  C.  Inq.;  1316  de  Elecombc  FA;  1428 
in  Elcombe  ib. 

Probably  from  '-'Elian  cumb:  Ella  is  most  probably  a 
variant  of  uElla,  both  being  shortened  forms  of  p.  ns 
beginning  with  JEI-,  El- {<  JEdel-,  Edel-y,  see  Mtiller,  p.  45. 
For  the  absence  of  b  in  the  DB  form  see  Stolze  §  34. 

Elcot  near  Marlborough. 

1402  in  Elcote  Cal.  inq.   da.;   1412  Elcof  ib. 

The  ME  forms  quoted  are  obviousl}^  insufficient  to  explain 
the  first  element.  It  may,  however,  perhaps  have  contained 
the  p.  n.  Ella,  like  Elcombe. 

Elston   on  Salisbury  Plain  SE  of  Tilshead. 

1298  Winterborne  Elston  Cal.  Inq.;  1316  Elision  FA;  1378 
Eleston  Cal.  Inq.;  1383-84  Elision  Br.  Mus.;  1428  Elyston  FA. 
Jones,  p.  227.  states  as  his  opinion  that  this  place  was 
included  in  the  'two  knights'  fees',  held,  according  to  TN 
142,  at  Orcheston  bv  Elya(s)  Giffard.  If  this  was  the  case, 
it  is  most  likely  that  the  place  is  named  after  him.  The 
distinctive  name  refers  to  the  stream  on  which  the  place 
is  situated  (see  Winterbourne  Stoke,  below). 

Enford  N  of  Amesbury. 

934  Eneclford,  to  Enedforda  CS  nos.  705,  706:  1086  Ened- 
forde  DB;  1222  de  Ejieford  ^.h.  CI;  1267  Encford  Islacraj ; 
1284  Enesford  Ch.  R;  1285,  1290  Eneford  ib.;  early  14th 
cent.  Enetford   TN:    1316  dc  Eneforde  FA;    1333  Enedford 


Phillipps'  fines;  c.  1350  Eneford,  Endford  Br.  Mus.;  137 d  End- 
ford  Phillipps'  fines;  1494  Enford  C.  Inq.;  1540  Endeford 

'The  ford  of  the  ducks'. 

Erchfont  see  Urchfont. 

Eriesloke  see  Earl  Stoke. 

Etchilhampton  [locally  called  'Ashelton"]  ESE  of  Devizes. 
1194  Echehamt,  de  Ehelhatoh  Eot.  Cur.;  1227  Hechelhamf 
CI.  R;  1279  Echelhampton  C.  Inq.;  1288  Hichilhampton 
Dugdale;  1316  Echelhampton  FA;  1321  Echelhamton,  Hechel- 
amton  C.  Inq.;  1349  Ethelhampton  Cal.  Inq.;  1464  £'cM- 
hampton  vel  Etlielliampton  ib. 

Originally  *Eccela7i  tun  or  possibly  ^'•Eccelan  hdm-tmi;  for 
the  former  derivation  cf.  Beckhampton.  ^Eccela  may  be  consi- 
dered as  a  diminutive,  probably  of  Ecca  [for  this  p.  n.  see 
Miiller,  p.  52].  [The  corresponding  dim.  of  Acca  would 
more  probably  have  been  ''-''jEccela;  cf.  jEcci.]  EtJiel-  for 
Eckel-  may  be  due  to  the  common  orthographic  confusion 
between  c  and  t  (see  under  Dauntsey).  The  transition  of 
//  >  /  in  the  modern  pronunciation  is  explained  by  Zachris- 
son,  p.  158  f.,  as  an  assimilatory  process,  which  may  easily 
have  taken  place  when  tf  was  followed  by  a  consonant; 
cf.  Wishford,  below.     For  the  initial  h  see  under  Avon. 

Note.  If  Ecesatingelone  in  DB  69  b,  70  a,  74  a.  is  identical  with 
this  place,  as  Jones  maintains,  p.  213.  the  form  in  question  must 
be  corrupt. 

Everley  NW  of  Ludgershall. 

704  •\Ehurleagh  CS  no.  108  (possibly  identical);  1172  Eueiiai 
Pipe  11;  1265  Eim-le  Pat.  II:  c.  1290  Evcrle  T.  EccL;  1296 
Evereley  Cal.  Inq.;   1316,   1428   Everlc  FA. 

Originally  ''^cet  Eoforan  {Eoforesl  ^)  Ica^e,  '■'Eofora  being  a 

^  This  form  is,  however,  less  probable  on  account  of  the  total 
absence  of  any  trace  of  the  strong  gon.  ending  in  the  old  forms. 
That  the  first  element  would  denote  Svild  boar^  (OE  eofor)  seems 
quite  excluded. 


shortened  form  of  such  names  as  Eoforhwcet,  Eofiiruulf, 
etc.     Ebur-  in  the  CS  form  is  a  latinization  of  eofor. 

Farleigh  Wick  or  Farleywick  NW  of  Bradford. 

1393  Farleghivijhe  Cat.  A.  D.;  1396  Farlewyl  Cal.  Inq. 

Originally  this  place  was  certainly  called  simply  '^lulc, 
for  which  see  Berwick  B.  Because  of  its  proximity  to 
[Monkton]  Farleigh  it  was  later  called  Farleigh  Wick;  cf. 
Bremhill  Wick,  Haydon  Wick. 

Farley  E  of  Salisbury. 

1086  Farlege  DB  73  c  (identical  according  to  Jones);  1109 
—20  Fernelega  Osmund;  1215—20  Ferlega  ib.;  1227  de 
Farleye  Macray ;  1241  Farle  Ch.  R;  c.  1244  in  Farlege  Macray ; 
1287  Farnle  C.  Inq.;  1329  Farlegh  ib. 

From  an  original  "^cet  [p<^m,  p<^re]  fearn-lea^e.  OE  fearn 
(=  fern)  is  a  common  element  in  English  pi.  ns. 

Faulstone  {folsfnl  SW  of  Salisbury. 

Edw.  I  in  Fallerstone  Rot.  H;  1328  Fallardeston(e)  C.  Inq.; 
1376  Fallardeston  R.  Pat.;  1421  Fallerdeston  Cal.  Inq. 

The  p.  n.  {*)FaUard  (*FaUerd),  which  is  contained  in 
this  pi.  n.,  seems  to  be  introduced  from  France  (on  account 
of  its  first  member,  which  can  hardly  be  Germanic).  Curi- 
ously enough,  it  has  not  been  possible  to  find  this  p.  n. 
in  its  independent  form. 

The  termination  corresponds  to  OE  tUn. 

Fifield  [faifi(j)ld]  near  Enford. 

1086  Fifhide  DB  65  c;  1285  Fifide  Ch.  R;  Edw.  I  Fifhide 
Epi  Rot.  H;  1494  Fyffhijde  C.  Inq.  [prob.  identical]. 

Originally  */!/*  Mda.  A  "hid'  (earlier  hl^id)  was  in  OE 
times  a  measure  of  land,  *^primarily  the  amount  adequate 
for  the  support  of  one  family  with  its  dependants;  at  an 
early    period    defined    as    being   as  much  land  as  could  be 

6     E.  Ekblom 


tilled  with  one  plough  in  a  year^;  NED.  The  cognate  OE 
hhvisc  is  synonymous  in  meaning.  When  hid  (Mda)  occurs 
as  a  second  element  in  pi.  ns,  it  has  as  a  rule  not  preserved 
its  form  unchanged  in  the  modern  name.  Cf.  Tilshead, 
Tinhead,  below.  The  distinctive  'Ep[iscop]i'  of  the  Rot.  H 
form  refers  to  the  Bishop  of  Winchester,  who  is  mentioned 
as  the  chief  tenant  here  in  DB. 

Fifield  Bavant  W  of  Broad  Chalk. 

1086  Fifhide  DB  70  c  [identical  according  to  Jones];  c.  1200 
Fifhide  Osmund;  1267  Fiffide  Escndemoi-  Ch.  E;  ISIG 
Fifhide  FA;  1335  Fifide  C.  Inq.;  1428  Fiffj/de,  FtjfftdeFA. 
See  preceding  name.  The  distinctive  names  are  family 
names:  'Bavant^  is  French,  'Escudemor^  [a  Norman  rendering 
of  ^Scudamor(ey]  is  stated  by  Bardsley  to  be  native, 

.    Figheldean  [faialdi{j)n]  N  of  Amesbury. 

1086  Fisgledene  DB  (partlj^  corrupt);  c.  1115  Ficheldenc, 
FiJceldena  Osmund;  1157  F f/Jceldene  Macra,y;  1222  Fichelden 
Osmund;  1226  Fighelden,  Fichelden  Phillipps'  ped.  fin.; 
1227  FiJcelden  Ch.  R;  1229  Fighelden  Pat.  R;  1246  Fichelton 
Ch.  R;  1252  Filelden  ib.;  Hen.  Ill  Ficledene  C.  Inq.;  1267 
Fyheldene,  Fycheldene  Macray;  1285  Fyhelden  C.  Inq.; 
c.  1290  Figheldon,  Figheldene  T.  Eccl.;  1310  Fighilden  Ch. 
R;  1316  Fyghelden  FA;  1320  Fygheldene  C.  Inq.;  1324 
Fyzelden  FA;  1428  Fyghelden  ib. 

Apparently  from  an  original  '-^Fy^elan  dene  (denu),  '^'Fygela 
being  probably  a  diminutive  of  Fu^,  occurring  as  the  name 
of  a  witness  in  CS  no.  91,  or  of  ^'Fu^a,  its  w^eak  equivalent, 
which  seems  to  be  contained  in  the  local  {on)  Fu^an  biorge 
CS  no.  598. 

-ch-  is  nothing  but  an  AN  spelling,  probably  due  to  some 
miscomprehension  of  the  fricative  [gh],  and  the  fact  that 
ch  in  early  ME  records  has  the  double  value  of  tf  and  Jc 
in    this    position    accounts    for    the    ^-spellings    also  in  the 


present  case,  z  for  g  in  one  of  the  FA  forms  is  due  to 
the  orthographic  similarity  between  these  letters  in  the 
mss.     Figliel-  in  the  mod.  name  is  an  archaic  spelling. 

Fisherton  Anger  in  the  borough  of  Salisbury. 

1086  Fiscartone  DB  (prob.  identical);  c.  1138  de  Fissertone 
Osmund  (or  =  F.  Delamere);  1232  Fisherton  Ch.  B  (or  = 
F.  Delamere);  1272  Fisserton  C.  Inq. ;  1279  Fisshelfon  ib. ; 
1285  Fissereton  ib. ;  1308  Fiserton,  Fyssehertone  ib.;  1309 
Fysscherton,  Fysherstone  ib. ;  1440  FissJierton  AucJier  Br. 
Mus. ;   1487  Fisherton  Aucher  C.  Inq. 

From  "^fiscera  tun.  sh  in  Fisherton,  if  not  a  mere  spelling 
for  sh  (see  under  Steeple  Ashton),  is  due  to  a  native  form 
with  X,  hs  (see  Bjorkman,  Loanwords,  p.  137)  I  for  r  in 
Fisshelton  may  be  a  substitution  due  to  OFrench  soundlaws 
(see  Zachrisson,  p.  142  ff.). 

""Anger^  seems  to  be  a  corruption  of  'Auchei'  (^Auger^),  an 
AN  family  which  has  been  in  procession  of  the  manor  here 
(see  TN  pp.  140,  156). 

Fisherton  Delamere  on  the  r.  Wiley. 

1086  Fisertone  DB;  Edw.  I  in  Fishertone  Eot.  H;  c.  1290 
de  Fissertone  T.  Eccl. ;  1318  Fissherton  C.  Inq.;  1324  i'm- 
cherton  ib. ;  1491  Fissherton  Dalamare  ib. 

See  preceding  name.     *^Delamere'  is  an  AN  family  name. 

Fittleton  SSE  of  Enford. 

1086  Viteletone  DB;  1219  in  Feteltoh  E.  fin.  exc. ;  1252 
Fitelton  Ch.  R;  1275  Fitelton  C.  Inq.;  1279  Fhytelton  ib. ; 
1284  Fytelton,  Fetelton  ib.;  1300  Fiteleton  Cal.  Inq.;  1302 
Fitilton  CI.  R;  1316  Fydelton  FA;  1330  Fidelton  C.  Inq.; 
1464  Fetelton  Cal.  Inq. 

Originally  "^Fitelan  tiin,  Fitela  being  a  p.  n.  occurring  in 
Beowulf  and  also  in  the  local  fitelan  sladces  crundcel  CS 
no.  705  (A.  D.  934),  which  place  was  evidenily  situated  in 
the    immediate    neighbourhood    of    Fittleton.      Its    strong 


equivalent  Fitel  is  on  record  in  DB,  Ellis,  Intr.  II  p.  Ill, 
also  rendered  as  Vitel  ib.,  p.  249,  the  latter  being  the  name 
of  the  tenant  of  the  present  place  and  of  Fisterherie  (Fos- 
bury?)  in  the  time  of  Edw.  the  Confessor^.  For  further  in- 
formation on  this  p.  n.  see  Binz,  p.  191  f.  As  to  e  for  i 
in  some  of  the  ME  forms  see  Biddestone.  For  the  inter- 
change between  intervocalic  d  and  t  in  pi.  ns  see  Zachris- 
son,  Stud,  i  mod.  sprakvet.  V,  p.  8  f. 

Flamston  SW  of  Wilton. 

Edw.  I  in  Flamherstone  Rot.  H;  1354  Flamhardeston  Phil- 
lipps'  fines;  1428  Flaniberdeston  FA;  1440  J^Iamherdeston 
Br.  Mus. ;  1625  Flamston  Br.  Mus. 

Flamhard  is  a  p.  n.  of  Continental  provenience;  see  Forss- 
ner,  p.  89. 

Fonthill  Bishop  E  of  Hindon. 
Fonthill  Qifford  SE  of  Hindon. 

900  {•\)Fimteal  {■\)FuntgeaU  CS  no.  590;  901—924  {^)Fun- 
tial  ib.  no.  591;  Eadgar  {■\)Funteal  CD  no.  610  (possibly 
identical);  984  {■\)funtal  CD  no.  641;  1086  Fontel  DB  65  c 
(=  F.  Bishop);  Fontel  ib.  72  c  (=  F.  Gilford);  1199  in  Fun- 
tell  Eot.  Cur.;  1243  Funtell  Pat.  R;  1257  Funtel  Ch.  R; 
1284  Funtele  ib. ;  c.  1290  Fontel  [Giffard]  Br.  Mus.;  Fontel 
Epi  T.  EccL;  1316  Fountell  Qifford  FA;  1402,  1428  Fim- 
tel(l)  Episcopi  ib. ;   1428  Funtell  Giffard  ib. 

The  first  element  may  have  been  OE  font,  '-'fiint  (=  foun- 
tain, well),  but  the  second  part  of  the  name  (which  shows 
a  great  similarity  to  that  of  Cke^^hiU)  it  seems  impossible 
to  identify.  Moreover,  the  forms  quoted  from  CS  and  CD 
are    not    much    to    base    a  theorj^  upon,  as  the  charters  in 

^  That  this  Vitel  should  have  given  the  place  its  name,  as 
is  supposed  by  Jones,  p.  238,  is,  however,  by  no  means  certain, 
as  the  local  fitelan  sladces  crundcel,  quoted  above,  proves  that 
a  person  called  Fitela  lived  here  more  than  a  cent,  before  the 
time  of  Edw.   the  Conf. 


which  they  occur  are  obviously  ME  falsifications.  It  is 
quite  clear,  however,  that  -hill  in  the  modern  name  (just 
as  in  the  case  of  Bremhill  and  CherJiill)  is  a  late  develop- 
ment, due  to  popular  etymology  (referring  to  the  hill  close 
to  Fonthill  Gifford  on  which  stands  the  sole  relic  of  the 
old  Fonthill  abbey). 

The  distinctive  'Bishop'  refers  to  the  Bishop  of  Winchester, 
who  obtained  lands  here  in  900  (OS  590).  'Giffard'  is  an 
AN  family  name.  In  DB  Berenger  Gifard  is  mentioned  as 
chief  tenant  at  Fontel. 

Fosbury  S  of  Shalbourne. 

1086  Fostesherge  DB;  Fistesherie  ib.  [prob.  identical  but 
corrupt];  1199  Forsteshia  Kot.  Ch.;  1230 — 40  Forstebery, 
Forstehere  Macray;  1270  Forsteshijria  Ch.  E-;  1281  Forstes- 
heria  Br.  Mus.;  1308  Forstehury,  Westeforstehury  C.  Inq.; 
1332  Westforstebiiriih.;  1428  Fostebury  FA;  148Q  Fostebiiry 
C  Inq. 

From  an  original  '-^cet  Forstan  byrig  (with  an  early  sub- 
stitution of  strong  for  weak  gen.  ending),  "^Forsta  being, 
no  doubt,  a  pet-formation  of  some  p.  n.  beginning  with 
Forst-.  Although  no  such  names  can  be  traced,  there  is 
little  doubt  that  one  or  more  of  them  may  have  existed. 
Whether  Frostulf,  found  on  a  coin  of  the  time  of  ^thelred  II, 
is  native  or  not,  it  is  impossible  to  decide.  Bjorkman, 
Pers.  I,  p.  44,  gives  this  name  as  probably  Scand.,  on 
account  of  the  first  member  being  Frost-  and  not  Forst-. 
It  is  to  be  noticed,  however,  that  there  existed  also  a  native 
OE  frost  as  a  variant  of  forst  (although  the  latter  is  the 
more  common).  As  far  as  the  present  pi.  n.  is  concerned, 
it  can  hardly  contain  the  Scand.  p.  n.  (if  this  really  existed), 
as  all  the  ME  forms  have  Forst-, 

Fovant  [fovdfit]  ESS  of  Hindon. 

901  ■fFobbanfuntan,  -fFobbefunte  OS  no.  588;  9M  po  Fobbe- 
funten,    '\cet    Fobbafuntan  CD  no.  687;    1086  Febefonte  DB 


(partly  corrupt);  1194  de  Fohhefone  liot.  Cur.;  1267  de 
Fofunte  Macray;  1280  in  Fovunte  CI.  R;  Edw.  I  de  Fofunte 
Rot  H;  c.  1290  de  Foffimte  T.  EccL;  1316  de  Fovente  FA; 
1329  Foffonte  C.  Inq.;   1428  Fovent  FA. 

Originally  *Fohban  font  (funt)  [^'cet  Fobhan  fontiim  {fun- 
tum)}.  OE  font  (*fimt)  =  'fountain',  'welF.  The  first  element 
is  certainly  a  weak  p.  n.  '^'Fohhct,  occurring  also  in  Fobhan 
tvylle  in  south  Wilts.,  mentioned  among  the  boundaries  of 
Duntim  (=  Downton)  in  CS  nos.  27,  391,  690,  863.  and 
CD  no.  698.  Note  also  the  local  Fobbing,  Sussex  (1320 
Fobhingge  C.  Inq.,  Fobbing  TN,  Edw.  Ill  Fobhynge  Nl)  and 
also  Fobing  (Beds.)  Pipe  R.  A.  D.  1164,  which  evidently 
consist  of  the  patronymic  of  the  same  p.  n. 

The  development  into  Fovant  is  clear.  Tiie  contraction 
by  which  b  was  lost  seems  to  have  taken  place  in  the  13th 
cent.;  as  an  immediate  result  of  this  contraction,  the  medial 
/'  become  voiced.  Later  on  the  last  syllable  was  weakened. 
The  OE  forms  in  -funtan,  -funten  probabh'  represent  the 
OE  dat.  plur. 

Foxham  NE  of  Chippenham. 

1065  Foxham  CD  no.  817;  1219  Foxam,  Foxham  Macray; 
1496  Foxham  C.  Inq. 

OE  '^foxia)  ham.  Alexander's  suggestion  that  Foxcott, 
Oxfs.  may  have  meant  'a  cot  Avhose  owner  trapped  foxes' 
seems  very  plausible,  and  the  same  explanation  may  be 
offered  for  the  present  name  as  well. 

Foxley  SW  of  Malmesbury. 

1086  Foxelege  DB;  1227  Foxlegh  Gh.  R;  c.  1290  Foxle  T. 
EccL;  1428  Foxele  FA. 

Originally  '-^a't  fox{a)  lea^e. 

Fresdon  [frezd'n]  E  of  Highworth. 

1262  Fersedon  C.  Inq.;  1307  Fershesdon  ib.;  1335  Freshe- 
don  Phillipps'  fines;  1343  Freshesden  ib.;  1359  Fershesdon- 
ib.;  1360  Fersehedon  Cal.   Inq.;  1376  Fressheton  CI.  11. 


The  most  plausible  origin  of  this  name  that  can  be  given 
is  *fyrs-dmi  [OE  fyrs  =  furze].  If  this  is  correct,  it  appears, 
however,  that  the  first  element  has  been  confused  with  the 
ME  adj.  fe7's{c)h,  fres{c^h  [NE  'fresh']  \  in  which  case  the 
e-vowel  in  the  modern  form  is  also  to  be  regarded  as  a 
result  of  this  confusion.  The  possibility  of  OE  fersc  having 
formed  part  of  the  original  name  seems  quite  excluded. 

Froxfield  W  of  Hungerford  (Berks.). 

803—805  -^Forscan  feld  OS  no.  824;  1303  Froxfeid  Ch.  R; 
early  14th  cent,  ill  FrockesfekV  TN;  1428  Froxfeid,  Froxe- 
feld  FA. 

Originally  ''''froxa  (for sea)  feld  [OE  frox,  forsc  =  'frog']. 
For  scan  in  the  quoted  OE  form  is  certainly  a  mistake  for 
Forsc(a),  due  to  the  influence  of  the  preceding  Mildanhald 
in  the  OE  charter.     Cf.  cet  Froxa  felda  OS  no.  1174. 

Fugglestone  St.   Peter  \faidst'yi\  near  Wilton. 

1208  de  Fuglestoh  Rot.  Ch. ;  1280  Foleston,  Fuleston,  Foleton 
01.  R;  c.  1290  de  Foghelestone  T.  EccL;  1296  Fouleston 
Pat.  R;  1376  Foiigheleston  Gal.  Inq.;  1428  FoghelestonFA; 
1453  Foivleston  Gal.  Inq.;    1540  Foideston  Dugdale. 

This  name  is  to  be  derived  from  ''-'Fu^ules  tun,  Fugul 
here  being  certainly  the  p.  n.  recorded  in  LVD;  see 
Miiller,  p.  40  f.  The  modern  spelling  is  obviously  archaic, 
but  the  pronunciation  shows  regular  development.  Gf. 
Eoulston,  W.  R.  of  Yorks,  Moorman,  p.  75.  'St.  Peter  is 
the  name  of  a  church. 

[Furzley  SE  of  Downton. 

This  name  is  inserted  only  because  of  Kemble's  identi- 
fication of  ■\fyrslege  GD  no.  774,  -fFuresleage  no.  1052,  and 

^  The  fact  that  s  and  s(c)h  (sc)  were  not  kept  apart  in  AN 
orthography  makes  it  easy  to  understand  how  a  confusion  of 
this  kind  might  take  place. 


Fyrsleage  nos.  1117,  1140  with  this  place;  there  seems, 
however,  to  be  no  reason  for  this  statement,  if  we  examine 
the  charters  in  question.  The  modern  form,  however,  in- 
dicates an  original  "^cet  fyrs-lea^e  (OE  fyrs  =  furze).] 

Fyfield  [faifi(j)ld]  W  of  Marlborough. 

c.  1290  Fifhide  T.  EccL;    1300  Fyfhide  Ch.  E  (prob.  iden- 
tical): 1428  Fyfyde  FA;  1559  Fyfelde  Br.  Mus. 
See  Fifield,  above. 

Garsdon  E  of  Malmesbury. 

701  ■\Gersdune  CD  no.  48;  1086  Gardone  DB;  c.  1291  Geres- 
don,  Geresindon  T.  Eccl.  (prob.  identical);  early  14th  cent. 
Gareston  TN;  1428  Garesden  FA;  (n.  d.)  de  Garesdone,  de  la 
Garstone  Eeg.  Malm. 

Apparently  from  OE  '-'■'gcers-{grces-)dun  [gcers,  grces  =  grass]. 
For  the  loss  of  the  final  .s*  in  the  first  element  of  the  DB 
form  see  Gorton,  above.  The  intrusive  -in  {-ing)  in  one  of 
the  T.  Eccl.  forms,  a  not  uncommon  phenomenon  in  Engl, 
pi.  nomenclature,  is  due  to  the  influence  of  pi.  ns  in  which 
the  first  element  is  a  patronymic  [cf.  e.  g.  Sherrington  < 
OE  *scearn-tiln,  below]. 

Gastard  8W  of  Chippenham. 

1167  Gatestert{a)  Pipe  R;  1112  de  Gatesterd  ihr,  1177,  1178 
Gateherst  (twice)  ib.;  1179,  1184  Gatestert  ib.;  1230,  1233 
Gatestert  Ch.  E,. 

In  all  probability  from  an  original  '^gdt{a)-hyrst  [OE  gat  = 
shegoat;  hyrst  =  hurst,  grove].  The  first  stage  in  the  develop- 
ment of  this  name  seems  to  have  been  early  ME  ^Gateshijrst 
(through  insertion  of  an  unetymological  .9  in  the  composi- 
tion-joint). After  syncope  of  the  medial  e  in  this  form, 
metathesis  of  t  and  s  has  taken  place,  the  immediate  result 
of  whicli  was  '''Gasterst  (the  second  element  weakened)  and 


then  '"^Gastert  (the  loss  of  s  being  due  to  dissimilation  with 
the  preceding  st).  '^Gastert  has  then  given  mod,  Gastard 
by  further  weakening  of  the  second  syllable.  ME  Gatestert 
must  be  explained  as  a  contamination  of  the  ME  variants 
*Gates-herst  and  ^Ga-stert\  (cf.  Bincknoll,  above). 

Goatacre  SW  of  Wootton  Bassett. 

1348  Gatacre  Cal.  Inq. ;  1408  Gotagre  ib.  (both  prob.  iden- 

This  name  corresponds  to  OE  "^'gat-cecer,  the  sense  of  which 
is  obvious. 

Gomeldon  SE  of  Amesbury. 

Edw.  I  in  Gomeledon  E,ot.  H;  1311  ^e  Gomeldone,  Gonieledon 
C.  Inq.;  1326  Gomeldon  ib. ;  1658  GumUeton  Br.  Mus. 

The  first  element  obviously  contains  the  p.  n.  Gamal, 
Gamel,  or  perhaps  rather  its  weak  form  "'Gamela  (found  in 
the  latinized  form  Gamelo)  ^  The  p.  n.  is  of  Scand.  origin ; 
see  Bjorkman,  Pers.  I,  p.  45  f.  The  termination  was  OE 
dun.  For  the  inorganic  h  in  the  Br.  Mus.  form  see  Horn 
§   158,  2. 

Gore  NW  of  Tilshead. 

1086  Gave  DB;  Edw.  I  Gares  Rot.  H;  1369  La  Gore 
Cal.  Inq. 

OE  gar.  This  name  refers  to  one  of  those  ridges  of  the 
downs  which  extend  in  parallel  lines  here  and  have  much 
the  same  shape  as  spears. 

Grafton,  East  and  West  near  Burbage. 

1086  Graftone  DB;  in  Gj-astmie  (three  times)  ib.;  1130 
Graftona  H.  Pipe  R;  1222  Graftuh  R.  L.  01. ;  1225  Grafton 
Pat.  R;  1230—40  de  Graftone  Macray;  1308  Westgraftone 
0.  Inq.;  1324  Graffton  FA. 

^  The  OE  (poetical)  adj.  gamel,  gamol  can  naturally  not  come 
into  consideration  here  (cf.  Aldbourne). 


Either  from  OE  '•^graf-tun  {graf  =  grove)  or  from  '^grcef-tun 
{grwf  =  grave,  trench),  the  latter  alternative  being,  however, 
not  quite  so  probable  on  account  of  the  rocky  nature  of 
the  soil.  The  common  orthographic  confusion  between  / 
and  s  is  due  to  the  similarity  of  these  letters. 

Greenhill  near  Wootton  Bassett. 

1408  Gre7iehuU  Cal.  Inq. 
No  comments  necessary. 

Grims  Ditch  ancient  earthwork  near  Salisbury. 

956  grimes  die  CS  nos.  934,  985;  1045  Grimes  die  CD  no. 
778;  1887  de  Orymesdiche  Cal.  Inq. 

Grim  is  a  p.  n.  of  Scand.  origin;  see  Bjorkman,  Pers.  1, 
p.  50.  Cf.  Grims  Dijke,  Oxfs.  (also  called  ^Devil's  Dyke*), 
which  has  obviously  the  same  origin  {Dyke  representing 
the  OE  dat.  form);  see  Alexander,  PI.  Ns  of  Oxfs.,  p.  117  ^ 

Grimstead,   East  and  West  SE  of  Salisbury. 

1086  Gremestede  DB;  Gramestede  (twice)  ib.  [prob.  identical]; 
1160  Grenested  Pipe  li;  1162  Gremesteda  ib.;  1167  Grenesteda 
ib.;  1200  Gr im estude  H.  Ohlsit.;  1227  GrymstedM3iCY3,j:  1248 
Grimisted,  de  Grimstede  ib.;  1245  de  Grymstede  ib.;  1258 
de  Grimmested'  R.  fin.  exc. ;  1269  Estgremsted  C.  Inq. : 
1281  Est  Grymstede  ib.;  1287  Grimsted,  Grymesteden,  West- 
grymstedeii,  Estgrymstede  ib.;  13th  cent,  de  Grenestede,  Gnm- 
stede,  Grinestede  hiher  Yuh.;  1314:  Istgrimstede  C.  Inq. ;  1402 
de  W estgrymstede  FA. 

^  The  suggestion  that  Grims  Vitch  (Dyke)  might  contain  OE 
grtma  (*^spectre^),  the  name  consequently  being  equivalent  to 
'witches'  work^  (see  Gruest,  p.  149,  and  Alexander,  loc.  cit.),  seems 
most  improbable.  The  alternative  'Devil's^  (Dyke),  which  has 
suggested  this  explanation,  may  be  due  simply  to  old  traditions 
about  the  origin  of  the  earthwork  in  question.  The  explanation 
of  the  element  Grim-  offered  b}^  Guest,  p.  150  f.,  seems  too 
improbable  to   be   discussed. 


Originally  '^'Grimes  stede  [OE  stede  =  place].  For  Grim 
see  preceding  name.  Gren-  (Grin-)  for  Grim-  in  some  of  the 
ME  forms  must  be  a  pure  mistake,  perhaps  due  to  associa- 
tion with  the  two  Grinsteads  in  Sussex,  for  which  see 
Koberts,  PI.  Ns  of  Sussex,  p.  74.  For  e  as  representing 
OE  i  in  DB  see  Stolze  §  9.  a  in  Gramstede  DB  and  the 
final  -n  in  two  of  the  C.  Inq.  forms  are  clearly  errors. 

Qrittenham  W  of  Wootton  Bassett. 

850  -\ad  GruteJiam[es  suth  hele]  OS  no.  458  [prob.  identical]  ^; 
1065  •\Grutenham  CD  no.  817;  c.  1290  Gretenhm  T.  Eccl.; 
[n.  d.]  Grutenham,  Gruteham,  Grucenham  Heg.  Malm. 

The  origin  of  this  name  is  not  clear.  If,  however,  the 
first  element  represents  a  p.  n.,  this  was  probably  the 
same  as  is  contained  in  Gi^ittleton;  see  below.  The  termina- 
tion seems  to  have  been  OE  ham. 

Grittleton  NW  of  Chippenham. 

940  -^at  Grutelingtone  CS  no.  750;  1086  Gretelmtone  DB; 
1216  Gretelintoii  R.  L.  CI.;  Hen.  Ill  Greteling{e)ton  Abbr. 
Plac;  1324  Gritelyngton  FA;  1330  Gritehjiigton  Ch.  E: 
1337  Gruttelyngton  V\\i\\\\)])^'  fines;  1338  Grutelijngfon  CI.  R; 
Edw.  Ill  Grutlyngtonl^l\  1428  Gretelyngton,  GrythyngtonYK. 
The  first  element  obviously  contains  the  patronymic  of 
a  diminutive  p.  n.  No  suitable  p.  n.  is,  however,  on  record; 
[the  Scand.  Gyrd  (for  which  see  Bjorkman,  Pers.  I)  can 
hardly  come  into  consideration,  as  the  old  forms  of  the 
pi.  n.  have  in  every  case  r  followed  by  the  vowel]. 
We  may  therefore  be  allowed  to  construct  a  p.  n.  '^'Grut(a) 
or  '^Gryt{a),  which  may  be  concealed  in  this  pi.  n.  Grittleton 
may  thus  be  derived  from  ''^Grytelinga  tun.  Cf.  '\{on)Gretindune 
CD  no.  730,  which  seems  to  contain  the  same  p.  n.  On 
the  ME  forms  with  e  for  i  (y)  in  the  first  sj'llable  see  under 

^  The    corresponding    charter    in    CD    has    Grete-    instead  of 


Groundwell  N  of  Swindon. 

1086  Cirendewelle  DB;  early  14tli  cent.  Grundeivell,  Grun- 
dewlle  TN;  1329  Grimdeswell  C.  Inq.;  14:28  Grundeivell  ¥A. 
The  termination  is  WS  iviell(e),  wijll{e).  For  the  first  ele- 
ment, it  is,  no  doubt,  the  same  as  that  which  occurs  in  (ow) 
grinde  ivylles  lace  CS  no.  1093,  grindan  hroc  ib.  no.  544, 
and  -fgrynden  broJc  ib.  no.  1187  (the  tw^o  latter  representing 
one  and  the  same  brook  in  Hants.).  The  most  probable 
explanation  of  the  element  in  question  is  to  assume,  w^ith 
Middendorff  p.  61,  an  OE  ''"grmde  f.  (or  *grmda  m.?)  =  'gravel', 
'shingle',  cognate  with  grindan,  on  the  ground  of  Frisian 
grind,  grint  (Middle  Fris.  grinde,  grint)^.  The  development 
into  mod.  Ground-  is  to  be  explained  as  due  to  popular 
etymology,  caused  by  the  AN  spelling  Grand-  (u  repre- 
senting an  older  y).  Gi.  Roundway,  below,  the  development 
of  which  seems  to  be  quite  analogous.  For  the  e  in  the 
DB  form  see  Stolze,  p.   17. 

Groveley  (Wood)  NW  of  Wilton. 

940  -fgrafan  lea  CS  no.  757;  1086  (foresta  de)  Gravelinges 
DB;  1160  Graueling  Pipe  E;  1161  Grauel  ih.;  1167  Grauelea 
ib.;  1178?  Graueling  Br.  Mus.;  1199  Graveling  Eot.  Ch.; 
1222  Graveling  Pat.  E;  1229  Gravening  CI.  R;  1270  Grave- 
ling Ch.  E;  1280  Gravelinges  C.  Inq.;  1282  Gravelingges 
ib.;  1283  Groveley  ib.;  1288  Gravele  ib.;  1289  GraveUnge 
ib.;  13th  cent,  de  Gi^aveninge  hihev  mh.;  ISIQ  Grovle  Gl.lR.: 
1319  Graveley  C.  Inq.;  1341  Grovle  Cal.  Inq.;  1402  Grovc- 
legh  FA. 

The  CS  form  above  does  not  allow  us  to  assume  OE 
graf  (=  'grove')  as  the  first  element  of  the  original  name. 
But  the  name  is  easily  accounted  for,  if  we  assume  an 
original    "^'grcefan    leak    fcef  grcefan  leage),  the  first  element 

^  related    by    gradation  to  Scand.   and  German,   grand  (of  the 
same  meaning). 


being  the  gen.  sing,  of  OE  "^gr^fa  (or  ^gr^fei.'^)  =' brushwood* 
(onty  recorded  in  oblique  cases).  This  word,  which  is 
cognate  with  OE  graf  (NE  'grove'),  exists  at  the  present 
day  as  greave  in  the  dialects;  see  NED,  EDD,  and  Crawf. 
Ch.  p.  61  f.  The  OE  form  assumed  could  certainly  not 
have  given  Oroveley  by  regular  development,  but  what  is 
more  natural  than  a  confusion  in  ME  of  the  genuine  first 
element  and  graf,  which  had  much  the  same  meaning? 
grafan  in  the  CS  form  is  therefore  to  be  considered  as  a 
ME  falsification  of  the  OE  form.  PI.  ns  which  seem  to 
contain  the  same  first  element  are  Graveney,  Kent,  occur- 
ring as  "f Grafan  ma  {^Grafon  cea)  in  several  OE  charters, 
and  Gravenhurst,  Beds.,  found  as  Gravenhurst  Liber  rub., 
Gravenhurste  Cal.  Inq.  (this  explanation  of  the  latter  name 
being  more  likely  than  the  one  given  by  Skeat,  PI.  Ns  of 
Beds.  p.  33). 

The  form  Gravelmg(es),  which  in  the  ME  period  seems 
to  have  been  in  frequent  use  beside  the  genuine  name,  must 
be  due  to  the  influence  of  Gravelines,  the  French  (Flemish) 
seaport  on  the  Channel  (occurring  in  1229  as  Graveling 
CI.  E/,  1241  Graveninges,  Graveling'  ib.).  For  the  transition 
of  -ling  >  -ning  see  Zachrisson,  p.  140. 

Hacklestone  SSE  of  Enford. 

1286  Aclestou  CI.  R;  1367  HacJcelston  Cal.  Inq.;  1403 
HaJcleston  Phillipps'  fines;   1490  Hacleston  C.  Inq. 

Originally  '-'Hacceles  (Hceecelesl)  tun,  or  perhaps  *Acceles 
tun,  the  first  element  being  a  diminutive  formation  of  the 
p.  n.  Hacca,  or  Acca.  The  alternative  '-^Acceles  tun  has 
been  suggested  for  two  reasons:  1)  the  fact  that  initial 
A  is  a  rather  unstable  sound  in  the  dialect  of  this  district, 
2)  the  adjoining  Haxton  (see  below),  which  may  have 
influenced  the  present  name. 

Ham  S  of  Hungerford  (Berks.). 
93L    cdt   Hamme,    ■\of  Hame  CS  nos.  677,  678;    1086  Rame 


DB;  1284,  1300  Hammc  Cb.  1^;  1316,  1428  de  Hammr 

OE  ham{m)  {=  'enclosed  meadow');   see   under  Bremilham. 

Hamptworth  ESE  of  Downton. 

1269  Hampteivorthe  C.  Inq. ;  1281  Ham/pteivorth  ib. ;  1428 
Hampteiuorth  FA. 

Probably  from  "^'ham-weorp,  wbich  may  have  meant  muck 
the  same  as  hmi-stede,  ham-tun,  viz.  'homestead'.  An  original 
^cet  (pmn)  hean  tveorde  is  excluded  in  the  present  case  be- 
cause of  the  low  situation  of  the  place.  Cf.  Bathampton. 
The  intrusive  -pt-  must  be  due  to  the  influence  of  the 
common  Hampton. 

Hanging  Langford  NW  of  Wilton. 

1337  Honyngelangeford  Rot.  Orig. ;  1428  Hangijng  Langeford 
FA;  c.  1540  Hanging  Langforde  Leland. 

The  distinctive  'Hanging'  refers  to  the  situation  of  the 
place  on  a  steep  hill-side  (below  Grovely  AYood);  cf.  Hang- 
indehluntesdon  TN  (see  Blunsdon).  One  of  the  Langefords  in 
DB  may  also  refer  to  this  place,  according  to  Jones  that 
on  fol.   68  d. 

For  further  information  see  Steeple  Langford. 

Hankerton  NE  of  Malmesbury. 

680  -^de  Hanehjntone  CS  no.  59  A;  901  '\Hanekijntone 
{^Hanecintun)  ib.  no.  589;  1065  -^Honehynton  CD  no.  817; 
1222  Hanekinton  Macray;  c.  1290  HaneJcenton  T.  Eccl. ; 
Edw.  Ill  de  HaneJcyngtone  NX;  1367  HanJcynton  CI.  R; 
1428  Hanketon  FA;  1491  HanJcerton  C.  Inq.;  1540  Hankenton 

Originally  '■Hanecan  (Hanecingal)  tun,  '"^Haneca  being  a 
diminutive  of  Hana,  a  p.  n.  which  occurs  on  a  coin  of 
King  Eadmund  I,  and  also  in  the  local  hanan  ivelle  CS  no. 
588.  The  present  diminutive  is  on  record  in  Hanecan 
hamme    CS    nos.    821,    822,    and   another  dim.  form  of  the 


same  name  is  Honoc  in  LVD;  see  Mliller,  p.  73.  The  late 
change  of  n  >  r  seems  to  be  due  to  dissimilation  with  the 
■n  of  the  first  syllable. 

Hannington  WNW  of  Highworth. 

1086  Hanindone  DB;  1226  Hanendon  Pat.  R;  1273,  1282, 
1290  Hanedon  C.  Inq. ;  1316  Hanyngdon  FA;  1324,  1428 
Ranyndon  ib. ;  1428  Est  Hanynton  ib. 

From  '■''Haninga  dun;  (the  place  is  situated  on  a  down). 
For  Rana  see  preceding  name. 

Hardenhuish  [locally  called  'Harnisli  ]  NW  of  Chippenham. 

1086  Hardenehus  DB;  1177  Hardehiivis  Pipe  R;  1257 
Herdenehywys  C.  Inq.;  1290  of  Hardene  Hyivich  ib.;  1301 
Hardenhitvish  Ch.  R;  1310  Hardenhiwisch  C.  Inq.;  1316  de 
Hardnyshe  FA;  1428  in  Harden  Hyivysshe  ib. ;  1490  Harden- 
hysli  C.  Inq. 

Originally  ''^'Heardan  (or  possibly  '^' Hear  ding  a)  hlivisc, 
'^'Hearda  being  a  pet-formation  of  some  p.  n.  beginning 
with  Heard-.  OE  huvisc  is  cognate  with  h'ld  Qii^id)  and 
was  used  as  a  synonym  of  this  word;  see  Fifield. 

Note.  Bircli's  identification  of  -fheregeardingc  hiioisc  CS  no- 
469  with  Hardenhuish,  Wilts.,  cannot  possibly  be  correct,  for, 
apart  from  the  fact  that  there  is  nothing  in  the  charter  indicat- 
ing this  identity,  it  is  to  be  noticed  that  even  the  oldest  of 
the  ME  forms  have  a  in  the  first  syllable. 

Harnham,   East  and  West  adjoining  Sahsbur}?-. 

G  1115  Harnham  Osmund;  Hen.  Ill  Estharnham  Br.  Mus.; 
1272  Harham,  Est  Harnham,  West  H.  C.  Inq.;  Harham 
Fine  R. ;  1273  Harham  C.  Inq.;  1277  Westharham  Fine 
R.;  c.  1290  Harenh'm  T.  Eccl.;  1300  Westharnam  Pat.  R; 
1316  West  Harneham  FA. 

This  name  may  represent  an  original  "^Haran  ham  as 
well  as  ^Odt  (pd^m)  haran  hdme;  OE  hdr  (hdra)  certainly 
occurs  in  a  number  of  OE  pi.  ns  (as  appears  from  Kemble's 


index);  it  seems,  however,  as  though  some  of  these  pi.  ns, 
on  account  of  their  second  element,  more  probably  contained 
a  p.  n.  ^Hara,  used  as  a  nick-name  (=  'the  grey  one^) ;  such 
names  are  e.  g.  haran  dene  CD  no.  133  and  haran  lea  ib. 
no.  507. 

Hartham   NW  of  Corsham. 

1086  Heortham  (three  times),  Hertham  (three  times)  DB  (all 
these    manors    were    probably  at  Hartham);    1181  Hertham 
Pipe  E;  1272  Hertham  C.  Inq. ;  Edw.  I  Hartham  Br.  Mus.; 
1316,  1428  Hertham  FA;  1486  Hertham  C.  Inq. 
From  Vieor{o)t{a)  ham;  OE  Aeor(o)^  = 'hart^,  "stag". 

Hatch  S  of  Hindon. 

1199  de  Hache  Eot.  Cur.;  1282  in  Hacche  Ch.  E;  1287  de 
Hachche  C.  Inq.;  1316  de  Hacche  FA;  1325  Weshacch  C. 
Inq.;  1331  Westhach  Phillipps'  fines;  1378—84  E.  Hatch 
Br.  Mus. 

This  name  answers  to  OE  hcec(c)  =  'hatch^,  'gate',  'wicket'. 

Haxton  (Down)  W  of  Ludgershall. 

1172  Hakenestan  Pipe  E;  1212  de  HaJcenestoh  E.  L.  CI.; 
1239  Haheneston  Ch.  E;  13th  cent.  Hacnestone  Liber  rub.; 
1330  Hakenestone  C.  Inq.;  1365  HaJcenestone  Br.  Mus.;  1454 
Hahjston  Cat.  A.  D.  (prob.  identical). 

The  first  element  contains  the  Scand.  p.  n.  Hacun,  Hacon, 
for  which  see  Bjorkman,  Pers.  I,  p.  60.  The  termination 
was  probably  OE  tun. 

Haydon  NW  of  Swindon. 

c.  1290  de  Heydone  T.  Eccl. ;  1379  Haidon  Br.  Mus. ;  1428 
in  Haydone  FA. 

Undoubtedly  from  OE  '^seo  heage  dun  (the  high  down). 
As  to  heage  for  hea  see  Sievers  §  295,  note  I.  Cf.  Heywood 
and  Highway,   below. 


Note.  In  this  connection  attention  may  be  drawn  to  two 
Lanes,  pi.  ns:  Healey  and  Heywood,  which  seem  unsatisfactorily 
accounted  for  by  Wyld.  The  former  of  these  names  seems 
to  be  a  regular  development  from  an  orig.  '^'(Bt  (pa^m,  p^re) 
hean  lea^e,  in  which  case  its  ME  forms  beginning  with  Hay- 
(quoted  in  Wyld)  are  easily  explained  from  hea^an,  used  as  a 
variant  of  hean  in  the  original  name.  As  for  Heywood,  it  is 
certainly  derived  from  OE  *se  heaga  ivudu. 

Haydon  Wick  near  Haydon. 

1299  Haydonwylc  Cal.  Inq. ;  1394  in  Hay  clone  uijJce  Br. 
Mrs.;  1428  in  HnydonestvyTce  FA. 

The  original  name  of  this  place  must  have  been  simply 
'hvtc,  '^cet  {pcem)  luice,  for  which  see  Berwick  B.  The  dis- 
tinctive name  refers  to  the  neighbourino-  Haydon.  Cf. 
Bremhill  Wick,  Farleigh  Wick. 

Hazelbury  N  of  Bradford(-on-Avon). 

1001  Ifctt  Eeselberi  CD  no.  706;  1086  (dc)  Haseberie  DB 
(four  times,  all  probably  referring  to  Hazelbury);  early 
14th  cent,  in  HeseWe  TN;  1316  Haselbury  FA;  1324 
Hasselhury  ib. 

Originally  '^cet  [pd;re]  hcesel-hyrig.  Medial  I  in  pi.  ns  is 
occasionally  omitted  in  DB;  see  Stolze  S  30. 

Hazeldon  near  Tisburv. 

Edw.  I  in  Haselden  Eot.  H;  1378—84  Hazeldon  Br.  Mus.; 
1428  Haselden  FA;  1493  Hasilden  C.  Inq. 

Originally  ''^hcesel-dun  (the  place  being  situated  on  the 
slope  of  a  down). 

Heddington  N  of  Devizes. 

1086  Edintone  DB;  1237  Hedlintim  Ch.  E  (corrupt);  1316 
Hedington  FA;  1320  Hedynton  Pat.  E;  1428  Hedyndon, 
Edyngton  FA. 

Most  probably  from  "^Hedinga  tUyi,  the  first  element  being 
a    patronymic    of    '"^Hod,    or    "^Hoda.     This    p.  n.,   which  is 

7     E.  Ekblom 


found  in  several  OE  local  names,  e.  g.  Hades  ac  CS  no. 
1282,  hodan  hlcew  ib.  899,  of  hodes  hlceive  ib.  687,  hodes 
mcere  ib.  1199,  hodan  mere  CD  no.  767,  is  probably  the  same 
as  occurs  in  the  mythological  [Rohiri]  Hood^.  Cf.  Hodson, 
below.     For  the  omission  of  //  see  under  Avon. 

Hewish  see  Huish. 

Heytesbury  SE  of  Warminster. 

1086  Hestrehe  DB  (the  termination  corrupt);  1109 — 11  Heh- 
tredeberia  Macray;  c.  1115  Hegtredehiri  Osmund;  1158  Hec- 
tredeMri  ib.;  1159  hehtrebia  Pipe  K;  1165 — 70  de  Hegtrede- 
herie  Osmund;  1179  Hictredeheria  Pipe  E;;  1183  Hichtredes- 
beri,  Heichtredeberi  ib.;  1194  Hegtretesbuf,  de  Hettredebrie, 
Hectretesbri  P-ot.  Cur.;  c.  1200  de  Hechtredeburie  Osmund; 
King  John  Hecdredhere  Br.  Mus.;  1214  Hecthredebif  Pot. 
Ch.;  1226  HechgtrideUrye  Cal.  Pot.  Ch.;  1227  Heitrebir 
CI.  P.;  1269  Hegtredeburi  C.  Inq. ;  c.  1290  Heghtredehury 
T.  EccL;  1324  Hezestrehiuiy),  Hegstredehur{y)  FA;  1328 
Westheghtre{de)bury,  Istheghtredehiiry  C.  Inq.;  1S29  Hextred- 
bury  R.  Pat,;  1383  Heyghtredbury  ib.;  1384  Heitredbury 
Cal.  Rot.  Ch.:  1402  Heyghtresbury  FA;  1428  Heghtre{de)s- 
bury  ib.;  1533  Heightredesbury,  Heytysbury  Br.  Mus.;  c.  1540 
Heitredesbury  Leland. 

The  first  element  can  hardly  contain  anything  but  the 
Scand.  p.  n.  '^Estrid  (occurring  in  DB  as  Estred,  in 
Exon  DB  as  Estrit:  see  Bjorkman,  Pers.  I,  p.  38).  In 
connection  with  the  discussion  of  Brigmerston,  attention 
has  been  drawn  to  the  fact  that  the  combination  st  mav 
sometimes  be  an  AN  renderintr  of  OE  lit.  In  the  lio^ht  of 
this,  the  development  of  the  present  name  is  easily  explained 
as  due  to  an  early  substitution  of  the  genuine  st  in  the  first 
element  by  ht  (glit),  by  which  the  first  syllable  must  have 
coincided  Avith  the  ME  adj.  hegh  (liey).    The  few  ME  forms 

^  In  some  OE  pL  ns  *Hod  (^Hoda)  may  actually  refer  to  this 
mythological  person  himself,  as  is  assumed  by  Bradley  (Academy, 
Sept.   15,   1888)  and   Binz.   p.   222,   foot-note. 


which    reflect    the    original    first    syllable    are,    as   is  seen, 
those  of  DB  1  and  FA  (A.  D.  1324). 
The  termination  answers  to  OE  hyri^. 

lieywood  N  of  Westbury. 

1224  Heiivode  Phillipps'  ped.  fin.;  c.  1460  Heywode  Cal.  Rot. 
Ch.;  1496  Heivode  C.  Inq. 

From  an  OE  ^se  liea^a  wudu.  Cf.  Haydon.  e  for  ei  in 
Heivode  may  be  an  AN  spelling;  see  Zachrisson,  Stud,  i 
mod.  sprakvet.   V,  p.   16. 

Highway  NE  of  Calne. 

1086  Hkvi  (prob.  identical).  Hiivei  DB;  1214  hveia  E.  Oblat. 
(latinized);  1219  Hyivey,  (^e  F^(;e?/e  Macray ;  12.20  Hiiveia  i^d.\ 
1232  Hyiueie  Ch.  E;  Edw.  I  in  Hey  way  e,  Hywey  Plac.  Warr.; 
1316  de  Hijweye  FA. 

Originally  ''^se  hea  tveg,  or  rather  "^'cet  {pcem)  hean  we^e. 
Unlike  Haydon  and  Heywood,  the  first  element  has  in  this 
case  been  influenced  by  the  independent  adj. 


1086  de  Wide  DB;  1091  Wortha  Osmund;  1158  Wrda  ib.; 
1194  de  Wurpe  Rot.  Cur.;  1231  Hey  worth  CI.  R;  Hauteivorfh 
Pat.  R;  1257  Alta  W^horth  Ch.  R;  1262  W{o)rthe  C.  Inq.; 
1276  Worth  Br.  Mus.;  1289  Hautewrth  Pat.  R;  1316  de 
Heyworthe  FA;  1352  Heyyheivorth  Phillipps'  fines;  1428 
Hyworth  FA. 

The  original  name  was  obviously  simply  *iveorp  {ivorp, 
tviirp,  ivyrp)),  for  which  see  Atworth.  For  d  in  Wrde, 
Wrda  see  Zachrisson,  p.  115  f.  In  two  of  the  ME  forms 
the  first  element  has  been  replaced  by  the  corresponding 
French  adj.  Jiaiit. 

^  The    initial    h  is  here  quite  unimportant,   h  in  this  position 
being  a  most  unstable  element  in  the  DB  forms;  see  Stolze  §  48. 


Hilcott  WS\^^  of  Pewsej. 

1194  in  Hulcote  Eot.  Cur.  (prob.  identical);  1816.  1428  dc 
Hulcote  FA. 

OE  '■'hyU-cot{e),  the  meaning  of  which  is  clear. 

Hill  Deverill  S  of  Warminster. 

1086  Dcvrel  DB' [see  the  foot-note  under  Brixton  D.] ;  1130 
—35  Hull  Osmund;  1206  Deverhill  U.  h.  CI:  1220  Hidl 
Osmund;  1316  de  Hidle  FA;  1324  Hulledevcrel  \h.:  c.  1330 
in  Hulle  Dcuerel  Br.  Mus.;   1428  Hidl  FA. 

OE  hyll.     For  the  distinctive  Deverill  see  Brixton  D. 

Hilmarton  NNE  of  Calne. 

1086  Ad/ielmertone  (identical  according  to  Jones),  Helmcrin- 
tone,  in  Hehnertune  DB;  c.  1290  Helmerton  T.  EccL;  1300 
Helmerton  Ch.  E. ;  1428  Helmerton  FA;  1576  Hilmerton 
Br.  Mus. 

From  '■'Hehnceres  [or  possibly  '■'Helmceringa]  tHu:  '•Helmcer 
(<  ^Helm-mcdre)  is  not  recorded  in  OE,  but  occurs  in  DB  as 
Helmerus  [Ellis,  Intr.  II,  p.  335].  If  Jones  is  correct  in  his 
identification  of  Adhehnertone  [DB  71  d.],  which  it  has  been 
impossible  for  me  to  settle,  the  initial  Ad-  must  naturally 
be  the  Lat.  preposition,  which  has  been  taken  as  belonging 
to  the  name.  For  the  raisini>-  of  e  >  i  in  ME  see  Mors- 
bach  §  109. 

Hilperton  NE  of  Trowbridge. 

1086  Helprintone,  in  Helperitune,  in  Helperintone  DB;  1205 
de  Helpringetoh  E.  Oblat.;  1285  Hiil/prington  Cal.  Inq. : 
1288  Hilprynton  Dugdale;  c.  1290  de  Hulpruggtone  T.  Eccl. ; 
1316  de  Hulpryntone  FA;  1405  Hulpryngton  Br.  Mus.; 
1415  Hylprington  Cal.  Inq.;  1423  Hulpcrton  ib.;  1428 
Hulpurton,  Hidprynggton  FA. 

The  original  first  element  is  made  up  of  the  patronymic 
of  a  p.  n.  beginning  with  Help-  and  with  a  second  member 
beginning    with   r.     Helpric  is   the  only  p.  n.  of  this  kind 


which  is  on  record  in  OE,  but  the  compound  '''Helpred  may 
also  have  existed  (cf .  the  Continental  Hilprad,  Helfrat :  see 
Forstemann,  Pers.).  Hilperton  is  therefore  to  be  derived 
from  '^Helpricinga  (or  "^'Helpredinga)  tmi,  the  development 
being  exactly  analogous  to  that  of  Alderton  (NW  of  Gritt- 
leton)  and  Cholderton  (see  above). 

The  w-vowel  of  the  first  syllable  in  some  of  the  ME 
forms  stands  for  a  secondary  ij  (<  i).  [For  the  change  of  c  >  i 
see  Morsbach  §  109.] 


Hindon  NE  of  Shaftesbury  (Dors.). 

1284  Hyneton,  Hynedon  Ch.  E;  Edw.  I  in  Hynedon  Rot.  H; 
1332  Hynedon  Ch.  E;  1401  Ryndon  Br.  Mus.;  \A02  Hyndon. 

The  etymology  of  this  name  is  not  quite  clear.  The  first 
element  seems,  however,  to  be  the  same  as  in  Hinton, 
Suffolk  (DB  Hinetuna),  which  name  is  derived  by  Skeat 
from  OE  "^'hlna  tun,  lima  (fugna)  being  the  gen.  of  hltvan 
(M^cin),  a  plur.  subst.  =  "^members  of  a  family  or  household', 
'domestics'  (cognate  with  Jii^id,  lud). 

The  original  termination  was  in  that  case  probably  tiin^ 
as  dun  would  hardly  give  a  likely  meaning. 

Hinton,  Great  ENE  of  Trowbridge. 

1316  Henton  FA;  1485  Henton  C.  Inq. :  1491  Henton 
Br.  Mus. 

This  name  is  certainly  of  the  same  origin  as  (Broad) 
Hinton.  It  is  a  small  village  situated  on  the  edge  of  a 

Hinton,  Little   E  of  Swindon. 

854  '\Hynyton,  ^Hyneton,  '(HyHctiinc  CS  nos.  477,  478; 
Hen.  Ill  de  Hyneton  Eot.  H;  1285  Hyneton  Ch.  E  [prob. 
identical];  c.  1290  Hyneton  T.  Eccl. ;  1300  Hyneton  Ch.  E; 
1316  de  Hynetone  FA;  1428  Hyneton  ib. 

Probably  from  ''■'hrna  tun ;  see  Hindon,  above. 


Hippenscombe  NE  of  Ludgershall. 

1231  HeppingcumV  CI.  R;  1258  Huppingescumhe  C.  Inq.; 
1291  Hip]^ingescumhe  CI.  ii;  1382  HuppT/ngescoumbe  C. 
Inq.;  1371  Ippingescomhe  Cal.  Inq.;  1411  Huppingeombe 
R.  Pat. 

Originally  "^^ Hipping es  cumh,  IIip)ping  being  the  patronymic 
of  Heppo  i^'Heppal),  recorded  in  DB  [Ellis,  Intr.  I,  p.  433], 
which  Forssner,  p.  147,  takes  to  be  a  Continental-Germanic 
name.  The  t'-vowel  in  the  1231  form  may  be  due  to  the 
influence  of  the  independent  j)-  ^-  The  u  in  the  first 
syllable  of  some  forms  stand  for  v/. 

Hodson  SSE  of  Swindon. 

1222  Hodestoii  Phillipps'  ped.  fin.;  1312  Hodeston  Cal.  inq. 
da.;  1314  Hodeston  Pat.  E;  1482  Hoddesdon  Cal.  Inq.; 
1495  Hodeston  C.  Inq. 

Originally  '^Hodes  (Hodanl)  tun.  For  '''Hdd{a)  see  under 
Heddington.  The  loss  of  t  is  due  to  weakened  stress;  cf. 
Rabson,  below,  Benson,  Chilson,  Oxfs.  [see  Alexander,  pp. 
51,  75],  Winson,  Glos.  [see  Baddele}^,  p.   165]. 

Holt  N  of  Trowbridge. 

1252  Holt  Ch.  R;  1316  de  Holte  FA. 
OE  holt  =  'wood*,  'copse'. 

Homington  SW  of  Salisbury. 

956  ■\hu7nming  tun  CS  no.  962  [prob.  identical];  1086  Hu- 
mitone  DB ;  1130  Humintona  H.  Pipe  R;  1167  Huminton 
Pipe  R;  c.  1194  Himintoii,  Hum Iton  Macr ay ;  i  199  Hiimiton 
Feet  of  fines;  1206  de  Huminton  R.  L.  Pat.;  1284  Homijnton 
Pat.  R;  c.  1290  de  Hometonc  T.  Eccl.;  Edw.  I  in  Humeton 
Rot.  H;   1316  Homynton  FA. 

Originally  '■Huminga  tun,  the  patronymic  being  formed 
from  '-Huma,  no  doubt  a  pet-formation  of  the  OE  [).  ns 
(^')Humbcald  or  Himbeorht  (<  Hun-  by  assimilation  of  n  to 


b;  for  this  element  see  Miiller,  p.  114).  The  occurrence 
of  -?'-  for  -ing-  is  discussed  by  Zachrisson,  Stud,  i  mod. 
sprakvet.  Y,  p.  11. 

Hook  [hnk]  NNE  of  Wootton  Bassett. 

1310  Ic  Hoke  Cat.  A.  D.;  1327  Le  Houk  C.  Inq. 
From  OE  hoc,  denoting  Vomer',  'nook'  ^ 

Horningsham  SW  of  Warminster. 
1086  Horningesham,  Horningham  DB;  1150 — 60,  1224:  Hor- 
ningesham    Osmund;    1237    Hornigesham    CI.  R;    1316  Hor- 
ningesham FA. 

Originally  '•■Hormnges  ham  [or  possibly  ]iam(m)],  Horning 
being  a  patronymic  of  the  p.  n.  Horn. 

Horton  NE  of  Devizes. 

1203  Horton  Cal.  Kot.  Ch.;  1220  de  Hortone  Macray  [prob. 
identical];   1428  Horton  FA. 

This  name  probably  represents  an  OE  Vior{u)-tun;  OE 
'^horn,  gen.  horives,  =  'dirt',  'mud'  (not  recorded  in  the  nom. 
as  an  independent  word).  (For  the  vowel  in  the  composi- 
tion-joint see  Bergsten,  p.  33  f.)  The  village  has  a  low 
situation  on  one  of  the  head-waters  of  the  East  Avon.  Cf. 
Horton  [Kirkhy],  Kent,  which  occurs  as  ^Horatun  (for  -^Horu- 
tun)  in  CS  no.  538. 

Huish  or  Hewish  [huij,  juif]  SW  of  Marlborough. 

1086  Itvis  DB;  Hen.  Ill  Iwys  Cinq.;  IMd  Hytvyssh  Clli; 
1428  Hmcyssh  FA;  1494  Hivijs  Cat.  A.  D. 

OE  hnvisc,  for  which  see  Harden  Huish.  For  the  un- 
stability  of  initial  //  see  under  Avon. 

^  There  is  certainly  no  topographical  evidence  at  the  present 
day  to  support  this  meaning,  but  as  the  southern  border  of  the 
ancient  Braden  forest  extended  to  this  region,  it  may  have 
given  rise  to  the  name   because  of  its  shape  at  this  point. 


Hullavington  [locally  called  'Hnllington]  SW  of  Mal- 

1086  Hunlavintone  DB;  1170?  Huntlavinton  Osmund;  1194 
Rimdlcmint  Rot.  Cur.;  1202  Rundlavington  Phillipps'  ped. 
fin.;  c.  1290  Hundlavinton  T.  EccL;  early  14tli  cent.  Unde- 
lavinton  TN;  1328  Hunlcwintona  Ch.  E;  1330—35  Hulla- 
vington  Br.  Mus.;  1428  Hundlavyugton  FA;  Queen  Elizabeth 
HuUavington,  alias  Hidlouton  Cat.  A.  D. 

Originally  ''•'Hunlafinga  tun,  Hunlaf  being  a  common  OE 
]).  n.  In  ME,  assimilation  of  n  and  I  has  taken  place.  For 
the  inorganic  d  (t)  between  n  and  I  cf.  Horn  §  185.  Hullo- 
iifon  (Cat.  A.  D.)  seems  to  be  a  corrupt  rendering  of  the 
contracted  form. 

Hurdcott  W  of  Wilton. 

1086  Hardicote  DB  [prob.  identical];  1175  de  Herdicote  Pipe II. 
[or  possibly  =  Hurdcott  NE  of  Salisbury];  1269  Hurdecote 
C.  Inq.;  1283  Herdecote  Ch.  11;  1288  Hurdccotte  C.  Inq.; 
1315  Herdecote  Ch.  E;  1316  de  Herdcote  FA;  1402,  1428 
in  Hurdecote  FA. 

Either  from  '■■■heord-cof{e)  or  from  '^heorda  cot(e);  OE  lieord 
=  'flock',  heorde  (a  variant  of  liierdeY  =  'herdsman\  For  ME 
it  as  a  representative  of  OE  eo  see  under  Bemerton.  The 
n  in  the  mod.  form,  on  the  other  hand,  is,  no  doubt,  of 
another  kind,  being  due  to  the  levelling  of  ur  and  cr  in 
pronunciation.  The  rr-voAvel  in  the  DB  form  must  be  an 
error,  occasioned  b}^  the  fact  that  a  and  c  before  r  oft(m 
occurred  ])romiscuously  in  DB,  viz.  when  representing  OE 
ea  (<  a  before  r  +  cons,  by  breaking). 

Hurdcott  NE  of  Salisbury. 

1086  in  Herdicote  DB;   1324  Hurdecote  Pat.    R. 
See  preceding  name. 

^  heorde    (for    hierdc)    may   naturally  be  duo  to  the  inflnence 
of  heord;  but  see  also    Hiilbring   §  186  Anm. 


Hyde  X  of  Swindon. 

1495  Hyde  C.  Inq. 

OE  Jiid,  for  which  see  Fifield. 

Id  mist  on  SE  of  Amesbury. 
947    -^at  Idemesto7ie    CS  no.  829;    970  ■^Idemeston{e)  ib.  no. 
1259  [both  probably  identical];  c.   1280  Ydemiston  Osmund; 
c.  1290  Idcmeston  T.  EccL;    1316  de  Idemistone  FA;    1330 
Idemeston  Ch.  R;  1428  Id{e)meston  FA. 

Originally  ^Idhelmes  tun.  A  p.  n.  '•'Idhelin  is  certainly 
not  on  record,  but,  judging  from  the  present  pi.  n.,  its 
existence  seems  indisputable.  Another  OE  p.  n.  with  Id- 
as  the  first  member  was  "^IdJiild  (fem.)  occurring  in  the  local 
idhildc  stem  CS  no.  1114.  There  also  existed  a  male  hypo- 
coristic  Ida.  Contrary  to  what  was  apparently  the  case  in 
OE,  the  element  Id-  {It-)  is  very  common  in  OGerman 
p.  ns,  where  it  had  a  great  capacit}^  for  composition  (see 
Forstemann,  Pers.).  For  its  etymology  see  Forssner,  p.  161. 
In  the  pi.  n.  under  notice,  the  loss  of  I  must  have  taken 
place  at  the  same  time  as  the  syncope  of  the  preceding  e\ 
(the  occurrence  of  this  e  in  the  ME  spellings  does  not  imply 
its  occurrence  in  the  local  pronunciation). 

Imber  on  Salisburv  Plain. 
1086  Imemerie  DB;   1146  Immemera  Macray;  1164  Irmnema 
PipeH;  c.  1200  Ymmer,  Himmemere  Osmund:  1238  Ymmere 
Macray;    c.  1290    Imere  T.  EccL;    1316  Immere  FA;    1324 
Ynmer  ib.;   1330  Immere  C.  Inq.;   1428  I{n)mere  FA. 

Originally  '-^'Imman  m^re  [OE  metre,  ^emcere  =  boundary, 
landmark].  The  first  element  contains  the  male  OE  p.  n. 
Imma,  for  which  see  Forssner,  p.  69.  For  the  insertion  of  b 
see  Horn  §  158.  The  termination  in  the  DB  form  must 
be  an  error  due  to  the  influence  of  the  common  -herie. 


Ingelburne  [ipgolhorn]  adjoining  Mnlmesbury. 

[late  7tli  cent.]  '\Ingelhourne{-castel)  Enlogium;  956  •\Inge1- 
bourne  {aqua),  (Yngleburne)  CS  no.  921;  [n.  d.]  {ad  aguam 
de)  IngeUhourne  Reg.  Malm. 

This  name  denoted  originally  the  more  northerly  of  the 
two  head-waters  of  the  Lower  Avon,  which  rises  near  Tet- 
bury  [see  Akerman's  map  in  Archa^ol.  XXXVII].  The  first 
element  is  difficult  to  identify.  If  it  was  a  p.  n.,  this 
was  probably  the  native  OE  Ingdd,  for  which  see  Miiller, 
pp.  100,  126.  The  Continental  Ingel-  (see  Forssner,  p.  70  f.) 
can,  on  the  other  hand,  not  possibly  come  into  considera- 
tion here  because  of  the  early  date  at  which  the  name 
occurs.  The  original  form  may  consequent!}^  have  been 
*In^eldes  hurn{a)  [hurjie].  In  its  position  between  I  and  h, 
the  old  2:en.  .v  was  not  likelv  to  be  retained  verv  lone:. 
Of.  Inglesham,   beloAV. 

Inglesham  [iyjgdls{h)dni\  N  of  High  worth. 

1177  Ynglesluim  Pipe  E;  1202  Inglesham  II.  L.Pat.;  1225 
Englesharn  Pat.  R;  1240  Inglesham,  Inglisham  Macray;  1262, 
1273,  1282  Inglesham  C.  Inq.;  c.  1290  Ingelshm,  T.  Eccl.; 
1428  Inglesham  FA;  1542  Englesham  Cat.  A.  D. 

From  ''^'In^eldes  (or  possibly  ''■'Ingelan)  ham,  ''■'Ingela  being 
a  hypocoristic  form  of  some  p.  n.  beginning  with  Ingcl- 
(see    Forssner,  p.   70  f.).     For    In^eld  see  preceding  name. 

Ivychurch  SE  of  Salisburj^ 

1109 — 20  Monasterlum  Hederosum  Osmund;  1155 — 60  de 
Monasterio  Oderoso  [mistake  for  Edcroso]  ib.;  1214  Monasterii 
Hedcrosi  (gen.)  Macray;  1242  Ivi church,  Ivechhch  Pat.  R: 
1246  Ivychurch  Ch.  R;  1249  Ivychurch  C.  Inq.;  1492  Ive 
Church,  Ivy-church  ib. 
The   meaning  is  obvious. 

Keevil   E  of  Trowbridoe. 
1086  Chivele  DI>;   1205   Kivelia  Rot.  Ch.;  c.   1210  de  Chivele 
Macray;    1217  dr  Kivele  Pat.  R;   1239  Kyvel  e  gh  CIH;   1272 


Cufiy  C.  Inq.;  1275  Cyvel  Pat.  E;  1283  of  Kivele,  Kyveleygh 
C.  Inq.;  1316  de  Kyvde  FA;  1318  of  Keyvck  Pat.  R;  1326 
Cuvele  C.  Inq.;  1337  Kyvcleije  Phillipps' fines;  1^2  Keivele 
Cal.  Inq.;   1402  dc  Kywele  FA;   1556  Kevill  Br,  Mus. 

This  name  can  hardly  be  Germanic.  The  terminations 
-legh,  -J eye,  -ly  in  some  of  the  ME  forms  are  certainly  only 
orthographic,  for  there  seem  to  be  no  cases  of  OE  -leah 
(-lea^e)  in  pi.  ns  having  been  weakened  simply  to  /  in  the 
mod.  form. 

Kellaways  NE  of  Chippenham. 

1226  Cailleivay  Phillipps'  ped.  fin.:  (n.  d.)  de  Kayleweye 
E-eg.  Malm. 

This  is  certainly  a  Celtic  name;  see  Ca/l{a)way,  Calloway, 

Kennett,  East  and  West  on  the  r.  Kennet.  W  of  Mail- 

939  on  cy}teta}(,  {juxta  Bipani)  Khiete  CS  no.  734;  944  on 
Cynetan  ib.  no.  802;  956  on  Cynetan  ib.  no.  942;  972 
Cynetan  ib.  no.  1285;  984  Cynete,  on  Cynetan  CD  no.  1282; 
[1006]  cet  Cynetan  AS  Chr.  [E],  cet  Cynestan  [D];  1050  Cynete, 
on  Cynetan  CD  no.  792;  1086  {in)  Chenete  (three  times)  DB; 
1214  in  Kenet  Uot.  Ch.;  c.  1290  de  Kenete  T.  Eccl. ;  1300 
EsJcenet  CI.  E;  Edw.  Ill  Ktjnete,  de  Estkenete  NI;  1380 
Eshenet  Cal.  Inq.;  1428  in  Est  Kenete  FA. 

All  the  forms  previous  to  Domesday  refer  to  the  Eiver 
Kennet  (the  forms  from  CS  nos.  802,  942,  CD  nos.  792, 
1282,  and  that  of  the  AS  Chr.  having  reference  to  the 
Berks,  part  of  the  river).  Kennet{t)  is  a  pre-Germanic 
name,  certainly  identical  ^\\i\\  ^Cnnetio  (Cunetione)^  mentioned 
in  Antoninus'  Itinerarj',  which  place  has  been  located  in 
the  vicinity  of  Marlborough.  Kinthury,  Berks.,  takes  its 
name  from  the  same  river.  Note  also  Kennet,  Cambs.,  and 
Kentford,    Suffolk,    for  which  see  Skeat,  Pi.  Ns  of  Cambs., 


p.  71,  and  PI.  Ns  of  Suffolk,  p.  38.  Kennet  occurs  also  in 
Scotch  pi.  ns. 

Kingston   Deverill  NE  of  Mere. 

1086  Devrel  DB^;  1-205  in  King  es  clever  ell  E.  L.  CI. ;  1240 
Wrelquinsten  Ch.  E  (corrupt);  c.  1290  de  Kyngestone  T.  EccL: 
1318  Kyngeston  Deverel  C.  Inq.;   1-128  Kyngeston  FA. 

Kingston  answers  to  OE  '^'eyningo^  fun.  For  Deverill  see 
Brixton  I). 

Kington   Langley  N  of  Chippenham. 

1086  Lcmghelei  DB  [prob.  identical]. 

Originally  ''Uef  pmii  (pcere)  langan  lea^c.  The  distinctive 
name  refers  to  the  adjoining  Kington   St.  Michael. 

Kington  St.  Michael  NNW   of  Chippenham. 

1174—91  Chinctuna  Br.  Mus.;  1242  Kington  Ch.  li;  1280 
Kyngton,  Kingtone  ib. ;  c.  1290  Kington  Michis  T.  EccL : 
Edw.  I  hi  Kynton  Micliis  Plac.  Warr. ;  1320  Muuchene- 
Icyngton  CI.  B;   1428  Kyngton  (Michaelis)  FA. 

The  complete  absence  of  au}^  trace  of  a  gen.  -s  in  the 
present  name  indicates  an  original  '"■'rync-tun,  rather  than 
'■■cyninges  twn ;  OE  cyne  (=  royal)  being  an  element  only  used 
in  compounds.  Cf.  Kingston,  West,  beloAv.  Munchene-  in 
the  CI.  E-.  form  (<  OE  myneeenii  =  'a  nun')  refers  to  an  ancient 
Benedictine  nunnery  Jiere  (see  Heath,  }).  172).  Cf.  Mo7ih  n- 
(leverel  (=  Monl^ton  Deverill)  Monhen  Farlegh  (==  Monkton 
Farleigh),  below,  and  also  Minchcn  lane,  M.  meadow  etc., 
(juoted  in  NED  (under  'minchen'). 

'^St.  Michael'  refers  to  the  church. 

Note.  Birch's  identification  of  yKingtone  CS  no.  704  vvitli 
tliis  place  seems  to  be  a  mere  conjecture,  for  nothing  indicates 
even  that   it  was  situated  in   Wilts. 

^    See  the   foot-note  uiulei-  Brixton  D. 


Kington,   West  NW  of  Corsliam. 

1086  Chintone  DB  [or  possibly  =  Kington  St.  Michael];  1175 
(■hingfona  Macraj:  1233  m  WestUngfoii  \l.  fin.  exc.;  1235 
1240  Wcsflhifon  Ch.  R.;  12Wj  West  Kyngton  G.Ivlo^.:  Edw.  I 
de  Wrs{t)]:'niio}f  Plac.  Warr. ;  c.  1290  WestUnton  T.  EccL; 
1316  Wed  Kyn{g)ton  FA;  Vill  Westhynton  Vsit.'R;  1322 
Wesihynl-foti  C.  Inq.:  1324  Kynton  FA:  1468  Westhynington 
Cal.  Inq. 

In  all  probability  from  '^'cyne-tun:  see  Kington  St.  Michael. 

Knighton  near  Broad  Chalk. 

1200  Knichteton  Phillipps'  ped.  fin.;  13tli  cent.  Kiiyghttefon 
Cat.  A.  D.;  1314  Knyghteton  C.  Inq.;  1418  Knyghtcston  Cat. 
A.  D. ;  1428  Knyghteton  FA. 

This  name  corresponds  to  an  OE  '■'cneohta  [cni{e)/ita]  tun. 

Knook  [nnlA  near  Hevtesbiirv. 

1086  Cunuche  (twice)  DB;  1226  Cmich  Osmund;  1249 
Knucli  Br.  Mus. ;  Hen.  Ill  Kniik  C.  Inq.;  1314  CnouJc  ib.; 
1316  Knoid-  FA;  1327  Knoulce  C.  Inq.;  1402  KnotvJce  Cal. 
Inq.;   1428  in  KnoJce  FA. 

This  name  is  of  Celtic  origin;  see  Conock.    The  leng-thened 
vowel  is  certainly  due  to  the  analogy  of  JiooJc,  nooJc. 

Knoyle,   East  or  Bishop's  Knoyle  SW  of  Hindon. 
„  West  oi-  Little  Knoyle  W  of  Hindon. 

948,  956  Cnugel  CS  nos.  870,  956  [possibly  identical];  984 
cnugel  CD  no.  641  (prob.  ident.);  1086  Chenvel  (twice)  DB 
(corrupt);  1227  StepelhioeV  CLE  [=  Knoyle,  East]:  1284 
Knoel  Ch.  E,;  c.  1290  Cnoel  Magna  [=  K.,  East],  Cnoel 
hodierne  [=  K.,  West]  T.  Eccl. ;  1299  CnoiveU  Cal.  Inq.;  1316 
Knowell  FA;  1331  Knouicell  Magna  Pat.  E;  1402  Cnoel 
Episcopi  ib. ;  1428  Knoyel,  Cnoel  Magna,  Knoel  Parva,  Cnoel 
Hodiern  {Hodyerne)  ib.;  1458  Knoijll  Episcopi  Cal.  Inq.;  1491 
Est  Knoell  C.  Inq.;   1493  in  Weste  Knoyle  ib. 


This  is  undoubtedly  a  pre-Euglish  name,  and  therefore 
its  explanation  must  be  left  to  Celtic  scholars.  One  may 
mention,  however,  that  the  g  in  (hmgd  (CS  and  CD),  if 
the  identification  is  correct,  must  have  represented  a 
palatal  fricative  [Cnugel  consequently  stands  ''^Cnui(^)d]: 
cf.  the  Celtic  p.  n.  Boia  (Boiga),  which  also  occurs  as  Boga 
(see  Forssner,  p.  51).  The  form  Kno7vell  must  be  merely 
orthographic,  probably  due  to  the  fact  that  the  scribe  was 
unfamiliar  with  the  non-Germanic  combination  oi  (og). 
Association  with  the  subst.  tvell  may  perhaps  also  have 
aided  in  causing  the  spelling  in  question. 

For  the  distinctive  names  see  Jones,  p.  205. 

Lackham  S  of  Chippenham. 

1086  Lacliam  DB;  1252  Lacham  Br.  Mus. ;  Edw.  I  Lackam 
ib.;  loOO  Lahliam  Ch.  E;  1430  Lackham  Br.  Mus. 

Originally  Hac{u)-hdm'^\  OE  lacu  f.= 'small  stream",  here 
referring  to  the  little  affluent  of  the  Lower  Avon  at  this 
place.  As  a  dialectal  w^ord  lake  is  still  used  in  the  sense 
of  'brook',  'stream'  in  several  of  the  southern  counties. 

Lacock  or  Laycock  [both  pronounced  leikok]  S  of  Chip- 

845  (■\)Lacok  CS  no.  470;  1086  Lacock,  Lacoc  DB;  1166 
Lachocha  (latinized)  Pipe  E,;  1167  Ljachoca  ib.;  c.  1210 
Lacoq  Br.  Mus.;  1230  Lacok  Osmund;  1239  iacoc  Macray; 
c.  1250?  Lackoc  ib.;  1260  Lacock  Ch.  E;  1316  de  La- 
cocke  FA. 

This  name  is  obviously  quite  the  same  as  Laycock,  Yorks., 
whicli,  according  to  Goodall,  consists  of  OE  lacu  +  the  diminu- 
tive suffix  oc  (uc)  [consequently  OE  Hacoc],  and  there  seems 
indeed  to  be  no  objection  to  this  statement.  Cf.  hillock, 
whicli  is  a  quite  analogous  formation.  The  present  village 
is  situated  on  a  little  tributary  of  the  Lower  Avon  near 
the  point  where  it  joins  this  river-. 

For  ay  in  the  modern  form  cf.   Braydon,  above. 

^  For  the  vowel  in  the   composition-joint  see  Bergsten,  p.    34. 


Lake  SW  of  Amesbuiy. 

1324  LaU  Pat.  E. 

This  name  refers  to  the  East  Avon,  on  the  upper  portion 
of  which  the  place  is  situated. 

Landford  ESE  of  Down  ton. 

1086  Langeford  DB  74  b,  ib.  72  a?;  Hen.  Ill  Laneford  Rot. 
H;  .c.  1290  Laneford,  Langeford  T.  EccL;  1316  Laneford 
FA;  1327  Laneford  Phillipps'  fines;   1428  Laneford  FA. 

Originally  ^'se  langa  ford.  On  account  of  the  AN  ren- 
dering of  ng  by  n,  the  sense  of  the  first  element  must 
have  been  forgotten,  and  it  was  later  confused  wuth  land, 
which  has  persisted  in  the  mod.  name.  It  is  interesting 
to  notice  Langford^  Notts.,  which  has  developed  in  quite 
the  opposite  way  (from  land-  >  lang-)\  see  Mutschmann, 
p.  80. 

Note.  Stevenson's  suggestion,  p.  319  f.,  that  Leonaford  men- 
tioned in  Asser's  Life  of  King  Alfred,  may  be  identical  with 
Landford,  Wilts,  is  obviously  quite  impossible  for  philological 

Langford,  Little  NW  of  Wilton. 

c.  1290  Langeforde  pva  T.  EccL;  1428  Parva  Langeford  FA. 
See  Steeple  Langford.  The  OE  forms  quoted  under  that 
name  refer  also  to  Langford,  Little  (as  well  as  to  Hanging 
Langford).  One  of  the  Langefords  in  T>^  probably  also 
refers  to  this  place,  according  to  Jones  the  one  mentioned 
on  fol.  68  a. 

Langley  Burrell  Within  in  the  mun.  bor.  of  Chippenham. 
„  „         Without  adjoining  the  above. 

940  -^ad  Langelegli  ,  '\de  Langeleythe  (corrupt)  OS  no.  751 
[possibly  identical];  1086  Langefel  DB  [prob.  identical]; 
c.  1290  de  Longaleye  T.  EccL  [or  possibly  ident.  with 
Kington  Langley];  1258  Langele  C.  Inq. ;  1316  Langele  FA; 
1333  Langle  Burel  Phillipps'  fines ;  1428  Langeley,  Langle  FA. 


Originally  '''(et  fjr?m  {pr^re)  langmi  lea^e.  The  termination 
in  the  DB  form  represents  the  OE  synonymous  feld  (for 
the  loss  of  d  see  Stolze  §  37  ;    cf.  Winkfield,  below). 

For  the  family  name  ^Burreir  (Borel)  see  Hildebrand, 
p.  331,  and  Bardsley.  According  to  Jones,  p.  221,  the 
*Burrells'  held  the  manor  from  the  time  of  Domesday  till 
the  earlv  14th  cent. 

Latton  NNW  of  Cricklade. 

1086  Latone  DB;  1241  in  Lcdtoh  Ix.  fin.  exc. ;  Edw.  I  in 
Lacton  (three  times)  Plac.  Warr. ;  c.  1290  de  Latfonc  T. 
Eccl.;  1316,  1428  Lattoyi  FA. 

Probably  from  OE  '■Hac(u)-tun ,  lacti  referring  to  '^the 
Churn\  one  of  the  head-waters  of  the  Thames,  which  flows 
here  bv  the  side  of  the  Thames  and  Severn  Canal.  Assira- 
ilation  of  A:  to  ^  has  consequently  taken  place. 

Laverstock  [I(EVd{r)stolc]  near  Salisbury. 

L086  LavcrtestocJie,  Lavvrecestohes  [corrupt]  DB;  1221  La- 
verTcestoh  Pat.  B.;  1227  de  LaverstoJce  Macray;  1249  Laver{e)- 
hestolc  C.  Inq. ;  1303  LarJcestolc  Cal.  Inq. ;  1311  in  Lmverke- 
stoJce  E/Ot.  Orig. ;  1316  de  LaverstoJce  FA;  1320  LavirJcestoJc 
Eot.  Orig.;  1349  Laverestoke ;  1402  m  LarhestoJce F A :  1428 
in  Laverkestohe  ib. ;  1492  LaverstoJc,  at  LaverstoMe  C.  Inq. 
Originally  Haferc{e)-stoc  \lawerc{e)-stoc\.  The  first  element, 
which  also  occurs  in  a  few  other  names  [e.  g.  Km)  lauerJce- 
boerge  OS  no.  125,  '\(on)  laweorc  dune  ib.  no.  870,  "fito)  lauro- 
can  beorge  ib.  1005,  lauerean  heorh  ib.  no.  1238,  {uppan) 
'\lauerces  byrig  CD  1129]  most  probably  represents  the  bird 
(*^the  lark')  ^  The  first  of  the  DB  forms  is  another  example 
of  orthographic  confusion  between  c  and  t.  For  the  ter- 
mination see  Baverstock. 

'  The  possibility  that  it  was  a  p.  n.  is  very  slight;  in  that 
case  it  would  probably  have  been  of  Scand.  provenience  (like 
Raf{e)n,  Sualeua)^  but  ONorse  Ifevirki  is  not  recorded  as  a 
p.   n. 


Note.  Lcefer  CS  no.  879  is  stated  by  Birch  to  be  the  name 
of  the  river  on  which  Laverstock  is  situated.  This  localization 
seems,  however,  to  be  erroneous.  The  stream  that  flows  past 
Laverstock  is  "^the  Boule\  in  OE  times  called  Winter-burn{a)\  see 
Winterbourne  (Dauntsey),   below. 

Lavington,  Market  or  East  L.  S  of  Devizes. 

1086  Laventone  DB;  1254  Stejpellavinton,  Pat.  E.;  1257  Ste- 
pellauintJion  G.  Inq. ;  1271  Stiipellaunton  ib. ;  1276  Stupelavin- 
toti  ib.;  c.  1290  de  Stiipellavyngtone  T.  'Keel.;  ISOl  Lauentov 
Br.  Mus. ;  1316  Stapid  Lavynton  FA ;  1318  Stepel  Lavynton 
Cli.  R;  1324:  StupellavyntonFA;  1402  Lavyngton^  Stepillav{m- 
ton)  ib. ;  1428  Stupel  Lavyngton  ib. ;  1496  Est  Lavyngton  C.  Inq. 
From  '-'Lafinga  (or '^  La  fan)  tmi,  Lafa  being  a  p.  n.  recorded 
in  LYD  [see  Mtiller,  p.  57].  Of  the  distinctive  Stepel 
{Stupel)  and  Stapid,  the  former  is  probably  the  correct  form 
(referring  to  the  church  steeple).  A  confusion  of  this  kind 
may  have  easily  taken  place,  particularly  as  both  elements 
are  frequent  in  pi.  ns.  Cf.  Stapleford,  Steeple  Ashton,  S. 
Langford,  below,  and  Steeple  Aston,  Oxfs.  [see  Alexander, 
PI.  Ns  of  Oxfs.].  In  the  present  case,  the  substitution  of 
stapid  for  step^el  may  of  course  be  due  to  the  fact  that  the 
place    was   formerly  a  market  town;  [see  Camden,  p.   108]. 

Note.  Alexander's  explanation  of  stepel^  steeple  (in  connection 
with  his  discussion  of  Steeple  Aston,  PI.  Ns  of  Oxfs.,  p.  195) 
from    the   Mercian  steapul  [with  w-umlaut]  is  a  strange  mistake. 

Lavington,  West  or  Bishop's  L.  SW  of  Lav.  E. 

1086  Laventone  DB;  1091  Lavinton  Osmund;  c.  1136  La- 
vintona  Macray;  1140 — 42  Lavinton  Osmund;  1195  in  Lauin- 
ton  Feet  of  fines;  1232  in  Lavinton'  Episcopi  01.  E;  1238 
de  Lavinctune  Macray;  1294  Lavynton  Ch.  R;  1316  Lavyn- 
ton FA. 

See  preceding  name,  c  for  g  in  Lavinctune  is  a  AN 
spelling  [see  Hildebrand,  p.  360,  §  18].  The  distinctive 
name  refers  to  its  former  tenant,  the  Bishop  of  Sarum. 

S     E.  Ekhlom 


Lea  SE  of  Malmesburv. 

c.   1290  Legh    T.  Eccl.  [or  =  Leigh  Delamere];    1346  la  Lee 
Rot.  Orig. 

OE  leaQi)  (= 'meadow'). 

Leigh  near  Westbury. 

1316  de  Lye  FA;   1318  m  Leye  Ch.  E;   1330  Lye  C.  Inq. ; 
1340  La  Lee  Ch.  R. 

The    modern   form  is  developed  from  the  OE  nom.  leah, 
Lnje^  Leye  from  the  dat.  lea^e. 

Leigh  Delamere  NW  of  Chippenham. 

1428  LygK  Legh  FA;  1488  LJgh  C.  Inq. 

See    above.      ""Delamere'    is    an    AN    family    name;      cf. 
Fisherton  Delamere. 

Liddington  SE  of  Swindon. 

1086  Ledentone  DB;  1204  de  Lidintoh  R.  Oblat. ;  c.  1290 
Ludinton  T.  Eccl.:  1316  Ludynton  FA;  1428  Ludijngton'FA.. 
Probably  from  "^Lydinga  tun,  the  first  element  being  a 
patronymic  of  the  OE  p.  n.  Lud{d)a;  cf.  Luddington,  AVarws. 
[see  Duignan,  PI.  Ns  of  Warws.],  Luddenden,  Yorks.  [see 
Good  all],  and  Ludwell,  below.  For  e  as  a  representative  of 
OE  y  in  DB  see  Stolze  §  15. 

Littlecott  NE  of  Hilmarton. 

1086  Litleeote  DB;  1232  Littlecot  Ch.  R;   1316  de  Liflecofe 
FA;  Edw.  Ill  de  Littellecote  NI. 
*.S60  lytic  cote  or  ''^pcet  lytle  cot. 

Littlecott  near  Enford. 

1300    Littelecotc    Cal.  Inq.;    [n.   d.]    de  Ltjttlekote  Cat.  A.  D. 
See  above. 

Littlecott  NW  of  Hungerford  (Berks.). 
1428  in  LyteJcote  FA.     See  above. 


Littleton   Drew  or  St.  Andrew  Littleton  W  of  Grittleton. 

1065  Litletun  CD  no.  817  [possibly  identical];  1086  Litel- 
tone  DB  66  b;  c.  1290  Litleton  T.  Eccl.;  early  14th  cent. 
Littelton  TJST;  1316  Litleton  Drew e^K\  Vd>2^  Littelton  Dreiu 
ib.;  1351  Liitlyngton  Dru  Phillipps'  fines;  1428  Lyttelton 
Brew  FA. 

*se  lytla  tun.  The  m^-suffix  in  one  of  the  ME  forms  is 
due  to  analogy  with  pi.  ns  containing  a  patronymic  as  the 
first  element;  cf.  Sherrington,  below.  For  the  AN  'Drew' 
(possibly  referring  to  Walterus  Drew,  TN  142,  158)  see 
Forssner,  p.  60  f.     ''St.  Andrew'  refers  to  the  church. 

Note.  There  seems  no  reason  to  locate  Lytletun  CD  no.  654 
in  Wilts.,   as  is  stated  in  Kemble's  index. 

Littleton   Pannell  S  of  Potterne. 

1086  Liteltone  DB  71  d  [prob.  identical];  1239  de  Litlin- 
tone  Macray;  1316  Lutleton  Paynel  C.  Inq.;  1318  Lytleton 
ib.;  1324  Lyttleton  Paynel  ib. 

See  preceding  name.  'PayneF  (Pannell)  is  an  AN  family 
name;  see  Bardsley. 

Littleton  NE  of  Trowbridge. 
1470  Litilton  Br.  Mus.;  see  above. 

Lockeridge  WSW  of  Marlborough. 

1086  Locherige  DB;  Edw.  I  LoJcerrigge  Rot.  H;  1316  de 
LoTcerugge  FA. 

The  termination  is  obviously  OE  hryc^  ■-=  'ridge  (of  a 
down)'.  The  first  element  may  have  contained  a  (hypoco- 
ristic?)  p.  n.  '^Luca,  found  in  the  local  Incan  heorJi  CS  no. 
1066,  probably  also  identical  with  the  first  member  of 
Luceman  (on  a  coin  of  the  time  of  ^thelbeorht),  Lucumon 
(AS  Chr.).  A  Continental  Liica  is  also  quoted  in  Searle; 
cf.  Luckington,  below. 


Longbridge  Deverill  S  of  Warminster. 

1086  Devrel  DB  i;  1253  in  Longo  Ponte  Beverell  Pat.  R; 
Hen.  HI  Deverel  Lungpunt  Rot.  H;  1267  Deverel  Lungepunt 
Pat.  R;  1316  Dever(iU)  Langebrigge  FA;  1330  Deverellange- 
brigge  Ch.  R;  c.  1333  Deuerel  Lajigebrigg  Br.  Mus.;  1428 
Deverell  Longepond  FA. 

For  Deverill  see  Brixton  D.  Whether  'Longbridge'  goes 
as  far  back  as  the  OE  period,  it  is  impossible  to  sa3^ 

Longford  SE  of  Salisbury. 

956  cet  Langanforda  CS  no.  934  [possibly  identical];  1086 
Langcford  DB  74  b;  1290  Langeford  Ch.  R;  Edw.  I  Lange- 
ford  Br.  Mus.;  1316  Langeford  FA;  1485  Lang  ford  (Cer- 
vyngton)  C.  Inq. 

For  the  distinctive  'Cervyngton'  see  Heath,  p.  188. 

Longleat  WSW  of  Warminster. 

1235  la  Langelete  Macray;  1240 — 50  Longalete  ib.;  1265—70 
Longaleta  ib. ;  late  13th  cent.  La  Langhelete  Br.  Mus.;  1315 
Langelete  C.  Inq.;   1333  Longleat  ib. 

This  name  refers  to  the  long  sub-affluent  of  the  r.  Frome 
which  flows  down  here  from  the  neighbourhood  of  Hor- 
ningsham.  leat  corresponds  to  OE  ^elM{e)  n.,  which,  besides 
the  present  meaning,  has  also  the  sense  of  'junction^  (e.  g. 
we^a  ^elMe).  Whether  *^Longleat'  originated  as  far  back  as 
OE  times,  it  is  of  course  impossible  to  say. 

Luckington  NW  of  Grittleton. 

1086  Lochintone  (twice)  DB;  1194  Luchinton  Rot.  Cur.; 
1199  de  Lokintoh  ib.;  1217  LoUntun  Pat.  R;  c.  1290  Lo- 
Jcinton  T.  Eccl.;  Edw.  I  in  LoTcinton  Plac.  Warr. ;  1316  de 
Lokyntone  FA;  1382  LucJcington  Br.  Mus. ;  1458  Lokyngton  ib. 
Probably  from  '^Lucinga  tun,  the  first  element  being  a 
patronymic  of  *Luca,  for  which  see  under  Lockeridge. 

^  See  the  foot-note  under  Brixton  D. 


Lud^ershall  [Icigsfil]  NE  of  Amesbury. 

1086  Litlegarsele  DB  [obviously  corrupt];  1203  de  Lote- 
gareshal  R.  L.Pat. ;  1215  Lutegareshal  ib  ;  1227,  1238  Lute- 
gareshal  Ch.  B,;  1233  de  Luttegarishar  CLE,;  1251  Liidgers- 
hall  Ch.  R;  1261  of  Lutteger shale  Pat.  R;  1264  o/"  Lote- 
gereshale  ib.;  1268  Lotegarsal,  apud  Lutegereshalam  Ch.  P; 
1271  Lotegareshal  ib.;  1292  Ludgershall  ib.;  1316  cZe  iw^e- 
garshale  FA;  1334  ^e  Luggershale  Pot.  Orig.;  1336  i/it^ 
gareshall  P.  Pat.;  1428  (^e)  Ludegarscde  FA;  1528  o/* 
Liirgarsale  Cat.  A.  D.;  1572  Lurgassill  Br.  Mus. 

It  is  obvious  that  the  first  element  is  made  up  of  a  p.  n., 
which  is  the  same  one  as  occurs  in  the  local  "fludegarstone 
CD  no.  654,  {^)Liiteg  are  shale  ib.  no.  722  {Lutegaresheale, 
Thorpe)  ^,  and  also  in  Ludgershall ^  Backs,  and  Glos.,  and 
Lurgershall,  Sussex  (the  ME  forms  of  the  last  three  pi.  ns 
being  exactly  analogous  to  those  of  the  Wilts,  name).  It 
is,  however,  quite  impossible  for  me  to  identify  this 
p.  n.  in  any  Avay,  for  no  similar  compound  is  on  record 
either  in  England  or  on  the  Continent.  All  that  seems 
clear  is  that  its  second  member  is  the  common  (OE)  p.  n. 
element  gar.  The  explanation  of  this  name  must  therefore 
be  left  to  some  authority  on  p.  ns. 

hall  in  pi.  ns  may  go  back  either  to  OE  heall  (hall)  = 
'palace',  'residence',  or  to  healh  (halh),  dat.  heale,  which  has 
been  thought  to  denote  'nook',  'corner',  'secret  place';  see 
'hale'  NED,  and  Wyld,  p.  340  f. 

The  r  in  the  first  syllable  of  the  Cat.  A.  D.  and  Br.  Mus. 
forms  is  certainly  not  a  spelling  mistake,  for  we  may  note 
the  same  change  in  the  mod.  Lurgershall  (Lurgashall), 
Sussex  [see  Poberts,  p.  105].  This  substitution  is,  no  doubt, 
due  to  sound-physiological  causes  (on  account  of  the  diffi- 
culty of  pronouncing  two  explosives  in  succession). 

^  There  seems,  however,  no  reason  to  identify  this  place  with 
Ludgershall,  Wilts.,  as  is  suggested  in  the  indexes  of  CD  and 


Ludwell  E  of  Shaftesbury  (Dors.). 

1195  in  Ludeivell  Feet  of  fines;  1216  Liidewell  Rot.  Ch. ; 
1252  Liidetvell  Ch.  R. 

Originally  '^'Ludan  wieU(e)  [ivyU(e)],  For  the  p.  n.  Luda 
see  Liddington,  above.  Cf.  Ludwell,  Oxfs.  (Alexander, 
PI.  Ns  of  Oxfs.). 

Lushill  NW  of  Highworth. 

1268  LustreshuU  Pat.  R;  1276  LiistesJmll  Ch.  R;  1324 
Lusteshull  Pat.  R;  1329  LusteshulJe  C.  Inq. ;  1428  Lusteshull 
FA;  [n.  d.]  de  Lustreshulle,  de  LustrushuUe  Cat.  A.  D. 

Probably  from  ^'Lustan  hyll  (Avith  a  later  insertion  of 
the  strong  gen.  ending),  *Lusta  being  a  pet-form  of  some 
name  beginning  with  Lust-,  of  which  Lustivine  is  on  record. 
The  forms  with  r  inserted  are  certainly  errors,  due  to  the 
influence  of  OFrench  words  in  lustr-  (e.  g.  lustreux). 

Lydiard    Millicent   I   „„      „  ^„ 

...      ^  ^  NE  of  AA  ootton  Bassett. 

Lydiard  Tregoze      ) 

900  -\Lidgeard,  '\Lidegceard,  "fLidgerd  CS  no.  590  [possibly 
identical];  901 — 24  '\Lidgeard  ib.  no.  591  [poss.  ident.]; 
1086  Lidiarde  (=  L.  M.),  Lediar  (=L.  T.)DB;  1228  Lydierd 
Ch.  R;  1283  Northiideyerd  (=  L.  M.)  Pat.  R;  1285  Lidiard, 
Lydeyerd  Ch.  R;  Edw.  I  in  Lydeyard' Viae.  Warr. ;  c.  1290 
Lydyerd  Milsent,  L.  Tregos  T.  Eccl.;  1307  Lydyherd  C.  Inq.; 
1315  Lidiard  ib.;  1316  Ledyerd,  Lydyerd  FA;  1324  LAjdeard 
Tregos  ib.;  1327  Lydeyerd  Tregoz  C.  Inq.;  1349  Suth 
Ledyerd  (=  L.  T.),  NortJi  Lidyerd  Cal.  Inq. ;  1428  Lydyard, 
Lydeyerd  Milsent,  L.  Tregos  FA;  [n.  d.]  de  Ledeyarde  ^eg. 

The  termination  is  obviously  OE  ^eard  (=  enclosed  place). 
The  etymology  of  the  first  element  its  not  clear.  The  best 
suggestion  that  I  can  offer  is  that  the  element  may  have 
contained  an  unrecorded  p.  n.  "^Lyda,  formed  from  *Li/ding 
(the  patronymic  of  Luda;  see  Liddington,  above).  Cf. 
Tud{d)a  :  *Tyd{d)a  under  Tedworth. 


For  the  e  instead  of  i  in  the  first  syllable  of  some  forms 
above  see  under  Biddestone.  On  the  AN  distinctive  names 
see  Jones,  p.  222  f. 

Note.  Searle's  assumption  of  a  p.  n.  *Lida,  on  the  ground  of 
the  local  Lidanege  CS  no.  1282,  p.  585,  is  probably  a  mistake,  as 
the  first  element  of  the  name  in  question  seems  to  refer  to  the 
River  Leddon,  Worcs. ;  nor  does  his  inference  of  a  p.  n.  *Lidgeard 
from  lidgeardes  heorge  CS  no.  1125  seem  authenticated,  for  Lidgeard- 
may  just  as  well  represent  a  pi.   n. 

Lidigerd{e)  CD  no.  897  was  obviously  in  Soras.,  prob.  =  Lydeard 
St.   Lawrence,   (not  in  Wilts.,   as  is  stated  by  Kemble). 

Lyneham  [lainQiysmI  SW  of  Wootton  Bassett. 
1285  Linham  Ch.  H;    c.   1290  Lynlim  T.  EccL;  1316,  1428 
Lynham  FA;  1596  Lyneham  Br.  Mus. 

OE  H~in-}idm\  OE  Un  (=  flax)  is  not  uncommon  in  pi.  ns. 

Note.  Lineham,  Oxfs.,  is  evidently  of  the  same  origin,  but 
Alexander's  suggestion  that  the  modern  diphthongized  vowel  of 
the  first  element  indicates  a  derivation  from  the  dat.  case  [conse- 
quently '""'cet  Une-ham{m)e]  is  impossible,  as  the  preposition  could 
only  have  affected  the  second  element.  The  retention  of  the 
long  vowel  is  simply  due  to  the  influence  of  the  independent 
subst.   line  (now  chiefly  a  dialectal  word). 

Maddington  AVNW  of  Amesbury. 
1277    Madinton    C.  Inq.;    c.   1290   cle  Madyngtone  T.  EccL; 
1294     Wynterburn    Maidijnton     (corrupt)    Cal.    Inq.;     1316 
Madijnton    FA;    1428  Madijngton  FA;    1485,  1493  Wynter- 
home  Madyyigton  C.  Inq. 

Probably  from  '-'Madrnga  tun,  the  first  element  being  a 
patronymic  of  a  (hypocoristic?)  p.  n.  *Mada,  recorded  in 
the  local  •\Madanlieg  (CS  no.  1312,  which  is  identified  by 
Birch  with  Madeley,  Staffs.).  The  name  evidently  occurs  also 
in  Madingley,  Cambs.  [see  Skeat,  PI.  Ns  of  Cambs.  j3.  67]. 

The  distinctive  name  refers  to  the  stream  on  which  the 
place  is  situated;  see  Winterbourne  Stoke,  below. 

Maiden  Bradley  N  of  Mere. 
1086    Bradelie    DB;    1178?    Deuerell    Puellarum  Br.  Mus.; 
c.   1210  BradeJe  Macray;    1228  Bradeleg  Ch.  E;    Bradleigh 


Leprosi  Cal.  Rot.  Ch.;  1267  Meydenebradele  Ch.  E;  1270 
Braddeleg  Ch.  R;  1271  Maiden  Bradley  E.  Pat.;  1280 
Maydenehradclegh  C.  Inq. ;  1281  Deverill  Br.  Mus.;  c.  1290 
Bradele  Abhis  T.  EccL;  1328  Maydenhradlegh  Ch.  E;  1428 
Bradeley  (Ahhatis)  FA;  1492  Mayden  Bradlegh  C.  Inq. 

Originally  *cp^  ^<^m  {p^re)  hradan  lea^e.  For  the  distinc- 
tive names  see  Camden,  p.  110,  and  Jones,  p.  199.  The 
place  is  situated  at  the  source  of  the  Deverill-stream,  which 
accounts  for  the  Br.  Mus.  forms  above. 

Note,  to  hradan  leage  CD  no.  133  and  yBradelege  ib.  no.  460 
are  erroneously  stated  by  Kemble  to  be  identical  with  Maiden 
Bradley.  The  former  of  these  places  was  obviously  situated  in 
east  Wilts,  near  Bedwyn,  and  the  latter  in  the  north-west,  near 
Brokenborough.  There  seems  also  no  reason  for  assuming  with 
Birch  and  Kemble  that  'fBrada?il(eh  CS  no.  153  (CD  no.  79)  was 
situated  here. 


675  -fMaldumeshiwg  {^ Mealdumeshurg)  CS  no.  37;  681  -^Mel- 
dulfeshirg  (•\MeIdunesburg)  ib.  no.  58;  683  '\Maldumes'burg 
{■\MceIdubeshurg)  ib.  no.  65;  701  •\MeIdumeshurg  {"fMaldtmens- 
burg,  "^Mceldumesburgg)  ib.  no.  103;  '\Meldumesburg,  Meldum 
ib.  no.  105;  Maldumes  bui'uJi,  cet  Mealdiimesbyrig,  Meldum 
ib.  no.  106;  705  -fMaldubesburg  ib.  no.  114;  [n.  d.]  Mail- 
dulfi  urbs  Bede;  745  Maldunense  monastervum  CS  no.  170; 
758  in  Maldubiensi  {Maildubiensi)  monasterio  ib.  no.  185; 
854  ■\Malmesburg  {^Meldubesburg)  ib.  no.  470;  Alfred  -^Mal- 
diiberi,  '^Mceldunesbiirg,  -\McBldiihiiri  ib.  no.  568;  '\Maildu- 
beri,  "^Maldumesburg,  Maildubiensis  [cecclesice]  (gen.)  ib.  no. 
569;  ^thelstan  Meldidfuensis  burgi  (gen.)  ib.  no.  720;  937 
Meldunensi  [ecclesice]  (dat.)  ib.  no.  718;  965 — 971  to  Meal- 
dcelmces  byrig  ib.  no.  1174;  974  '\Malmesburgh  ib.  no.  1300; 
[1015]  binnon  Mealdelmes  byrig  AS  Chr.  [E],  Ealdclmes  byrig 
ib.  [C  and  D];  1086  Malmesberie,  Mamcsberie  DB;  c.  1125 
Meldunurn  (corrupt)  W.  Malm.;  1131  Mahnesberioe  (gen.) 
Macray;  1199  Maumesbif  E.  Oblat.;  1200  Malmcsbir  Eot. 
Ch.;  1206  Malmesbif  E.  L.  Pat.;  1215  Maumeshif\h.\  1220-25 


de  Mamesbirie  Osmund;  1252  Mamnesbiri  Ch.  E,;  1254 
Malmyshiire  Macray;  1280  Malmeshury  Ch.  R. 

This  name  has  been  discussed  by  Miller,  PL  Ns  in  the 
Engl.  Bede,  p.  79  f.  The  place  is,  he  says,  associated 
1)  with  Maildu{l)fj  the  Scotch  founder  of  the  monastery 
[see  Eulogium  Cap  XCII],  2)  with  Meldiim  as  founder  [see 
CS  no.  105],  3)  with  Aldhelm,  the  well-known  Malmesbury 
abbot  (died  in  709).  As  far  as  the  first  and  third  sugges- 
tions are  concerned,  there  is  no  objection,  but  in  the  case 
of  the  second  one,  there  is  considerable  doubt  about  the 
existence  of  anyone  called  Meldum^  in  spite  of  the  state- 
ment in  CS  no.  105:  monasterium  .  .  .  quod  Meldum  reli- 
giosce  memorice  condidit,  quod  etiam  nunc  Meldumeshurg  voc- 
atur  .  .  .  This  name  is  most  probably  a  mere  construction 
from  Meldumeshurg.  Mcdmeshurij  is  consequently  in  all 
probability  made  up  of  two  p.  ns  only:  Maildii{I) f  Siud  Aid- 
helm  (Ealdhelm),  which  have  been  hopelessly  confused  w^ith 
each  other  in  this  pi.  n.  The  independent  Meldum  is,  no 
doubt,  a  formation  quite  analogous  to  Sarum  (see  below), 
viz.  a  latinization,  formed  from  the  first  syllable  of  the 
pi.  n.  by  means  of  the  Latin  ending  -um.  For  the  loss  of 
u    (<  I)    in  Mamesherie,  Mamesbirie  see  Zachrisson,  p.   150. 

Manningford  Abbots   | 

Bohun        SW  of  Pewsey. 
„  Bruce      I 

987  Maningaforda,  ^Manyngforde  L.  de  Hyda;  1086  Maneforde 
(=  M.  A.),  Maniford  (twice)  [=  M.  Bohun  and  Bruce]  DB; 
1142  —  80  Mangesford  Br.  Mus.;  c.  1200  Manegesford  Osmund; 
1218  Maningeford  Macray;  c.  1243  Manigge f ord  ih.;  c.  1290 
Mannmgeford  Abbis  T.  EccL;  Eiiw.  I  Maningford  Plac. 
Warr.,  Maningford  Parva  [=  M.  A.]  Eot.  H;  1296  Manyng- 
feld  Brewose  Pat.  E;  1311  Manyngeford  {Breivose),  Manyng- 
feld  C.  Inq.;  1316  Maningford  Abbatis,  M.  Boun,  M.  Bre- 
wose FA;  1324  Manijngeford,  Br  ewes  ib.;    1325  Manyngford 


Brewes  C.  Inq. ;  1428  Manyngford  Abbatis,  Manyngford 
Sancti  Petri  {=  M.  Bruce)  FA. 

The  first  of  the  forms  quoted  from  L.  de  Hyda  obviously 
represents  the  original  name.  Man{n)mg  is  a  patronymic 
of  the  OE  p.  n.  Man(n)  or  Man{n)a.  Manningford  Abbots 
was  a  former  estate  of  the  abbey  of  St.  Peter,  Win- 
chester (see  DB),  Avhence  its  distinctive  name.  'Bohun^ 
(occurring  as  ^Bohum^  in  DB,  see  Hildebrand,  p.  345)  and 
'Brewose'  are  AN  family  names.  'Bruce^  in  the  present 
case  is  only  a  corruption  of  'Brewose'. 

Manton  near  Marlborough. 

1086  Mmietune  DB;  1258  Manton  C.  Inq.;  Edw.  I  Maniton 
Eot.  H;  1428  Manton  FA. 

Probably  from  ''Man(n)an  tun]  for  Man(n)a  see  preceding 

Note.  Birch's  identification  of  Me}i{h)andun  CS  nos.  584,  585 
with  this  place  is  obviously  quite  impossible. 

Marden  or  Merton  SE  of  Devizes. 

940  ^on  mcerdenum  CS  no.  748;  963  -\merh  dcene  ib.  no. 
1118;  1086  Meresdene  DB;  1167  Mergdena  Pipe  E;  1170 
Mercdena  ib.;  1172  Merede^ia  ib.;  1185  de  Meredon  ib.; 
1204  in  Mardeh  E.  Oblat.;  1205  Mereden  E.  L.  CI.;  1233 
Meredeh  E.  fin.  exc;  1261  Mereden  Ch  E;  c.  1290  de  Mergh- 
dene  T.  EccL;  1316  de  Meredene  FA;  1321  Merden  CI.  E; 
1322  Meriuheden  (twice)  Pat.  E;  Edw.  Ill  Merghedene  NI; 
1428  Mereden,  de  Merghdene  FA. 

From  the  situation  of  this  village  it  is  evident  that  the 
original  termiantion  was  OE  dene  (denu)  =  Valley\  The  first 
element  obviously  contained  the  subst.  mearh  (=  horse).  The 
old  forms  quoted  above  indicate,  however,  two  variants  of  the 
original  name:  *mearh-dene  (denu)  and  *meara  dene  (denu) 
[meara  gen.  plur.].  It  is  true  that  both  these  forms  would  have 
given  by  regular  development  a  instead  of  e  in  the  first 
syllable  even  in  the  early  ME  forms.     The  ^-spellings  are, 


however,  easily  explained  as  due  to  the  influence  of  the  many 
pi.  ns  containing  ME  Mere-  (<  OE  mcere  or  mere)  as  the  first 
element.  The  s  of  the  DB  form  may  be  accounted  for  in  two 
ways :  if  Meresdene  represents  an  OE  '^'mcarh-dene,  the  s  is 
an  AN  rendering  of  the  fricative  x  (see  under  Brigmerston); 
if,  on  the  other  hand,  it  corresponds  to  *meara  dene,  the  .9 
has  been  inserted  through  analogy  w^ith  pi.  ns,  the  first 
element  of  which  has  a  gen.  s. 

Another  pi.  n.  containing  OE  mearh  is  {on)  mearh  forda 
CS  no.   931. 

Note.  From  what  has  been  said  above  it  is  evident  that 
Plummer's  suggestion  that  Mere  tune  [A],  Mcere  dune  [E]. 
AS  Chr.  A.  D.  871  are  identical  with  this  place  must  be  wrong, 
as  the  former  of  these  forms  (belonging  to  the  Parker  ms)  has 
the  strongest  claims  to  be  genuine.  Kemble's  identification  of 
'\Meard(jeno  (latex)  CD  no.  103  with  Marden,  Wilts.,  is  also  an 
obvious  mistake.  Meardceno  is  on  the  other  hand  to  be  located 
in  the  vicinity  of  Malmesbur5^ 

Marlborough  [maa{7^)Ibdrj,  molbsrd]. 

1086  in  Merleherge  DB;  1091  Marleberg  Osmund;  [1110] 
(JBt  Mcerle  heorge  AS  Chr.  [E];  1147  Melleburga  Cal.  France; 
c.  1148  Merleberga  Osmund;  1158  Merleherg  ib. ;  1176? 
Melleberga  Cal.  France;  1226  Merleburge  Cal.  Rot.  Ch.; 
1229,  1246  Marlborough  Ch.  R;  1258  Marleberg  C.  Inq.; 
1280  Marleborgh  ib.;  1308  of  Merleberge  \h.\  1320  de  Marle- 
herewe  CI.  R;  1361  de  Merleborotve  Cal.  Inq.;  1390  Marle- 
bergh  Br.  Mus.;  1428  Marleburg. 

The  first  element  seems  to  be  the  same  as  in  Marlesford, 
Suffolk,  which  Skeat  (PI.  Ns  of  Suffolk,  p.  34)  takes  to  be 
a  p.  n.  In  that  case  it  is  certainly  connected  with  the 
obscure  first  member  of  the  Scand.  McErleswegen  (Mcerlas- 
wegen)  [see  Bjorkman,  Pers.  I  p.  93]  ^    The  second  element 

^  As  it  seems  quite  impossible  to  explain  ilicerZ-  as  a  Ger- 
manic element,  one  mav  be  inclined  to  connect  it  with  the 
Irish  Mcsrlin  (the  name  of  the  well-known  mythical  figure  in  the 
Arthurian   epics). 


was  OE  beorh,  which  later  on  has  been  as  usual  replaced 
by  borough;  see  Brokenborongh.  The  pronunciation  [mol- 
bdro]  is  due  to  an  older  form,  in  which  r  has  been  lost 
(see  Horn  §  237,  note  I). 

Marston  SW  of  Potterne. 

1309  in  Merstone  Br.  Mus.;  1331  Mersheton  VhiWi^^^'  fines; 
1413  Mershton  Cal.  Inq.;  1428  Merssheton  FA. 

Original^  '^'mersc-tun  (OE  mersc  =  marsh).  The  situation 
is  on  low  ground  on  a  tributary  of  the  Lower  Avon.  For 
the  change  of  sh  >  s  which  has  taken  place  in  the  majority 
of  the  pi.  ns  containing  this  first  element,  Alexander  (PI. 
Ns  of  Oxfs..  p.  150  f.)  assumes,  with  great  probability,  that 
there  were  two  factors  which  co-operated  to  this  develop- 
ment: 1)  the  AN  spelling  s(s)  for  sh,  2)  the  analogy  of  the 
gen.  s  of  the  first  element  in  other  pi.  ns. 

The  next  two  names,  which  also  refer  to  low-lying  places 
near  water,  have  the  same  etymology. 

Marston  Maisey  (Meysey)  NE  of  Cricklade. 

1194  de  Merstoh  Eot.  Cur.  (or  =  M.  South);  Hen.  HI  Merston 
C.  Inq.;  c.  1290  Mershtone  T.  Eccl.  ;  1301  of  Mershtone 
Meijsi  Cat.  A.  D.;  1316  de  Northe  Mershton  FA;  1331 
Merston  Meysy  Pat.  R;  1332  Mershton  Meijsy  ib.;  1428 
Mersheton  FA. 

See  above.  *^Maisey'  (Me3^sey)  is  a  family  name,  probably 
of  native  origin. 

Marston,  South  NE  of  Swindon. 

1262    Merston    C.  Inq.;    1330  Suthmershton  Phillipps'  fines. 
See  above. 

Marten  E  of  Burbage. 

1086  in  Mertone  (twice)  DB;  1227  Merton,  Mereton  Ch.  R; 
1246  de  Mertone  Macray;  1278  Marthon  C.  Inq.;  1428 
Merton  FA. 


Probably  from  an  original  ■'^mcere-tun  ("the  farm  at  the 
border).  The  termination  has  become  -ten  through  weak- 

Medbourne  SE  of  Swindon. 

955  fow  medebourne  CS  no.  904  (prob.  identical);  1306  Med- 
hurne  Cal.  Inq. ;  1392  Medebourne  ib.;  [n.  d.]  Medebunie 
Cat.  A.  D. 

No  doubt  from  an  original  '^wt  (pcere)  mmd-bui'ne  [cet 
{pdnn.  p^re)  mced-burnan\,  denoting  the  little  affluent  of 
the  r.  Cole  here.  WS  m^d  (Angl.  med)  =  'meadow'  (mead). 
We  obviously  have  the  same  name  in  medeburne  (Dors.?) 
CS  no.  754,  and  in  mod.  Medbourne  (Leics.)  [occurring  as 
Medhurne  in  DB,   1278  Medburn  C.  Inq.,  Medburn  TN]. 

Melksham  NE  of  Trowbridge. 

1086  Melehesham  (twice)  DB;  1194  Melcheshci,  Melkesha. 
Mulchesha  Eot.  Cur.;  1200  MelJcesham  Osmund;  1222  MelJce- 
ham  R.  L.  CL;  1228  de  Milkeshani  CI.  H;  1232  MelJcesham 
Ch.  R;  1240  Melcsham  Pat.  E;  1253  Melkesham  C.  Inq.; 
1260  Melksham  Ch.  R;  1280  Mulkesham  CI.  R;  1316  Mel- 
kesham.  FA;  1377  Melehesham  E..  Pat.;  1458  Milkesham 
Br.  Mus. 

Originally  '■'meolc-ham.  This  place  must  consequently 
have  been  a  sort  of  dairj^  farm  in  OE  times.  The  -s-  is' 
no  doubt,  a  later  insertion. 

Mere  [mi9{r)]. 

1086  Mera,  Mere  DB;  1091,  c.  1190  Mera  Osmund;  1220 
Mere  ib.;  1243  Mere  Ch.  R;  1316  Maijre  FA;  1380  Meere 
Cal.  Inq.;  1402  Mere  FA. 

OE  m^re  (=  boundary,  landmark).  As  the  town  is  situated 
in  the  SW  corner  of  the  county  near  the  border  of  Soms., 
it    is    most    probable   that  the  name  originally  denoted  the 


border  between  the  'Wilssete'  and  the  "Sumorssete^  ^  Mayre 
(FA)  is  to  be  considered  as  an  inverted  spelling  (French 
ai  >  ME  ce). 

Merton  see  Marden. 

Midgehall  near  Wootton  Bassett. 

1319  of  Miggehale  Pat.  E. 

Probably  from  "^Mec^an  heall  (or  healh),  Mcc^a  being  an 
OE  p.  n.  (recorded  among  the  signatories  in  CS  no.  379), 
no  doubt  the  same  word  as  OE  mcec^a  {^'inecga)  =  'man'. 
Cf.  Midgehaigh,  Lanes.,  whicli  probably  also  contains 
the  same  p.  n.  (see  the  old  forms  quoted  by  Wyld).  For 
healh  see  Ludger shall. 

Milbourne  a  suburb  of  Malmesbury. 

1315  Milburn  Eot.  Orig.;  Mulhurn  Pat.  E;  1388  Mulherne. 
Originally  '^''cet  (f)mre)  mylen-hurnc  [cet  {pcem,  pmre)  mylen- 
hurnan],  denoting  a  tributary  of  the  Lower  Avon. 

Mildenhali  (locally  'Minall')  ENE  of  Marlborough. 

803—805  ■\MUdanhald  CS  no.  324;  1086  Mildenhalle  DB; 
1241  in  MiUehale  Ch.  E;  1260  Mildehal  C.  Inq.;  1281 
Mildehall  ib.;  1316  de  Mildenhale  FA;  1327  Mildenhale 
C.  Inq.;  1428  de  Myldenhale  FA. 

From  ^'Mildan  heall,  "^'Milda  probably  representing  some 
name  beginning  with  Mild-,  e.  g.  Mildred',  cf.  Milston,  below. 
The  final  d  in  the  CS  form  must  be  an  error. 

Milford  at  Salisbury. 

1086  Meleford  (twice)  DB;  Hen.  Ill  Muleford  Eot.  H..  C. 
Inq.;  Edw.  I  Mideford  Eot.  H.;  early  14th  cent.  Muleford  TN. 

^  The  question  of  the  exact  limits  of  the  counties  in  OE 
times  seems  not  to  be  quite  settled,  but  their  general  limits 
are  considered  to  be  of   great  antiquity  (see  Pearson,  p.  27). 


Originall}^  ''mylen-ford.  For  e  as  a  representative  of  OE 
y  in  DB  see  Stolze  §  15. 

Milston  N  of  Amesbury. 

1086  Mildestone  (twice)  DB;  1178?  Mildistona  Br.  Mus.; 
1199  in  Mildestoh  Rot.  Ch.;  1272  Mildeston  C.  Inq.;  1270 
Mildestona  Ch.  R;  1330  Mulleston  C.  Inq.;  1361  Milesto7i 
Cal.  Inq.;   1428  Mildeston  FA. 

Probablv  from  "^Mildan  tun  (with  a  later  substitution  of 
strong  for  weak  gen.  ending).  For  Milda  see  Mildenhall, 
above,     u  in  Midleston  stands  for  a  secondary  y. 

Milton  Liibourne  E  of  Pewsey. 

1205  in  Mideltoh  R.  L.  CI.  [prob.  identical];  1281  Middelton 
Lillebon  C.  Inq.;  c.  1290  Middelton  T.  EccL;  1308  to  Middle- 
tone  C.  Inq.;  1319  Middelton  Lillebon  ib.;  1402  Milton  ¥K\ 
1416  Milton  Cal    Inq.;  1428  Mijd(d)elton  FA. 

Originall}^  ''^'middel-tun.  'Lillebon'  looks  like  a  French 
familv  name,  of  which  'Liibourne'  in  that  case  must  be  a 
corrupt  form. 

Minety  NE  of  Malmesbury. 

844  "^Minty  {Mintijg)  CS  no.  447;  880  •\Mmtih,  •\Minti 
(Mintig)  ib.  no.  444;  1199  Minthy  Rot.  Ch.;  1232  Minthi, 
Menthi  Ch.  R;  1258  Mynti  ib.;  1336  Minty  ib.;  1428 
Mynty  FA. 

The  first  element  is  OE  minte  (=  mint)  and  the  termin- 
ation le^  (here  as  always  in  Wilts,  pi.  ns  denoting  'marshy 
land')  1. 

Monkton   Deverill  NE  of  Mere. 

1086  Devrel  DB  66  c  or  66  d;  Edw.  I  Deverel  Monketon 
Rot.  H;  c.  1290  Deverel  Monachor'  T.  EccL;  l?,l^  Monketon 
FA;  1336  MoncJceton  Deverel  Cal.  Inq.;  1340  MonJcendeverel 
CI.  R. 

^  It    is    a    well-known    fact  that  the  most  common  species  of 
this  plant  (Mentha  arvensis)  flourishes  on  moist  ground. 


'Monkton'  is  here  probably  a  distinctive  name,  due  to 
the  fact  that  the  abbot  of  Glastonbury  was  formerly  tenant 
of  the  manor  (see  DB).  For  Monhen-  (CI.  R),  which  seems 
to  be  improperly  added  here  as  w^ell  as  in  the  following 
name,  see  Kington  St.  Michael,  above.  For  Deverill^  see 
Brixton  D. 

Monkton  Farleigh  E  of  Bath  (Soms.). 

1001  -fat  FarnUghe  CD  no.  706;  1086  Farlege  DB  73  c; 
1194  de  Farnlege,  Ferleia,  Ferneleia  Rot.  Cur.;  1227  Ferleg(h) 
Oh.  E;  de  Farlegh'  CI.  R;  c.  1243  Fernleya,  de  Fernlege^ 
Farley ge  Macray;  1316  Farley  Monachorum  FA;  1363 
Munkesfarlegh  Cal.  Inq  ;  1397  in  Farleglie  Br.  Mus.;  1400 
Monken  Farlegh  Cat.  A.  D.;  1408  Monkenfarlegh  Phillipps' 

Originall}^  ''^'fearn-leah  (OE  fearn  =  fern).  The  distinctive 
name  refers  to  a  Cluniac  priory,  which  w^as  founded  here 
in  the  12th  cent.  (Heath,  p.  233).  For  MonJce?i-  see  Kington 
St.  Michael  and  preceding  name. 

Moredon  [mD(r)d'n]  NNW  of  Swindon. 

1086  Mordone  DB;    1227  in  Mordone  Br.  Mus.;    1305  Mor- 

don  CI.  R. 

Originally  '^mdr-dtln.    OE  r)idr  =  *^moor',  'waste  (and  damp) 

land'.     The    o    of    the    first  element  has  been  shortened  in 

ME  before  two  consonants. 

Note.  Wyld's  suggestion,  p.  191,  that  the  first  element  of 
Moreton,  Lanes.,  is  OE  ''^'^emare  (=  ^emdire)  must  be  a  mistake, 
as  no  unmutated  variant  of  ^emcere  exists. 

Murcott  [mdd(r)lcdf]  NNE  of  Malmesbury. 

1065  -fMorcotun  CD  no.  817;  [n.  d.]  MorJcote,  Morcote  Reg. 

Originally  ''''mdr-cot{e).  The  vowel  of  the  first  element 
was  obviously  shortened  in  late  ME  or  early  NE  while  it 
was  at  the  stage  il  of  its  development  (see  Horn  §  103:  2), 
after    which    it    had  the  same  development  as  the  genuine 


w-vowel    (before  r  +  cons.);    see    Horn    §    65.     The   quoted 
CD  form  may  represent  the  OE  dat.  plur.,  or  —  as  seems 

more  probable tun  has  been  added  by  the  scribe  through 

the  influence  of  the  other  pi.  ns  in  -tun  occurring  together 
with  this  name  m  the  charter  referred  to. 

Netheravon  S  of  Enford. 

1086  {in)  Nigravre,  Nigravra  DB;  c.  1115  Netheravon  Os- 
mund; 1149 — 53  Nederauena  Round,  Ancient  ch. ;  1158 
Netheravcn  Osmund;  1173  Nederauena  Pipe  R;  1212  de 
Nederaveh^  de  Nethaveh  'R.  L.  CL;  122Q  Nutheraven  Osmund; 
c.  1290  de  JSIytherhavene  T.  EccL ;  1316  de  Nether avene  FA; 
1331  of  Netherhavenne  Ch.  E;  1428  in  Nether  Havene  FA. 
Originally  *«?^  nider-Afene  or  ^'cet  pd'm  nideran  Afene. 
The  DB  forms  are  accounted  for  by  Zachrisson,  pp.  117, 
142  ^.  For  the  initial  h  of  the  second  element  in  some  ME 
forms  see  under  Avon. 

Netherhampton  SSE  of  Wilton. 

1316  Nether  Hampton  FA;  1333  Nitherhampton  CI.  R; 
Nytherhampton  C.  Inq. 

The  second  element  goes  back  to  ^helm-tun  (not  ^hean- 
tun,  as  the  place  is  situated  in  the  Nadder  valley).  Nether 
serves  to  distinguish  this  place  from  the  neighbouring 
Quidhampton,  Chilhampton,  and  Ditchampton. 

Nettleton  "WSW  of  Grittleton. 

944  '\at  Netelintone,  '\de  Netelingtone  CS  no.  800  [possibly 
identical];  956  -^at  Netelingtone  ib.  no.  933;  1086  Niteletone 
DB;    c.  1290    Netlinton    T.  Eccl.;    1316    de    Neteltone  FA; 

^  The  suggestion  of  Jones,  p.  226,  that  these  forms  represent 
^nigrum  arvum\  a  Lat.  rendering  of  "^Black  Heatli^  the  name 
of  the  downs  NW  of  Netheravon  seems  too  hypothetical  to  be 
trusted,  for  Lat.  *^arvum'  would  certainly  not  have  been  used  to 
denote  an  unfertile  heath. 

9     E.  Ekblom 


1324  Nettelton  ib.;  1330  Netelton  Ch.  E;  1428  Netelton, 
Nehjlton  FA;  1493  Nettleton  Br.  Mus. 

From  ^'NijUelinga  (or  -^Nyttelan)  tun,  *Nyttel{a)  being  a 
diminutive  of  Nytta,  a  p.  n.  occurring  in  LVD.  The  reason 
why  e  has  replaced  y  (i)  in  the  first  syllable  must  be  assoc- 
iation with  the  subst.  nettle,  for  OE  y  does  not  develop 
into  e  in  this  dialect.     Cf.  Ebbesborne,  above. 

Netton  NNE  of  Wilton. 

1308  Netton  C.  Inq.;  early  14th  cent.  Neteton  TN;  1322 
Netteton  C.  Inq. 

Possibly  from  OE  '''net(t)-tun  (an  enlosure  fenced  in  by 
nets');  cf.  Stanton,  Stockton. 

Newnton,  Long  NW  of  Malmesbury. 

681  •\Niuentu7i  OS  no.  58;  1065  Netventuna  CD  no.  817; 
1086  Neiventone  DB  67  a;  c.  1290  Niweton^  Neiiton  T.  Eccl.; 
1316  Neivynton  FA;  1331  Long  Neiventon  Phillipps'  fines; 
Edw.  Ill  de  Nywyntone  NI;   1428  Neweton  FA. 

From  an  original  "^OBt  (pd^m)  nleivan  tune.  The  OE  dat. 
n  has  consequently  survived  in  this  pi.  n.  as  well  as  in 
the  following. 

Newnton,  North  SW  of  Pewsey. 

892  ■\Norpniivetune  CS  no.  567;  933  If Nyw antun  ih.  no.  699; 
1086  Neweton  DB  67  d;  1199  de  Niwentoti  Rot.  Ch.  [prob. 
identical];  c.  1290  Northnyweton  T.  EccL;  1296  North- 
neiuendo7i  Pat.  B;  1316  de  Newentone  FA;  1428  Nyweton, 
North  Newton  ib. 

See  preceding  name. 

Newton  Toney  ESE  of  Amesbury. 

1086  Neiventone  DB  70  b;  1256  Neuton  C.  Inq.;  1270 
Niwetona  (Umfridi  de  Bohiim),  Niivetona  {Johannis  de  Nevill) 
Ch.    R;    c.    1290    Neweton    T.  Eccl.;    1316    Nyiventon    FA; 


1363  Netvynton  Tomj,  Newenton  Touny  CI.  E.;  1369  Newen- 
ton  Tony  Cal.  Inq. ;   1428  Nyiveton  Teny  FA. 

See  above.  The  change  of  -en-  >  ing  is  due  to  analogy 
with  pi.  ns,  the  first  element  of  which  contains  a  patrony- 
mic. The  distinctive  names  are  AN  family  names.  For 
Toney'  see  Hildebrand,  p.  343. 

Newton  Without,  South  NNW  of  Wilton. 

943  ■\Sad  Niivetune,  in  Niivantime  CS  no.  782;  1086  Neiven- 
tone  DB  68  a;  c.  1190  Sud  Nyweton  Macray;  c.  1290  de 
Suthnywetone  T.  EccL;  1316  Neiveton  FA;  1358  Newenton 
CI.  R;  1453  Sotvtke  Newton  Cal.  Inq. 

'Without'  refers  to  the  situation  of  this  parish  outside 
the  municipal  borough  of  Wilton,  in  which  part  of  the  old 
parish  is  incorporated. 

Norrington  near  Alvediston. 

1307  Northynton  Ch.  E;  1312  Nhorthyntone  C.  Inq.;  1331 
Northyngton  Phillipps'  fines;  1361  NorthynJcton  C\. 'R;  1485 
Northyngton  C.  Inq. 

This  name  may  be  derived  from  *Nordinga  tun,  Nor  ding 
being  a  patronymic  of  '^Norda,  a  shortened  form  of  some 
name  beginning  with  Nord-  (e.  g.  Nordman^  Nordgar).  The 
assimilation  of  r  and  d  seems  to  have  taken  place  at  a 
rather  late  period. 

Norton   SW  of  Malmesbury. 

931  -fNorthim,    ■\Northon,    ■\de    ISortone    CS    nos.  671,  672; 
1065    "^Nortuna    CD    no.  817;    1086    Nortone  DB  no.  67  a; 
1222  de  Northone  Macray;  c.  1290  Norton  T.  Eccl. 
OE  *norp-tun. 

Norton  Bavant  NW  of  Heytesbury. 

1086  Nortone  DB  no.  70  c;  c.  1290  Northton,  Northone 
T.  EccL;  1335  Norton  Scydemor  C.  Inq.;  1428  Norton 
Bavent  FA. 


OE  ''-'norp-tun.  'Bavant'  (Bavent)  and  'Sc^^demor'  (Scuda- 
more)  are  family  names  ^.  the  former  AN ;  see  Bardsley. 
The  latter  refers  to  the  Petrus  de  Skydemore  to  whom 
Upton  Scudamore  owes  its  dist.  name  (see  Rot.  H.  II, 
p.  277). 

Oakhill  WSW  of  Himgerford  (Berks). 

1257  HoehuUe,  Hokhull  C.  Inq.;  1428  Hoklmll  FA. 

The  sense  is  obvious.    For  the  initial  h  see  under  Avon. 

Oaksey  NE  of  Malmesbury. 

1086  Wochesie  DB;  1197  }yolesla  Feet  of  fines;  1274  of 
Wockes{eie)  C.  Inq.;  1275  at  Wohesei/e  Ch.  R;  c.  1290  de 
Woleseye  T.  Eccl.;  1302  of  Woleseije  Ch.  E;  1324  Wockescy 
FA;  1402  in  WokJceseye  ib.;  1428  Wolcesey,  de  Wockeseye  ih. 
Pi-obably  from  '''■'Woc{c)es  leg.  A  p.  n.  '■Woc{c)  certainly 
existed  in  OE,  if  we  ma}^  j^^^g'^^  from  the  local  tvocces  geat 
(CS  nos.  594,  1080);  see  also  Forstemann,  Pers.  1628  f. 
The  termination  means  'marshy  land^  (referring  either  to 
the  east  or  south  portion  of  the  present  parish,  both  of 
which  have  a  low  situation  and  are  watered  b}^  the 
Thames  and  the  Swill  brook  respectively).  For  the  loss  of 
the  initial  iv  see  Horn  §  173. 

Oare  N  of  Pewsey. 

1232    in    Ore    Ch.  R;    1316  de  Ore  FA;    1428  in  Oare  ib.; 
1498  in  Ore  C.  Inq. 

Originally  '^'ora,  ^'cet  {pdmi)  oran  (=  border,  edge).  OE 
or  a  being  a  word  chiefly  used  in  pi.  ns  [e.  g.  on  Wind- 
lesoran  AS  Chr.  E  (A.  D.  1096)  =--  Windsor,  Berks.]  The 
present  name  no  doubt  refers  to  the  long  well-marked 
edge  of  Hewish  Hill,  under  which  the  village  lies. 

Odstock  S  of  Salisbur3^ 
1086  Odestoche  DB;   1173  Odestoeha  Pipe  B;  1199  Odestoka 

1     Q 

See  Jones,   p.   226. 


Feet  of  fines;  1281  Oddestock  Ch.  ii;  1816  de  Oddestohe 
FA;  1428  OdestoJc,  in  Odestoke  ib. 

Probably  from  '^'Odaii  stoc.  For  the  p.  n.  Oda  see  Forss- 
ner,  p.   198  1 

Ogbourne    St.  Andrew  )   „     ^  ^r    ^^  ^ 

*  N  of  Marlboroup-h. 

„  St.  George    ) 

1086  Ochehorne,  Ocheburne  DB;  1133  Occhehitrna  Cal.  France; 
c.  1190  Oclehurn  ib.;  1208  Ohehurn  Osmund;  1252  Ocke- 
hurn  Ch.  R;  1277  HoTceburn  Pat.  E,;  Edw.  I  NorthoTcehirne 
Eot.  H.  (=0.  St.  George);  1316  Oklcehurm  Parva  FA  (=0. 
St.  Andrew);  0.  Magna  ib.  (=  0.  St.  George);  1428  Okehurn 
Sandi  Andree,  Okehourne  mhwri  ib.;  0.  SancH  Georgii,  0. 
major i  ib. 

Originally  "^(^t  Oc{c)au  hurne  [burnan],  viz.,  the  affluent 
of  the  r.  Kennet.  now  called  'the  Og'  (a  back-formation 
from  Ogboiirne).  '■Oc{c)a,  recorded  in  the  local  ocan  lea 
CS  no.  627,  ocean  slceiv  (prob.  mistake  for  hlceiu)  ib,  no. 
1230,  is  probably  a  variant  of  the  p.  n.  Ocea,  which  occurs 
among  the  signatories  of  several  OE  charters.  The  distinc- 
tive names  refer  to  churches. 

Note.  In  this  connection  attention  may  be  drawn  to  the 
name  Ogletliorpe,  W.  R.  of  Yorks.  Moorman's  statement  that 
Ogle-  might  represent  the  p.  n.  Acivulf  cannot  possibly  be 
correct  on  account  of  the  DB  forms,  which  are  Ocelestorp,  Ogles- 
torp.  I  am,  on  the  contrary,  inclined  to  trace  a  diminutive 
form  of  ''''Oc{c)a,   Ocea  in  this  name,  viz.   *Ocel{a). 

Orcheston  St.  George  )  .^^^     „    .         . 

NW    01  Ames  bury. 
St.  Mary      I  -^ 

1086  (in)  Orcestone,  Oichestone  DB;  1195  de  Orcliesdeh  Feet  of 
fines;  1261  Orcheston  C.  Inq.;  1281  Horcheston  Ch.  R;  1314 
Ordrycheston  C.  Inq.;  1316  Orcheston  FA;  1428  Orcheston 
Georgii  ib.;  0.  Boyvile  ib.  (=  0.  St.  Mary). 

From  ''^Ordrices  tiin,  Ordric  being  an  OE  p.  n.  Cf.  the 
development  of  Urchfont  (Erchfont),  below'.    The  distinctive 


names  refer  to  churches.  'Boyvile'  (Bovill)  is  an  AN  family 
name  (see  Bardsley). 

Overton,  West  WSW  of  Marlborough. 

939  ■\Uferan  tuny  '\Oferan  tun{es),  -fOfretone  CS  no.  734; 
949  'Icet  Ofoertune  ib.  no.  875  (possibly  identical);  972  -^cet 
Uuertune  ib.  no.  1285;  1086  Ovretone  DB;  1284  Overton 
Ch.  E;  Edw.  I  Westovtone  Rot.  H;  1316  Overton  {Ahha- 
tisse)  FA. 

Originally  "^se  ufer{r)a  tun  ^mt  pcem  ufer{r)an  tune]. 

The  distinctive  name  in  FA  refers  to  the  abbess  of 
Wilton,  who  is  mentioned  as  tenant  here  in  DB. 

Note.  Kemble's  identification  of  XJferantune  CD  nos.  1092, 
1094  with  this  place  is  erroneous.  It  is,  on  the  contrary, 
identical  with  Overton  (SW  of  Basingstoke),  Hants,  {cet)  TJferantune 
CS  no.  1152  is  also  identical  with  this  Hants,  place,  although 
Birch  incorrectly  locates  it  in  Wilts. 

Oxenwood  ESE  of  Burbage. 

1265  Oxinwod  Pat.  R;   1332  Oxenetvode  G.  Inq. 
No  comments  needed. 

Patney  SE  of  Devizes. 

963  wt  Peatanige,  to  Peattanige,  to  Pittanige  CS  no.  1118; 
c.  1050  -^oet  Peattanigge  CD  no.  949  (prob.  identical);  1221 
Patenia  Macray;  1284  Patney  Ch.  R;  c.  1290  Pateny  T. 
EccL;  l?>m  Pateneye  Ch.  R;  1331  m  Pateneye  C.  Inq. 

The  termination  is  OE  le-^  (here  =  'marshy  land').  The 
first  element  can  hardly  be  anything  but  a  p.  n.  (of  un- 
known origin),  the  same  as  that  which  occurs  in  ^Peatting 
tune  CS  no.  587.  '^Pitta  in  Pittanige,  if  not  merely  a  mis- 
take, is  to  be  considered  as  a  variant  of  '^Peatta^  formed 
from  the  regular  patron3^mic  of  this  name  ^'Pi{e)tting\  Cf. 
Tud(d)a:  ■^■Tyd(d)a,  under  Tedworth,  below. 

Paxcroft  ENE  of  Trowbridge. 
1253  Paclcelescrofte  C,  Inq. 


The  first  element  contains  the  diminutive  of  a  p.  n.  which 
is  certainly  not  on  record  independently  but  the  existence 
of  which  is  nevertheless  proved  by  several  local  names: 
-fPeccinges  CD  no.  414,  Pceccingas  ib.  nos.  481,  715,  896  (=  Pat- 
ching, Sussex),  ^Pakenhdm  ib.  nos.  851,  957,  -\Pakinton  ib. 
no.  916,  '\Pakyngton  ib.  939  (the  two  latter  =  Packington, 
Leics.),  Padeshdm  ib.  no.  824.  The  termination  is  OE  croft 
(=  'enclosed  field'). 

Pertwood  NW  of  Hindon. 

1086  Perteworde  DB;  1166  Pteumrda  Pipe  R;  1200  Pertes- 
ivrdCj  Perteswrih  Phillipps'  ped.  fin.;  1324  Perteivorth  FA; 
1365  Perteivorth  Phillipps'  fines. 

The  first  element  was  probably  a  p.  n.,  the  same  as  that 
which  occurs  in  peartan  heal^  CS  no.  1282,  p.  587,  and 
Peartinga  ivyrth  ib.  no.  262;  cf.  also  Pertenhall,  Beds,  (see 
Skeat  PL  Ns  of  Beds.,  p.  23  f.)  The  first  member  of 
Pertnith,  found  on  a  coin  of  the  time  of  Ceolwulf  I,  seems 
to  be  the  same.  The  earlv  forms  show  that  the  termination 
of  the  present  pi.  n.   was  originally  OE  weorp. 

Pewsey  SSW  of  Marlborough. 

880 — 85  ■'feet  Pefesigge,  '\Pevesy,  -\Pefesy  CS  nos.  553,  554, 
555;  940  Pevesige  ib.  no.  748;  108Q  (de)  Pevesie  (lour  times) 
DB;  1166  Peuesia  Pipe  E;  c.  1290  Peveseija  T.  EccL;  1316 
de  Peueseye  FA;  1324  Peuesy  ib.;  1428  de  Peueseye  ib. 

The  termination  is  OE  le^  (=  marshy  land).  The  first 
element  most  probably  contains  the  p.  n.  Peiif,  found  in 
LYD  beside  the  weak  Peufa,  probably  of  Celtic  origin; 
see  Miiller,  p.  43. 

Pewsham  SE  of  Chippenham. 

1263  Peusham  Pat.  E;  1284  Peicesham  CI.  E;  1288  Peu- 
wesham  Cat.  A.  D.;  1298  Pewesham  Pat.  E;  1303  Pevesham 

^  Also    written    pyrtan   h.  in  the  same  charter,   for  which  cf. 
Pittanige  (mod.  Patney)  above. 


R.  Pat.;    1307  Pewsham  C.  Inq. ;  1315  Fewesham  ib.;   1320 
Powesham  CI.  R. 

Probably    from    '"^Peufes    ham.     For    Peuf   see  preceding- 

Pltton  E  of  Salisbury. 

1215—20  Piitton  Osmund;  1246  Putton  Ch.  E;   1255  Put{t)on 
Pat.    R;    1273    Puttone  C.  Inq.;    c.   1290  Puttene  T.  EccL: 
early  14tli  cent.  Piton  TN;  1316,   1402  Putton  FA. 
I  suggest  an  original  '''pytt-tun;  (pytt  =  'pit'). 

Porton  SE  of  Amesburv. 


1086    in    Poertonc    (prob.    identical),  Portone  DB;    1269  de 
Portone    Macray;    c.  1290    Portun    T.  EccL;    1316  Pourton 
FA;  1326  Porton  C.  Inq.;   1428  Porton  FA. 
Tlie  oriofin  of  the  first  element  is  obscure. 


Potterne  [yotd{r)n\  SSW  of  Devizes. 

1086  {in)  Poterne  DB;  1091  Potern  Osmund;  1146  Poter- 
nam  (Lat.  ace.)  Macray;  1148  Poternas^  ib.;  1195  Poterna 
Feet  of  fines;  1236  Poterne  Ch.  R;  1279  Poterna  C.  Inq.; 
1316,  1428  Potterne  FA. 

The  original  form  may  have  been  '■^■Put(f)an  cern;  Put(t)a 
is  recorded  as  an  OE  p.  n.^    Cf.  Chitterne,  Colerne,  Vasterne. 

Poulshot  [pouljdf]  SW  of  Devizes. 

1199  Paulesholt  Rot.  Cur.;  1220 — 28  de  Paulesholte  Macray; 
1228  Paleshot  CI.  R;   1272,  1219  Paul eshoH(e)  C.  Inq.;  early 

^  The  final  -s  is  no  doubt  a  mistake,  cluo  to  the  influence  of 
Caningas,    which    occurs  immediately  before  it  in  the  document. 

^  To  infer,  with  Skeat,  PI.  Ns  of  Beds.,  p.  54,  an  OE  p.  n. 
'■■Pot,  '^Fot{t)a  from  the  patronymic  Pot{t)ing-  (in  ■\Potiingtun  CD 
no.  1299,  fPotintiin  ib.  no.  1358.  and  ■\potingdu7i  ib.  1368)  is 
rather  dangerous,  as  it  is  impossible  to  know  if  the  o-vowel  is 


14th  cent.  Pawelesholt  TN;  1316  de  Paulesholte  FA;  1422 
Polesholt  Cal.  Inq.;  1428  Poulesholt  FA. 

Originally  "^Paides  holt.  The  loss  of  I  in  the  termination 
is  due  to  weakened  stress.  Note  the  spelling  pron.  of  the 
mod.  name. 

Preshute  Within  [2^refdf]  in  the  mun.  bor.  of  Marlborough. 

„         Without  adjoining  the  above. 

1185  Prestcheta  Pipe  E;  1223  de  Preschete  Macray;  1252 
PrescJmt,  Preshiit  ib. ;  c.  1290  Prescut  T.  Eccl. ;  1313  de 
Purshute  CL  R;  1314  de  Perslmfe  ib.;  1320  of  Pershute 
Pat.  E;  1332  Preshute  PhilHpps'  fines;  1338  of  Presf chute 
ib.;  1426  Presshiujte  Cal.  Inq.;  1428  Presthut  FA;  1534 
Preshet  Dugdale. 

This  cannot  possibly  be  a  pure  Germanic  name.  It  seems 
as  if  the  same  Celtic  word  as  occurs  in  Chute,  above,  is 
also  present  here. 

Purton  N^"  of  Swindon. 

796  -fPiertean  (corrupt),  "^ide)  Ptiritone,  '\Perytuii,  {^Puritun) 
CS  no.  279  (prob.  identical);  854  "^at  Peritune  (Pirigtime) 
ib.  no.  470  (prob.  ident.);  1065  •fPirituna  CD  no.  817  (prob. 
ident.);  1086  Piritone  DB;  1257  in  Peritoh  E.  fin.  exc; 
1281  Peritone  C.  Inq.;  c.  1290  Puryton  T.  Eccl.;  Pyritoa 
C.  Inq.:  1299  Pyryton  Br.  Mus. ;  1316  de  Purytone  FA; 
1428  Puryton  ib.;  1494  Pereton  C.  Inq.;  1498  Pyrton  ib.; 
1568  Perton  alias  Purton  Cat.  A.  D. 

The  first  element  is  OE  piri^e  ^  *^pear-tree'.  The  forms 
with  e  in  the  first  syllable  have,  no  doubt,  been  influenced 
by  ME  xjere  (<  OE  pere,  pern  =  NE  'pear'). 

Purton  Stoke  N  of  Purton. 

1476  Puryton  Stoke  Cat.  A.  D. 

Originally  '"^'oet  [pcem]  stoce;  see  under  Baverstock.  Purton 
is  only  a  distinctive  name  (referring  to  the  neighbouring 


Quemerford  near  Calne. 

1240 — 45    Quemerford  Macray;    1293  Quimerford  Cal.  Inq.; 

1370  Quemerford  Phillipps'  fines;   14:04,  Quimerford  Cal.  Inq. 

It  is  impossible  to  identify  the  first  element^.    The  form 

Cummer  ford,    quoted    by    Camden  p.   106,  must  be  corrupt. 

Quidhampton  W  of  Salisbury. 

1287  Quidhamton  C.  Inq.;  Edw.  I  QMe<i^am^^o?^  Plac.  Warr. ; 
1324  Quidhamptone  C.  Inq.;  1331  Quedehmnpton  Phillipps' 
fines;  1459  Qut/ddehampton  Cal.  Inq.;  1485  Quedham{p)ton 
C.  Inq.;   1493  Quydhampton,  Quedehampton  ib. 

Quid-  cannot  possibly  be  a  Germanic  element.  Cf.  Quiden- 
ham  Norfolk,  (occurring  as  Cuidenham  in  DB,  Quydenham, 
Quidynham  C.  Inq.).     -hampton  goes  back   to  OE  "^ham-tun. 

Rabson  N  of  Avebury. 

Edw.  I  Eahbedesfone  Eot.  H;    1316,   1428  Rahhedeston  FA. 
From    ^'Radhodes    tun,    Radhod    being  a  Continental-Ger- 
manic   p.  n.;    see    Forssner,    p.   205.     The  loss  of  t  in  the 
second  element  is  due  to  weakening;  cf.  Hodson,  above. 

Ramsbury  NW  of  Hungerford  (Berks.). 

909  {ad  ecclesiam)  Corvinienscm  Osmund  (prob.  referring  to 
this  place);  947  frammeshuri  CS  no.  828  (prob.  ident.);  1023 
Coruiniensis  (ecclesice)  CD  no.  737  (prob.);  1086  Ramesherie  DB; 
1091  Rammeshiri  Osmund;  c.  1125  RamesheriaW .  Malm.;  1146 
Rammesheriam  (ace.)  Macray;  1196  Rameshif  Feet  of  fines; 
1227  Remmisbiri  Ch.  R;  1240  Ramesblri  ib.;  Remmesbure 
Macray;  1275  Ramsbury  Ch.  E;  1294,  1300  Remmesbury 
ib.;  1316  Rammesbury  FA;   1428  Remmesbury  ib. 

It  is  often  a  matter  of  mere  conjecture  to  say  whether 
the  common  elements  Raven-,  Ram-  in  Engl.  pi.  ns  origin- 

^  An  OE  p.  11.  ''Civenmer  can  hardly  be  assumed,  as  tlie 
member  -mer  (whicli  would  here  represent  mdru)  is  quite  un- 
known in  female  names. 



all}^  represent  OE  Jircefn  (hrcemn)  =  'raven',  or  the  Scand. 
p.  n.  Baf{e)n  (see  Bjorkman,  Pers.  I,  p.  109).  In  the  present 
name,  hoAvever,  the  latter  alternative  is  strongly  supported 
by  the  character  of  the  second  element.  For  the  develop- 
ment of  Bafn  >  Ramn,  see  Biilbring  §  485.  The  ^-voAvel 
in  the  first  syllable  of  some  ME  forms  is  due  to  the  in- 
fluence of  the  bird's  name,  ME  rem  (<  OE  hrem). 

Ratfyn  near  AmesburA^ 

1086  RotefeId{e)  (twice)  DB^;  c.  1115,  1226  Rotefen  Osmund; 
1270  Rothefen  Ch.  R;  c.  1290  Roffen  T.  EccL;  Edw.  Ill 
Rothefen  NI;  1428  Roffen  FA;  1540  Rothfenne  Dugdale. 

Probably  from  ^Hrojjan  fen{n),  *IIropa  being  a  pet-form 
of  some  p.  n.  beginning  with  Hrop-,  e.  g.  Hropgar,  Hrop- 
muncl  (see  Mliller,  p.  105  f.).  The  change  of  o>  a  is  due 
to  the  dialectal  peculiarity  mentioned  in  connection  with 
Calcutt,  above.  It  is  curious  that  the  weakening  of  the 
second  element  has  resulted  in  -fyn  {fin)  instead  of  fdn. 
For  the  unusual  rendering  of  intervocalic  (5  by  t  m  early 
ME  documents  see  Zachrisson,  p.  115,  foot-note.  The  later 
change  of  j^  >  ^  is  due  to  the  following  fricative. 

The  place  has  a  low  situation  by  the  East  x4.von. 

Ridge  E  of  Hindon. 

1407  Rugge  Cal.  Inq.;   1558  Ridge  Br.  Mus. 
'The  ridge'  (of  the  down). 

Rockley  NW  of  Marlborough. 

1086  {in)  Rochelie  DB;  1221  Rohel  R.  L.  CL;  1270  Roclea 
Ch.  R;  1273  Rode  C.  Inq.;  1299  RouUeij  Cal.  Inq.;  1316 
Roucle  FA;  1335  Rookie  C.  Inq.;  1428  Rohele  FA;  1485 
RoJceley  C.  Inq. 


^  This  place  is  certainly  situated  in  Ambi'esbury  hundred,  and, 
if  not  identical  with  modern  Ratfyn.  the  places  seem  at  least 
to  be  connected  with  each  other  on  account  of  the  similarity  of 
the  first  elements. 


Probably  from  an  original  *(et  pceni  (peers)  hroc-Iea^e  (OE 
hroc  =  'rook^).  The  on  in  Cal.  Inq.  and  FA  may  denote 
simply  0. 

Rodbourne  S  of  Malmesbury. 

701  '\Bedhurna  (latex),  [■\Reodburna]  CS  no.  103;  758  ^'Reod- 
huma  (latex),  [\Botbiirne]  ib.  no.  185;  844  •^Bodhurne  ib. 
no.  444;  982  "fReodburna,  '\Rodburne  CD  no.  632  (prob. 
identical);  1065  Rodburna  ib.  no.  817;  1232  Redburn  CI.  K 
(or  =  R.  Cheney);  1316  Rodburne  FA;  1453  Roddeborne 
Cal.  Inq.  (or  =  R.  Cheney). 

Originally  '^cet  pceni  (pcere)  hreod-burnan  (^cet  pr£re  hreod- 
burne),  burne  referring  here  to  the  little  affluent  of  the 
Lower  Avon  which  flows  south  of  the  ancient  *^Corsburn^  ^ 
(mod.  Gauze  brook).  OE  hreod  =  'reed'.  Shifting  of  stress 
has  taken  place  in  the  OE  diphthong. 

Note.  There  seems  no  reason  to  locate  (on)  Hreodhurnan, 
■\Hredhurnan  CD  nos.  1146.  1185  in  Wilts.,  as  is  stated  in  Kemble's 

Rodbourne  Cheney  NNW  of  Swindon. 

1086  Redborne  DB;  c.  1290  Rodeburn  T.  EccL;  1316  Rod- 
burne FA;  1428  Rodebourne,  Rodeburn  ib. 

This  name,  which  has  obviously  the  same  derivation  as 
the  preceding  one,  designated  originally  the  little  stream 
here  that  runs  into  the  r.  Hay  (an  affluent  of  the  Thames). 

'Cheney'  is  an  AIST  family  name,  see  Bardsley;  and  Jones, 
p.  229. 

RoIIestone  [roulsVn']  W  of  Amesbury. 

c.  1290, 6?e  Rolvestone  T.  EccL;  1428  Rolveston,  RoulestonYK^ 
This  name  obviously  contains  the  Scand.  p.  n.  Rolf,  for 
which    see  Bjorkman,   Pers.  I,  p.   113.     The  termination  is 
OE  tun. 

^  See  under  Corston,   above. 


Rood  Ashton  SE  of  Trowbridge. 

1475  Bode  Asshefon  Cal.  Inq. ;  1596  Rowde  Asheton  Br.  Mus. 
See  Steeple  Ashton,  below.     The  distinctive  'RoocV  must 
refer  to  a  cross  which  formerly  existed  here. 

Roundway  [or  'Roundaway']  NNE  of  Devizes. 

1316  Byndeiceij  FA;  1337  Ryndivay  Phillipps'  fines;  1428 
Byng{e)ivei/  FA;  1491  Bundeivey  C.  Inq. 

The  most  plausible  origin  of  this  name  is  "Hringan  rueg 
i^'cet  Hringan  we^e)^,  "^Hringa  being  a  hypocoristic  form  of 
such  p.  ns  as  Hrmgwine,  Hringwulf.  The  modern  Boimd- 
is  in  that  case  easily  explained  as  a  popular  development, 
caused  by  ME  '^Bun-,  an  AN  rendering  of  Byng-;  (cf. 
Groundwell,  Landford,  above). 

Rowde  [roud]  NW  of  Devizes. 

1086  Bode  DB  [prob.  identical];  1205  Bodes,  Budes  R.  L. 
CI.;  1221,  1223  Budes  Pat.  E;  1261  Boudes  ib.;  c.  1290 
Boudes  T.  Eccl.;  1316  Boudes  FA;  1318  Boude  CL  R;  1330 
Bo^id  Pat.  R;  1428  Boives  (corrupt)  FA. 

It  is  not  improbable  that  this  name  represents  OE  rude  f. 
(plur.  riidan)  =  mod.  'rue'  (a  plant  of  the  genus  ^Ruta', 
formerly  used  for  medicinal  purposes).  Bowde  may  conse- 
quently be  a  pi.  n.  analogous  with  Bedwyn,  BremJiill,  above. 
Most  of  the  ME  forms  show"  substitution  of  strong  plur. 
ending  for  the  original  Aveak  one. 

Rushall  [rdfl]  SW  of  Pewsey. 

1086  Busteselve  (corrupt),  BusteseUe^  DB;  1160  Busteshala 
Pipe  R;  c.  1200  de  Busteshale  Osmund;  1207  de  Btistes- 
hall    R.  Oblat.;     1258    BusteshaJ    C.  Inq.;    1284    Busteshell 

^  The  possibility  that  the  adj.  Vound'  formed  part  of  the 
original  name  is,  on  the  contrary,  not  supported  by  the  quoted 
ME  forms. 

"  Or  possibly  meant  to  be  Lustesellc,  as  is  supposed  by  Jones, 
p.   230.  in  which  case  it  would  be  identical  with  Lushill. 


Pat.  B;  of  Eosteshale  CI.  R;  1285  (m)  Rusteshale  Ch.  U: 
c.  1290  <ie  Rusteshale  T.  EccL;  1316  rfe  Rusteshale  FA; 
1397  Rusthalle  Cal.  Inq. 

Originally  "^Rnstes  {Rustanl)  heall  (or  healh).  A  p.  n. 
*Rust  (^Rusta)  is  not  on  record,  but  its  existence  seems 
authenticated  by  the  local  Rustington,  Sussex,  (see  the  old 
forms  quoted  by  Koberts,  p.  136),  and  ^rusting  den  CS 
no.  459. 

Salisbury  or  New  Sarum. 

1146  Sarisherice  (Lat.  gen.)  Macray;  1205  Saleshif  Rot.  Qh..\ 
1218  Sarrishurie  Pat.  R\  1227  Novcb  Sarum  {Sarisherice) 
(Lat.  gen.)  Macray;  1232  Sarresbiri,  of  Saresherie  Ch.  R; 
1258  New  Sarum  C.  Inq.;  1268  apud  Sareshyriam  Ch.  E,; 
1270  Sareshury  ib.;  1289  Sarrum  C.  Inq.;  1316  Nove  Saris- 
burie  (gen.)  FA;  1336  Salesbirs  Pat.  R;  1376  Saresbirs  CI.  R; 
1428  Nova  Sarisburia  FA. 

See  Sarum,  Old,  below.  For  the  final  s  in  the  forms 
of  1336,  1376  see  Westphal  §  24. 

Salterton  NNW  of  Sahsbury. 

1309  Saltertone,  Salterton  Derneford  C.  Inq.;  1428  Salter- 
ton FA. 

Originally  *sealtera  {sealteresl)  tun.  OE  sealtere,  saltere 
=  'a  Salter",  'dealer  in  salt\  Cf.  sealtera  cumh  CS  nos.  158, 
727,  '\{on)  Salter  forda  ib.  no.  1109,  saltera  iveg  ib.  no. 
1282,  p.  588.  The  distinctive  Derneford  refers  to  the  neigh- 
bouring Durnford. 

Salthrop  SE  of  Wootton  Bassett. 

1086  Salteharpe  DB;  1198  Sauteharp  Feet  of  fines;  1240 
de  Saltharp'  CI.  R;  early  14tli  cent,  in  Saltharepe  TN; 
1328  Saltharpe  C.  Inq.;  1428  Saltharp  FA. 

Originally  ^sealt-porp,  probably  denoting  a  place  where 
salt  was  stored  for  sale.  Salt-  is  a  rather  common  element 
in  Engl.  pi.  ns.     It  is  curious  that  in  all  the  ME  forms  the 


termination  shows  weakened  stress.  Has  the  element  possibly 
been  influenced  by  the  dialectal  tendency  to  change  o  >  a 
(see  Calcutt)? 

Sandridge  NW  of  Devizes. 

1418  Sandrigge  Cal.  Inq. 
The  meaning  is  obvious. 

Sarum,  Old  N  of  Salisbury. 

[552]  cet  Searo  hyrg  AS  Chr.  [A],  Searo  hyrig  ib.  [E],  Sceles- 
heri  ib.  [F];  [1003]  to  Seafhjrig  ib.  [E,  F] ;  [1085]  to  Scare 
hyrig  ib.  [E];  1086  Sarisberie  DB;  1091  Sarum  Osmund; 
[1096,  1099,  1100,  1106]  {on,  of,  cet)  Sear  hyrig  ib.  [E]; 
[1123]  of  Seres  hyrig,  of  Sceres  hyrig,  of  Seares  hyrig  ib. 
[E];  [1125]  of  Swreshyrig  ib.  [E];  [1126,  1130]  of  Sceres  hyri 
ib.  [E];  [1132]  of  Seresheri  ib.  [E];  [1137]  of  Sereheriih.  [E]; 
1195  Veteris  Sarum  (gen.)  Macray;  1218  apud  Veteres  Saris- 
hirias  ib.;  1319  Old  Sarum  C.  Inq.;  c.  1540  Old-Sareshyry 

Old  Sarum  is  a  place  of  great  antiquity  and  is  generally 
considered  to  be  the  '"Sorhiodunum  {Sorhiodoni,  Sorvioduni) 
mentioned  in  Antoninus'  Itinerary.  If  this  is  the  case,  it 
seems  not  improbable  that  Searo-  in  Searohyrig  may  be 
simply  an  AS  corruption  of  the  first  element  of  the  Celtic 
name  (no  other  pi.  n.  containing  OE  seam  is  on  record). 
The  insertion  of  s  in  the  composition-joint  is  due  to  ana- 
logy with  other  pi.  ns  in  -hyrig,  which  as  a  rule  have  a 
gen.  s.  The  change  of  r  >  I  is  due  to  AN  infl.;  see 
Zachrisson,  pp.   120,   130. 

Sarum  was  formed  from  the  first  element  of  Sareshiiry  by 
means  of  the  Latin  ending  -um,  (see  Zachrisson :  Some  Inst, 
of  Lat.  Infl.  on  Engl.  PL  Nomencl.,  p.  11);  cf.  Meldum 
under  Malmesbury. 

Savernake  (Forest)  SE  of  Marlborough. 

933  Safernoc  (silva)  CS  no.  699;  1221  de  Savernak  E.  L. 
CI.;    1223  de  Severnak  ib.;    1232  Savernak  Ch.  E;    1246  of 


Saverndke  ib.;  1248  Savernae  ib.;  1306,  1333,  1355  SevernaJc 
CI.  E;   1354,   1426  SavernacJc  Cal.  Inq. 

This  name  can  hardly  be  Germanic.  Guest,  p.  61,  states 
as  his  opinion  that  it  is  connected  with  the  name  of  the 
River  Severn,  which  he  takes  to  be  derived  from  the  Irish 
sabQi)rann  (=  boundar}^)  ^,  Savernalce  representing  an  adj. 
'''sab{h)ranach    from    this    snbst.   [coif  (=Svood^)  understood]. 

Seagry  SSE  of  Mahnesbury. 

lOSQ  SegrieBB;  1207  Segreij 'Rot.  Gh.;  1211  Segre  R.h.  CI; 
c.   1220  Segreya  Br.  Mus.;    1232  in  Segreye,  Segrey  Ch.  R; 
1258  Segrc  C.  Inq.;   1316,   1428  Segre  FA. 
The  etymology  is  obscure. 

Sedgehill  SW  of  Hindon. 

1398  Seggchull  Cal.  Inq.;   1493  Seggehill  C.  Inq. 

The  first  element  most  probably  refers  to  the  plant-name 
sedge,  the  assumption  of  an  OE  p.  n.  ''-'Sec^a  being  hardly 

Seend  W  of  Devizes. 

1203  Sendes  Rot.  Ch.,  Cal.  Eot.  Ch.;  1269  Sende  C.  Inq.; 
1282  Sende  ib.;  1286  m  Sende  Ch.  E;  1316,  1402,  1428 
de  Sende  FA. 

This  is  no  doubt  the  same  word  as  is  contained  in  the  local 
wt  Scndan  CS  no.  1063  (according  to  Birch  =  Send,  Surrey), 
perhaps  also  the  same  as  the  first  element  in  senthylle 
ib.  no.  216,  and  '\senet  ricge  ib.  no.  1282,  p.  587.  It  seems 
not  impossible  that  Middendorff,  p.  115,  is  correct  in  assuming 
that  we  have  in  this  word  an  English  equivalent  of  the  'ober- 
deutsch'  sente  (=  Yiehof,  Yieherei)^,  but  it  is  curious  that  there 

^  See  Stokes,   p.   289,   and  Holder  II,   p.   1272. 

"  On  the  other  hand  it  is  quite  impossible  to  see  why  Mid- 
dendorff at  the  same  time  connects  this  word  with  German 
Sende  (=  Binse),   as  this  word  was  semida  in  OHGr. 


are  no  other  traces  of  the  word,  not  even  in  the  English 

Semington  NE  of  Trowbridge. 

1470  Semington  Br.  Mus. 

Originally  *Semmga  (or  "^Semmi)  tmi.  An  OE  p.  n. 
^Sema  is  certainly  to  be  connected  with  the  Scand.  Scemingry 
Semingr  (see  Lind).  Cf.  '\Semes  lod  CS  no.  125,  and  next 

Semley  NE  of  Shaftesbury  (Dors.). 

955  |o?i  Semeleage  CS  no.  917;  c.  1190  Semele  Macray; 
Edw.  I  SemeligK  Rot.  H;  1316  de  Semeleghe  FA;  1428 
Semele  ib. 

*(jet  Seman  leage.     For  *Sema  see  preceding  name. 

Sevenhampton    [called  'Sennington"]  SSE  of  Highworth. 

Hen.  Ill  Sevehampton  Cat.  A.  D.;  1262  Sevenhampton  C. 
Inq. ;  1276  Sevehampton  Ch.  R. ;  Sevenht.,  Sevehampton  Br 
Mus.;  13th  cent.  Suvenhantone  Liber  rub.;  1313  Sevene- 
hampton  Pat.  R;  1316  Sevenhampton  FA;  1330  Senhampton 
Pat.  R. 

'The  seven  homesteads'.  The  loss  of  the  original  plur. 
s  may  be  due  partly  to  the  early  weakening  of  the  first 
element,  owing  to  which  its  meaning  has  been  forgotten, 
and  partly  to  the  influence  of  the  singular  -hampton  in 
other  pi.  ns.  Sevenhampton,  Glos.,  is  also  called  'Senning- 
ton';  for  this  contraction  cf.  sennight.  For  the  ?*-vowel  in 
the  Liber  rub.  form,  see  under  Bemerton. 

Note.  It  is  very  uncertain  whether  fSeofonhcemtune  CD  no. 
767   and  -fSeofenempton  ib  no.   1324  refer  to  this  place. 

Shalbourne  [f(jelhd{r)n,  fQlhd{r)n]  SSW  of  Hungerford 

1086  Scaldehurne  (three  times),  Saldehorne  DB;  1242  Scaude- 
brne  R.  fin.  exc;  1253  Schaldesburne  IPsit.l^;  c.  1290  Schal- 

10     E.  Ekhlovi 


dehorn  T.  Eccl.;  1329  Westshaldebourne  C.  Inq. ;  1375  Chalde- 
hourne  CI.  R;  1428  Shaldebourne  FA;  1493  Shalburne  C. 
Inq.;  c.  1540  Chauburne  Leland. 

Originally  "^cet  (pa;m,  pcere)  scealdan  human  {*cet  poire  se. 
burne),  viz.  the  little  affluent  of  the  r.  Kennet  which 
passes  here.  For  OE  *sceald  (NE  shoal),  which  is  only 
recorded  in  pi.  ns,  see  Stevenson,  Trans,  of  the  Philol. 
Soc.  1895—98,  p.  532,  and  NED  (under  'shoaF)i.  ch  for 
sh  in  two  of  the  forms  above  is  merely  orthographic  (see 
Zachrisson,  p.  37  f.);  cf.  Chatv,  Charnton,  Cherston  {~  Sha,v^\ 
Sherrington,  Sherston,  below). 

Note,  {on)  Scealdehurnan  CD  nos.  598,  600,  1082,  1084  was  most 
probably  in  Soms.  and  not  identical  with  Shalbourne,  Wilts., 
as  is  stated  in  Kemble's  index.  The  same  error  is  made  by 
Birch,   CS  no.   611. 

Shaw  NW  of  Melksham. 

1166    Schaga  Pipe  E,  (prob.  identical);    1199  in  Saghe  Rot. 
Cur.  (prob.  ident.);    1285  Shaghe  Cal.  Eot.  Ch.;   1370   Chatv 
Cal.    inq.  da.;    1428  in  Shaive  FA;    1495  in  Shawe  C.  Inq. 
OE  scea^a  (=  shaw,  copse). 

Sherrington.  SE  of  Heytesbury. 

968  -fSchearntune  Reg.  Wilt.;  1086  Scarentone  (tAvice)  DB: 
1130 — 35  Serenton  Osmund;  1166  de  Slier intoh  Pipe  H; 
1247  Sernton  C.  Inq.;  1252  Sherinton  Pat.  R;  1281  Sherton 
Ch.  R;  c.  1290  de  Schertone  T.  Eccl;  1299  Scharnton  Pat.  R; 
1316  Sharenton  FA;  1324  Schrynton  ib.;  1327  Sherntone 
C.  Inq.;  1337  Sharneton  R.  Pat.,  Pat.  R;  1375  Charnton 
Cal.  Inq.;  1413  Sherrimjton  Br.  Mus.;  1428  Sharrenton, 
Schernton  FA. 

Originally  ^'scearn-tun;  OE  scearn  =  ' dung\  'filth'.  Cf. 
Scearndmi    CD    no.    518,  Scearnden  ib.  no.  700,  cBt  See  am - 

^  Middendorff's  explanation  of  the  element  in  question  (p.  Ill) 
seems  quite  absurd.  Note  also  Searle's  incorrect  assumption  of  a 
p.   n.   *Scealda. 


forda  ib.  nos.  710,  1298.  The  later  insertion  of  -ing-  is 
due  to  analogy  with  those  pi.  ns  that  contain  the  patro- 
nymic -ing. 

Sherston  WSW  of  Malmesbury. 

[1016]  cet  Sceorstane  AS  Chr.  [E],  oet  Scor[s\tane  ib.  [D] 
[perhaps  identical];  1086  Sorestone  (or  =  Sherston  Parva), 
Sorstainl  DB;  1167  Scorestan  Pipe  E;  c.  1200  Sorestan 
Osmund;  1204  Sorestan  R.  Pat.,  de  Sorestan  E.  L.  CL; 
c.  1207  Sorestane  Br.  Mus.;  1227  Schorestafi  Omxiund;  1237 
Shorestan  Ch.  E;  Schorestan  Pat.  E;  1240,  1247  Shorestan 
Ch.  E;  1248  Sherestan  ib.;  1252  Schorstan  ib.;  1280  Sher- 
ston Magna  Pat.  E;  Edw.  I  in  Sereston  Plac.  Warr.;  c.  1290 
Scherston  T.  EccL;  1316  Sherston  FA;  1334  Sherston  C. 
Inq.;  1337  Sharston  E.  Pat.;  Magna  Cherston  Pat.  E;  1338 
Sharston  ib.;  1340  Magna  Sherstan  ib.;  Shareston  E.  Pat.; 
1428  Sherston  FA. 

It  is  obvious  that  the  termination  of  this  name  was  OE 
stdn.  The  first  element  I  am  inclined  to  think  is  the  same 
M''ord  as  NE  shore.  This  is  certainly  not  recorded  as  an 
independent  Avord  till  the  14th  cent.,  but  is  found  in  pi.  ns 
as  early  as  the  11th  cent.:  Shoreham,  Sussex,  occurs  as 
Sorham  Cal.  France  A.  D.  1073,  and  as  Sore{s)ha  DB;  Shor- 
well,  Isle  of  Wight,  as  Soreivelle  DB.  In  the  case  of  the 
Sussex  name  it  is  evident  that  the  first  element  denotes 
'sea-shore',  and  this  may  also  have  been  the  case  with 
Shorivell  (although  this  place  at  the  present  day  is  situated 
at  a  distance  of  2  miles  from  the  coast).  But  it  seems 
also  to  be  a  fact  that  the  element  in  question  occurs  in 
names  of  places  situated  far  inland:  Shorediteh  SSE  of 
Taunton,  Soms.,  Shoreham  N  of  Sevenoaks,  Kent,  Shore, 
near  Rochdale,  Lanes.,  and  the  name  under  notice.  Judging 
from  these  names,  it  would  seem  as  if  shore  might  origin- 
ally have  denoted  not  only  'border  between  land  and 
water  but  also  'border  between  two  different  territories'; 
(of.  the  significance  of  OE  ora).    This  explanation  is  specially 


suitable  in  the  case  of  Sherston  on  account  of  its  situation 
near  the  borders  of  Grlos.  Sherstoyi  may  consequently  have 
meant  'boundary-stone'. 

The  change  of  o  >  e  in  the  first  syllable,  which  did  not 
take  place  until  the  change  of  -staii  >  -ston,  is  most  prob- 
ably to  be  considered  as  a  dissimilatory  process. 

Note.  McClure's  explanation,  p.  286,  foot-note  II,  that  the 
first  element  represents  OE  scear,  the  name  consequently  denoting 
%i  stone  with  a  sharp  edge'  is  impossible.  If  this  was  the  case, 
how  is  the  o  vowel  to  be  explained? 

Sherston   Parva  or  Pinkney  near  Sherston. 

1316,   1428  Sherston  Parva  FA. 

'Pinkney',  according  to  Bardsley  an  AN  family  name, 
refers  to  E-alph  de  Pinkeny,  who  held  lands  here  in  the 
13th  cent.;  see  Jones,  p.  232. 

Shorncote  NW  of  Cricklade. 

1086  Schernecote  DB;  1234  de  Sernekote  CI.  R;  1268  Sernekote 
C.  Inq. ;  c.  1290  de  Cernecote  T.  EccL;  1316  de  Cernecote  FA; 
1334  Cornecote  C.  Inq.;  1397  Sharnecote  Cal.  Inq.  (prob. 
identical);  1428  Cernecote,  in  Shernecote  FA. 

Zachrisson,  p.  159,  who  gives  this  name  as  an  example 
of  the  change  of  tf>f,  due  to  French  influence,  suggests 
that  it  may  be  derived  from  the  River  'Churn  (like  Ciren- 
cester^ Glos.).  The  present  situation  of  the  place  is  cer- 
tainly about  a  mile  from  this  river,  but  it  is  probable, 
however,  that  Zachrisson's  view  is  correct.  'Churn'  is  of 
course  a  Celtic  name  (see  Baddeloy,  pp.  38^  42). 

Shrewton    WNW  of  Amesbury. 

1236  Winterhurn  Shyreveton  Ch.  R;  Winterburne  Sireveton 
Cal.  Rot.  Ch.;  Edw.  I  in  Schreveton  Plac.  Warr.;  c.  1290 
S chirr eneston  T.  P]ccl.  {n  mistake  for  r);  1302  Wy7itrehu7m 
Shirveton  Pat.  R;    1310  Sherrevetone,  Wynierhorn  Sherretonc 


C.  Inq. ;  1316  Slier evetoyi  FA;  1S22  Wynterbourn  Schireueton 
0.  Inq.;  1428  Shereveton  FA. 

Originally  *scir^erefan  tun.  For  sclrgerefa  (sheriff)  see 
NED.  The  distinctive  name  refers  to  the  affluent  of  the 
Wiley    that    passes    here  (see  Winterbourne  Stoke,  below). 

Slaughterford  NW  of  Corsham. 

1175  Slachtoneford  Pipe  B;  c.  1290  Slahteford,  Slalit  ere  ford 
T.  EccL;  1298  Slaghteneford  CI.  E;  1299  Slaghtenford  Pat.  R; 
1300  Slaghtenford  ib.;  1316  Slaghterford  FA;  Edw.  Ill 
Sla(u)ghtenford  NI;  1428  Slaghtreford  FA. 

According  to  Camden,  p.  103,  tradition  has  connected  this 
name  with  a  great  slaughter  of  the  Danes  which  was  suppos- 
ed to  have  taken  place  here.  Stevenson,  who  takes  the  oppor- 
tunity of  discussing  the  etymology  of  this  name  in  his  edition 
of  Asser's  Life  of  King  Alfred,  p.  275  f.,  clearly  proves, 
however,  that  it  has  nothing  to  do  with  the  subst.  '^slaughter' 
and  consequently  that  the  tradition  has  no  foundation.  Ste- 
venson suggests,  on  the  other  hand,  an  etymology  which  seems 
very  probable.  On  account  of  the  forms  with  the  first  element 
in  -n  (which  occur  too  frequently  to  be  merely  orthographical 
mistakes)  he  derives  this  element  from  OE  sldh-porn  (=  sloe- 
thorn).  Cf.  Slaughter  and  Slaughterford,  Glos.,  which  are 
analogous;    (see  the  old  forms  quoted  by  Baddeley). 

Smithcot  W  of  Wootton  Bassett. 

1086  Smitecote  DB;  early  14th  cent.  Smithcot,  Smethecote, 
in  Smezecote  TN;  1428  in  Smethecote  FA;  1536  to  Smethcote 
Br.  Mus. 

Originally  '^'smippe-cot{e)  or  perhaps  *smipes  cot(e).  OE 
smippe  =  'smithy'.  As  to  t  for  th  in  the  DB  form,  see 
Zachrisson,  p.  115,  foot-note.  The  change  of  i>e  is  dis- 
cussed under  Biddestone,  above. 

Somerford,  Great  and  Little  SE  of  Malmesbury. 

683  Sumerford  CS  no.  65;  931  Sumerford  ib.  no.  671;  956 
pomerford  ib.  no.  922;    1065  Sumerford  CD  no.  817;  1086 


Sumreford,  in  Somreforde  DB;  1232  Sumerford  Cli.  li;  1252 
Somerford  Maudut  Cal.  Eot.  Ch.  (=  Little  S.);  12^4:  Sumer- 
ford Maudut  Pat.  E.;  1333  Somerford  Mauduyt  Br.  Mus.; 
1428  Sooner  ford  Magna,  Parva  FA. 

The  name  indicates  that  the  Avon  at  this  place  was  only 
fordable  in  summer.  'Mauduit'  (Maldoit)  is  an  AN  family 
name;  see  Hildebrand,  p.  338.  For  further  information 
see  Jones,  p.  235. 

Note.  Sumerford  CD  no.  714  and  '\{to)  Sumceres  forda  ib.  no. 
1093  were  not  in  Wilts,  although  Kemble  states  that  they  were. 
The  former  may  be  Somerford  Keynes,  Glos.,  and  the  latter 
was  situated  in  Surrey  or  Hants. 

Sopworth  W  of  Sherston. 

1086  Sopetvorde  DB;  1252  Shoptvurfh  Ch.  E  (corrupt); 
Edw.  I  de  Suppeworth'  Plac.  Warr. ;  c.  1290  Soppewrth, 
Soppeivroth  T.  EccL;  1316  de  Soppeiuorthe  FA;  1318  Soppe- 
worth  Ch.  E;   1428  Soppeivorth  FA. 

From  '^Soppan  weorp.  The  first  element  is  obviously 
the  same  p.  n.  as  occurs  in  the  local  Sop2)anhyrig  CS  no. 
582.  A  corresponding  German  Soppo  is  recorded  by  Searle. 
Cf.  Sop  well,  Herts,  (see  Skeat,  PI.  Ns  of  Herts.,  p.  53)  and 
Sopley,  Hants.  (1086  Sopelie  DB,  1262,  1274  Soppele,  C.  Inq.). 
As  to  d  for  th  in  the  DB  form,  see  Stolze  §  38. 

Southbroom  St.  James  adjoining  Devizes. 

1227  Suthhrome  Macray;  Suthhrmi  Ch.  E  (corrupt);  1231 
Suthbnim  Pat.  E;  1308  Suthhrom  Br.  Mus.;  1491  in  South 

The  second  element  is  OE  hrom.  'St.  James'  is  the  name 
of  a  church. 

Southwick  SW  of  Trowbridge. 

Hen.  in   Southwick    Br.  Mus.;    1322  (of)  Sotheivyke  Ch.  E. 
For  wiclc  (OE  wlc)  see  under  Berwick  (Bassett). 


Standen  NE  of  Ludgershall. 

1086    Standene    DB    (identical    according    to    Jones);    1249 
Standeii  Ch.  R;  1327  Staundene  Cal.  Inq. 

Originally  '^stan-dene  (denu).  For  Staunden  see  Zachris- 
son  §  9. 

Note.  Standene  CD  nos.  133,  430,  fStaunden  ib.  no.  520  p. 
417,  and  Standene  ib.  no.  1235  were  obviously  not  situated  in 
Wilts.,  as  Kemble  assumes.  The  first  of  these  seems,  however, 
to  be  identical  with  North  Standen,  (Berks.)  near  the  Wilts, 

Standlynch  SSE  of  Salisbury. 

Edw.  I    Stanling'   Eot.  H;    1361  Stallynch  Br.  Mus.;    1388 
Stanlynch  ib.;  1403  Stanlynch  Phillipps'  fines. 

Originally  *stdn-hlinc.  OE  hli7ic  =  'rising  ground',  'ridge'. 
For  the  inorganic  d  in  the  mod.  form  cf.  Horn  §  185. 

Stanton   Fitzwarren  SW  of  Highworth. 

1086    Stantone  DB  74  a;    c.  1290  Stauntofi  T.  Eccl.;    1316 
Stau7iton  FA. 

Originally  '^stan-tun,  which  may  have  denoted  'an  enclos- 
ure   fenced    in    by    stones'    as    well    as   'an  end.  on  stony 
round'.     'Fitzwarren'  is  an  AN  family  name. 


Stanton  St.  Bernard  E  of  Devizes. 

903  Stantun"^  OS  no.  600;    957  Stantun^   ib.  no.  998;    960 
Stantun^    ib.    no.    1053;    1086  Stcmtone  DB  67  d;    1267  de 
Sfantofie  Macray;  c.  1290  Staunton  T.  Eccl. 
'St.  Bernard'  is  a  famil}^  name. 

^  The  identity  is  not  quite  certain  but  may  be  assumed  on 
account  of  the  fact  that  "^Wodnes  die'  is  mentioned  among  the 
boundaries.  The  statement  in  Birch's  CS  that  they  represent 
S.   Fitzwarren  is,   however,   quite  incorrect. 


Stanton  St,  Quintin  NNW  of  Chippenham. 

1086    Stantone  DB  72  d;    1286  Stanton  St.  Quintin  Ch.  R; 
c.  1290  Staunton  T.  Eccl. ;  1428  Staunton  (Sancti  Quintini)  FA. 
'St.  Quintin    is  an  AN  family  name. 

Stapleford  NNW  of  Wilton. 

1086  Stapleford  DB;  c.  1115  Stapetford  Osmund;  1139? 
Stapelford  Macray;  1239,  1322  Stapleford  Ch.  R;  1428  Sta- 
ptdford  FA. 

The  first  element  is  WS  stapol  =  ^a  post',  'a  pillar'  (prob- 
ably erected  here  to  indicate  the  shallow  place  in  the 

Staverton  [stwvd{r)fn]  N  of  Trowbridge. 

1086  Stavretone  DB;  c.  1540  Stavertun  Leland. 

This  name  is  most  probably  to  be  derived  from  ■'■'stcefera 
(or  ^'stwferes)  tun,  OE  ''^stcefere  being  a  nomen  agentis  from 
st(Ff  (=  letter,  character),  consequently^  meaning  ''a  scribe' 
(cf.  hocere).  Cf.  Staverton,  Northants.,  which  occurs  as  '\(to) 
stcefer  tune  CS  no.  792,  p.  542,  Staverton,  Glos.^,  and  Star- 
ton,  Warws.  ^ 

Steeple  Ashton  E  of  Trowbridge. 

880—885  cet  JEsctune,  -fde  Asclc{e)tune  CS  nos.  553 — 55 
[prob.  identical];  1086  Aistone  DB;  c.  1290  de  Hastone, 
Astone  T.  Eccl;  1316  Asshton  FA;  Edw.  Ill  Stepell  Asschton 
NI;  1470  Stepulasshton  Br.  Mus.;  1485  Stepid  Aisshton 
C.  Inq. 

The  original  name,  which  also  indicated  the  neighbouring 
Hood  Ashton  and  West  Ashton,  seems,  on  account  of  the 
first  CS  form  above,  to  have  been  cesc-tun  (OE  a^sc  =  ash- 
tree).    scJc  for  s{c)h  (in  CS)  is,  no  doubt,  merely  orthographic. 

^  See  the  old  forms  given  in  Baddeley,  p.  146,  and  Duignan, 
PI.  Ns  of  Warws.,  p.  106.  The  explanations  given  by  these 
scholars  seem,   on  the  contrary,   far  from  convincing. 



Note.  Birch's  identification  of  yAshtone  CS  no.  1127  with 
this  place  is  very  doubtful,  for  the  boundaries  given  do  not 
point  to  this.  There  is  just  as  little  reason  for  identifying 
fAscesdune  CD  246,  jAysshedoune  ib.  no.  415,  and  -fees  dune  ib. 
no.  446  with  any  of  the  present  Ashtons  in  Wilts.,  though 
Kemble  does  so. 

Steeple  Langford  NW  of  Wilton. 

957    |o>i    langan    ford    CS  no.  992 ;  963  cet  langanforda  ib. 

no.   783;   1086  Langeford^;   1256  Lange ford  C.  Inq.;  c.  129a 

Langeford  Magna  T.  EccL;    1294  Stepel  Langeford  Pat.  E,; 

1309    Stupellangeford    C.  Inq.;    1316  Steppul  Lang  ford  FA. 

The    original  name  also  refers  to  the  adjoining  Hanging 

L.  and  L.  Little  (see  above). 

Note.  There  seems  no  reason  for  locating  j-Langeforth  CS  no. 
901   in  Wilts.,   as  Birch   does. 

Stert  SE  of  Devizes. 

1086  Sterte  DB;  1269  Sterte  C.  Inq.;  1311  Steurte  Pat.  E; 
1313  Steorte  CI.  R;  1315  (of)  Sterte  Ch.  E;  1326  of  Sturte 
Fine  E;  1330  Steorte  E.  Pat.;  1333  Sturt  CI.  E;  1342 
Sturte  Cal.  Eot.  Ch.;  1402  in  Steerte  FA;  14:28  in  Sterte  ih . 
OE  steort  {=  tail;  projecting  point).  Stert  is  situated  on 
the  greensand  in  the  Pewsey  valley  below  the  escarpment 
of  the  chalk-downs,  and,  as  is  often  the  case  in  the  green- 
sand  districts,  projecting  spits  or  points  beside  deep,  narrow 
valleys  are  found  here.  It  is  evident  that  such  a  spit 
must  have  given  the  present  place  its  name.  For  ME  u 
representing  OE  eo  see  under  Bemerton.  The  mod.  spelling- 
is  archaic. 

Stitchcombe  E  of  Marlborough. 

1086    Stotecome    DB;    1216   de   Stotecumbe  E.  L.  CI.;    1227 
Stutescumh'  CI.  E;  Edw.  I  de  Studescombe  Eot.  H;  1316  ^e 

^  There  are  three  Langefords  in  the  Imndr.  of  Branche  men- 
tioned in  DB  (fol.  68  a,  68  d,  and  72  a)  each  probably  referring 
to  one  of  the  three  mod.  Langfords  here  (Hanging  L.,  Little  L., 
and  Steeple  L.). 


Stutescomhe  FA;  1414  Stotescombe  Phillipps'  fines;  1424  of 
Stotescombe  Cat.  A.  D. 

We  may  assume  an  original  "^Stutan  cumb^  ''^Stuta  being 
probably  a  hypocoristic  form  of  some  compound  p.  n.  with 
Stut-  as  the  first  member,  of  which  '''Stutheard  and  *Stuthere 
seem  to  have  existed,  judging  from  the  local  '\{to)  stutardes 
cumbe  CS  no.  814  and  Kon)  shiteres  hylle  ib.  nos.  179,  628, 
905.  Cf.  also  '\stuting  CD  no.  773  (=  Stowting,  Kent?).  The 
late  change  of  8tut{e)s-  >  Stitch-  must  be  due  to  popular 
etymology.  It  is  interesting  to  notice  a  similar  development 
in  another  name:  Stu{t)chhiinj,  Northants.  (early  13th  cent. 
Stutesbyr  Br.  Mus.,  c.  1230  Stotesbur  ib.).  For  the  absence 
of  b  in  the  I)B  form  see  Stolze  §  34. 

Stockley  S  of  Calne. 

1335  Stohkele  Cal.  Inq.  (prob.  identical);  1445  Stockley  Cal. 
Eot.  Ch.;  [n.  d.]  of  StocMeghe  Cat.  A.  D. 

*cBt  [pmm,  pcere]  stoc(c)'leagp  (probably  =  'a  meadow  with 
stumps  of  felled  trees'). 

Stockton  SE  of  Heytesbury. 

1086  Stottune  DB;  1130 — 35  Stoctun  Osmund;  1189  Stocton 
Br.  Mus.;  1284  Stocton  Ch.  R;  c.  12^0  de  StottoneT.^GoX.] 
1316  StoUon  FA. 

OE  *stoc{c)-tun  (pr-obably  =  'an  enclosure  fenced  in  with 
stocks  or  posts'),  t  for  c  in  two  of  the  forms  aboA^e  is  an 
error  (due  to  the  similarity  of  these  letters). 

Stoford  [stoufd{r)d]  N  of  Wilton. 
1284  Stoford  C.  Inq.;    1352  Stouford  CI.  R;    1453  Stofford 
Cal.  Inq.;   1559  Stovorde  Br.  Mus. 

Probably  from  '^stow-ford;  OE  stow  =  'placed  "^dwelling', 
'house'.     Cf.  Stowford,  below. 

Stoke  Farthing   hi  of  Broad  Chalk, 
c.   1190  Stokes  Macray  (prob.  identical);   1258  Stokes  Ch.  R; 


1273  StoJc  C.  Inq.;  1316  StoJce  Verdon  ib.;  1316  de  Stoke 
FA;  1-128  in  StoJce  Verdon  ib. 

*cet  [p(^7n]  stoce  [stocuml^];  see  under  Baverstock.  'Far- 
thing' is  nothing  but  a  corruption  of  the  French  surname 
'Verdon . 

Stokke  [stok]  near  Gr.  Bedwyn. 

1230—40  Stoh  de  Stoke  Macray;  1312  Stokke  Cal.  Inq.; 
1335  Stoche  C.  Inq.;  1360  La  Stoke  Cal.  Inq.;  1428  in 
Stokke  FA. 

OE  stoc  =  'place'.  Stokke  is  an  orthographic  contamina- 
tion of  "Stock  (<  OE  stoc)  and  Stoke  (<  OE  cet  stoce). 

Note.  (cBt)  Stoce  CS  do.  611,  CD  nos.  1082,  1084  is  certainly 
not  identical  with  this  place,  as  is  stated  by  Birch  and  Kemble. 
but  was  probably  situated  in  Soms. 

Stonehenge  [stounhentf]. 

12th  cent.  Stanhenges  Luard,  Ann.;  Stanenges  Henry  of 

Stonehenge^  the  extensive  group  of  megalithic  stones  on 
Salisbury  Plain,  W  of  Amesbury,  is,  no  doubt,  derived 
from  OE  '^stan-henc^a  (plur.).  OE  "^'henc^  f.  (<  prim.  Germ. 
''^hangjci-;  cognate  with  hangian)  is  ME  heng{e),  NE  hinge 
(of.  MLG  henge  f.).  In  order  to  explain  the  meaning  of 
the  name  it  is  necessary  to  state  that  the  so-called  outer 
circle  at  Stonehenge  consists  of  standing  stones  upon  which 
other  blocks  of  stone  are  laid  horizontally^.  The  original 
^stdn-henc^a  may  therefore  refer  to  these  horizontal  stones 
which  appear  to  'hang'  on  the  others.  For  the  date  of 
Stonehenge  see  Guest,  p.  212  ff. 

^  The  plural  forms  in  Macray  and  Ch.  R.  may  of  course 
equally  probably  have  originated  in  ME. 

^  Originally  there  were  30  upright  stones  and  as  many  hori- 
zontal ones;  at  the  present  day,  there  are  only  17  of  the  former 
and  6  of  the  latter  left. 


Stourton   [std9(r)fn]  NW  of  Mere. 

1086  Stortone  DB  (prob.  identical);  1199  de  Sturtoh  U.  Oblat.; 
1255  Storton  Pat.  E;  1291  Sturton  C.  Inq.;  1299  Stourton 
Cal.  Inq.;  1315  Stotirtone  C.  Inq.;  1428  Stourton  FA;  c.  1540 
Stoiirtouyi  Leland. 

The  place  has  got  its  name  from  the  River  Stour,  which 
rises    in    this    neighbourhood  ^     Stour  is  a  Celtic  name  ^. 

Stowell  NW  of  Pewsey. 

1300  StoweUe  Ch.  R. 

Probably  from  OE  '•'stdw-/vyll(e).  OE  stow  =  'place',  'dwel- 
ling', 'house'. 

Stowford  SW  of  Bradford. 

1458  Stowford  Br.  Mus. 
See  Stoford,  above. 

Stratford  sub  Castle  NW  of  Salisbury. 

1091  Stratford  Osmund;  1316  de  Stratforde  ¥A;  USb  Strat- 
ford (-under-tJie-Castlc-of-Old-Sarum)  C.  Inq. 

OE  "^strM-ford.  Two  Roman  roads  crossed  the  Avon  here: 
the  road  running  south-west  to  Dorchester  and  Eggardou 
Hill,  and  the  road  west  towards  the  Bristol  Channel^.  The 
village  is  situated  at  the  foot  of  the  hill  on  which  the 
fortified  Castle  of  Old  Sarum  was  situated. 

Stratford  Toney  SW  of  Sahsbury. 

670  -fStretford  CS  no.  27;  826  -fStretford  ib.  no.  391;  905 
'\Stretford  ib.  no.  690;  948  -fStretford  ib.  no.  863;  961 
■\Stretford  ib.  no.  1071;  986  ■\Stretford  CD  no.  655;  997 
\str6tford  ib.  no.  698;  1086  Stradford  DB;  1309  Stretford 
C.  Inq.;  1315  Stratford  Tonij,   1316  de  Stratforde  FA. 

'  Leland  says  about  this  place  (part  X):  'The  ryver  of  Stoure 
riseth  there  of  6  fountaines  or  springs'. 

^  That  the  river  name  in  question  should  have  been  introduced 
from  the  Continent,  as  is  assumed  by  Jelhnghaus,  p.  333,  seems 
most  improbable. 

^   See  Guest.,   p.   218  ff.   [The  four  Roman  ways.] 


OE    "^ street-ford.     The    Roman    road    between  Old  Sarum 

and    Dorchester    crossed    the    r.    Ebble  at  this  place.     For 

Stradford  cf.  Bredford.  (Britford).    For  the  distinctive  name 

see  Newton  Toney,  above. 

Note.  yStreteford  CD  no.  398,  ^Stretforde  ib.  no.  460,  and 
'\StrcBdford  ib.  no.  571  were  obviously  not  identical  with  this 
place  (as  is  stated  by  Kemble).  The  two  former  were  situated 
in  the  NW  corner  of  Wilts,  (or  perhaps  in  Glos.  near  the  Wilts, 
border),  the  latter  near  the  r.  Kennet  (between  Marlborough  and 

Stratton  St.  Margaret  NE  of  Swindon. 
Stratton.   Upper  adjoining  the  above. 

1086  Str atone  DB;  1279  Ketherestratton,  Overestratton  Cat. 
A.  D.;  1304  Overe  Stratton  Cal.  Inq.;  1316  Stratton  Inferior, 
Stratton  Superior  FA;  1427  Stretton  sancf  Margaref  Cal. 
Rot.  Ch. 

OE  ^strdit-tun.  The  places  are  situated  on  the  ancient 
Roman  road  which  passed  between  the  ancient  Cunetio 
(near  Marlborough)  and  Cirencester  (Glos.).  'St.  Margaret' 
is  the  name  of  a  church. 

Studley  W  of  Calne. 
1194    Stodleia    Rot.    Cur.;     1232    Stodleg    Ch.    R;    1240   de 
Stodlege  Macra}-. 

Originally  "^cet  [fdem,  pcere^  stod-Iea^e;  OE  st od  = 'sti\d\ 
^herd  of  horses'. 

Surrendell  SW  of  Malmesbury. 
1086  Sirendone  DB  [prob.  identical];    1316  Suryndene  FA; 
1330—35    Cyrendene    Br.   Mus.;    1428   Serenden  FA;    1567 
Sorenden  Br.  Mus. 

The  first  element  may  have  contained  a  p.  n.  '-'Si/ra, 
probably  the  same  as  occurs  in  Sirintone  (Sussex)  DB, 
Sirestun  (Notts.)  ib.,  and  mod.  Syresliam  (Northants.)  [1284 
Siresham  FA].  Judging  from  the  present  situation  of  the 
place,  the  termination  seems  to  have  been  denu  (dene).  The 
change  of  the  final  7i  into  I  Avas  a  dissimilatory  process. 


Sutton  Benger  NNE  of  Chippenham. 

854  ta^  Suttune  CS  no.  470;  at  Sudtune  Thorpe;  956  "Tfde 
Suttone  CS  no.  922  (possibly  identical);  1065  •\Suttuna  CD 
no.  817;  c.  12d0  Suttone  T.  ^cc\.;  ISIQ  de  Sottone'F A;  1377 
Siideton  Berenger  E,.  Pat.;  1488  Sutton  Benger  C.  Inq. 

OE    sud-tun.     'Benger     is    a    contraction    of    the    French 

Note.      Sudtmi  CD  no.   319  was  in  Dors,   (not  in  Wilts.,  as  is 
stated  in  Kemble's  index). 

Sutton  Mandeville  SE  of  Hindon. 

1086  Sudtone  DB  72  b  (identical  according  to  Jones);  1275 
Sutton  {Maundevyle)  C.  Inq.    1428  Sutton  {Maundevyle)  FA. 
See    above.     'Mandeville'    is    an    AN    family  name.     See 
Jones,  p.  234. 

Sutton   Veny  near  Heytesbury. 

1086  Sutone,  in  Sudtone  DB  72  b,  73  b;  1225  Magna  Sutton 
Pat.  R;  c.  1290  Fenni  Sutton  T.  Eccl.;  1298  Great  Sutton 
Ch.  R;  1316  Fenny  Sutton  C.  Inq.;  1341  Fenny-suttoyi 
Br.  Mus. 

See  above.  According  to  Bardsley,  'Fenny'  is  a  native 
family  name.  The  use  of  v  initially  in  place  of  f  (just  as 
z  for  s)  is,  according  to  Ellis,  p.  38,  one  of  the  most  con- 
spicuous features  of  the  western  Mid  Southern  dialect.  (Cf. 
Vasterne,  Zeals,  below). 

Swallowcliffe  SE  of  Hindon. 

940  Stvealewandif,  to  Sivealewanclife  CS  no.  756;  1086 
Svaloclive  (three  times)  DB;  1150 — 60,  1220  de  Sivaleiveclive 
Osmund;  1275  of  SivalJclyfe,  Sivaluweclive  C.  Inq.;  1288 — 
92?  in  SualwecUffe  Br.  Mus.;  c.  1290  de  Swaluclive  T.  Eccl.; 
1339  Swalclyff  Pat.  H;  1428  in  Swaluclyve,  de  Sivalu- 
dyffe  FA. 

'The  swalloAV-clifP.  Bjorkman,  Pers.  I,  p.  134,  gives  a 
Scand.    p.    n.  Sualeua,  but  there  is  no  reason  to  assume  a 


p.  n.  here.    Cf.  SwalcUffe,  Oxfs.  (Alexander,  PL  Ns  of  Oxfs.),. 
and  Swalecliffe,  Kent,  both  of  the  same  origin. 

Note.  Whether  {cet)  Swaletvanclife  CS  no.  874  (CD  no.  1176) 
was  situated  in  Wilts.,  it  is  impossible  to  say.  In  CS  it  is 
given  as  identical  with  Swalecliffe,  Kent,  in  CD  with  Swallow- 
cliffe,  Wilts. 


1086  Svindune,  (ih)  Svindone  DB;  1205  de  Sivinedoh  R.  L. 
CI. ;  1252  Sivindon  Ch.  R;  Edw.  I  in  (Alta)  Sivvrnden  Rot.  H; 
1302  Hautesivyndon  Rot.  Orig. ;  1304  (juxta)  Altmn  Swyndon 
Cal.  Inq. ;  1323  Swijndon  Valence  C.  Inq.;  1324  Swyndon 
Valence  Fine  R;  Heghe  Swyndon  FA;  1386  Hisivyndon  Cal. 
Inq.;  1488  Hi  Sivynden  C.  Inq.;  1495  Thevyn  ^  Stvyndon  ih. 
Originally  *swln(a)  dim.  The  old  forms  above  obviously 
refer  to  different  parts  of  the  place.  'Valence^  is  a  French 
surname.  For  further  information  about  it  see  Jones, 
p.  235. 

Tedworth  or  Tidworth,  North  SW  of  Ludgershall. 

1086  Todeiv(o)rde  (three  times)  DB;  1178?  Thudeivrda  Jo- 
hannis  Marescalli,  T.  Hogonis  de  Lacy  Br.  Mus. ;  1199  de 
Thodesivrth  Hug  de  Lasci,  Thotvrtha  Joins  Maresc  Rot.  Ch.; 
1205  Tudeivord,  Thudesivrth  R.  Oblat. ;  early  13th  cent. 
Tudetvorth  Br.  Mus.;  1227  Tudeuurth  Ch.  R;  1232  Tucle- 
worth  ib.;  1234  de  TuddeiviirtK  CI.  R;  1270  Tudeworda 
Johannis  Marescalli,  T.  Hugonts  de  Lacy  Ch.  R;  1278  North- 
tudewrthe  C.  Inq.;  1289  Todeivorth  ib.;  1S14:  Northtodeivoj'th 
ib. ;  1316  de  Tudeworthe  FA;  1324  Todeivorth  Meleivys  "Pat.  R; 
1428  Tudetvorth  FA. 

In  the  case  of  this  name  it  seems  necessary  to  assume 
two  orit^inal  variants:  '^Tud{d)an  iveorp  (represented  by  the 
many  ME  forms  with  o  in  the  first  syllable)  and  '^Tyd{d)an 
weorp  (which  has  survived).  ^Tyd{d)a  is  to  be  explained 
as  formed  from  '^'Tyd{d)ing,  the  patronymic  of  Tud(d)a  (for 

^  =  The  even. 


this  p.  n.  see  Miiller,  p.  60).  Cf.  the  discussion  of  the 
first  elements  of  Dur  ring  ton,  Lydiard,  Patney,  above.  The 
mod.  Ted-  is  due  to  the  influence  of  a  dialectal  tendency 
to  change  i  >  e  (see  under  Biddestone). 

Of  the  distinctive  family-names  'Melewys'  (Melhuish)  is 
native,  the  others  are  AN.     See  also  Jones,  p.  237. 

Teffont  Evias  or  Ewyas  |  ^^r     o  ^tti, 

>  W  of  Wilton. 
„        Magna  ) 

860  -\he  Tefuntc  CS  no.  500;  [940  •fteofuntinga  gemcere  ib. 
no.  757];  964  -^at  Teofunten,  -fad  Teofontem  ib.  no.  1138 
[perhaps  identical];  c.  1290  Teffunte  T.  Eccl.;  1292  de 
Tefhunte  Pat.  E;  1316  de  Teffunte  FA;  1335  Teffonte  Ewyas 
C.  Inq. ;  1374  Tefent  Br.  Mus.;  1428  in  Teffonte  Eiuijas, 
Tevent  FA;  1493  Over  Teffent  C.  Inq.  (=  T.  Magna). 

I  derive  this  name  from  '^Teoivan  font  (ftoit),  '-'Teowa  being 
a  hypocoristic  form  of  such  a  name  as  e.  g.  "^Teowald 
(Tiuuald,  Tiouald,  see  Miiller,  p.  85).  Cf.  the  local  "^teoue 
lege,  Ifteofe  leoge  CS  no.  204,  {^)teowes  pome  ib.  no.  279 
(the  latter  prob.  in  Wilts.,  near  Purton).  OE  font  i^funt) 
=  ""fountain",  'weir.  In  the  earliest  ME,  the  iv  has  been 
assimilated  to  the  following  f  and  the  long  vowel  has 
normally  been  shortened  before  two  consonantal  sounds. 

For  the  distinctive  name,  see  Jones,  p.  79,  foot-note. 

Thickwood  W  of  Chippenham. 

1086  Ticoode  DB;    c.  1460  ThiJcwode  Cal.  Rot.  Ch.;  [n.  d.] 
Thicwode,  pycwode  Reg.  Malm. ;  1540  Thychewood  Dugdale. 
The    sense  is  clear.     As  to  the  AN  substitution  of  t  for 
initial  J>,  see  Zachrisson  §  2. 

Throope  near  Stratford  Toney. 

1328  Throp,  Thorp  C.  Inq.;  1428  Le  Throp  FA. 

Originally  '"^cet  pcem  prope.     The  mod.  spelling  is  archaic. 


Tidcombe  SE  of  Burbage. 

1086    Titicome    DB    (prob.  identical);    early  Hen.  Ill  Tyde- 

ciimbe  Br.  Mus.;  1230—40  Ttjdecomh  Macray;  1252  de  Tite- 

cambe  Ch.  R;    1285  Tidecombe  C.  Inq. ;    1298  of  Tytecumbe 

Ch.  E;    1315    Tidecomh    C.  Inq.;    1316    de  Tydecomhe  FA; 

1339  Tidecomhe  Huse  Pat.  U;  1428  de  TydecombeFA;  1489 

of  Tytcombe  C.  Inq. 

From  "^Tldan  cumb  ('^(Et  Tidan  cumbe).     T'lda  is  certainly 

a    shortened    form    of    some  name  beginning  with  Tid-,  of 

which  there  are  a  great  number.    As  to  t  for  d  in  the  DB 

form,  see  Zachrisson,  Stud,  i  mod.  sprakvet.,  p.  8  f.     The 

t  in  the  other  forms  is  due  to  assimilation  with  c  (e  having 

been  syncopated).  The  distinctive  *Huse'  stands  f or 'Hus(s)ey\ 

according  to  Bardsley  an  AN  family  name.    In  the  time  of 

Edw.  I  the  manor  was  held  by  Hubert  Hussey  (Rot.  H.  11, 

p.  260). 

Note.  Tiddancumb  CD  no.  1216  cannot  possibly  be  identical 
with  this  place,   as  is  suggested  by  Kemble. 

Tidworth  see  Tedworth. 

Tilshead  on  Salisbury  Plain. 

1086  Theodulveside,  m  Tidulfhide  (four  times)  DB;  1167 
Tidolfeshida  Pipe  R;  c.  1185  Teolvesia  Cal.  France;  c.  1190 
Tidolveshyde  Macray;  1225  de  Tydulveshide,  de  Thidulveshide 
Pat.  R;  1238  Tidelveshid  ib.;  1246  Teovelsia  C\\.^\  Edw.  I 
Tydolvesheved,  de  Tydelvesyde^  de  Thidelf}iyde  Plac.  Warr. ; 
early  14th  cent.  Thididfhide,  Tidulfeshid  (several  times)  TN; 
1397  Tileshed,  Tileshide  Cal.  Inq.;  1428  in  Tydelsyde,  de 
Tydolveshyde  FA;  1450  Tydelsyde  Cal.  Inq.;  1492  in  Tydel- 
vessyde  C.  Inq. 

Originally  '■'Tldwulfes  hid  (see  Fi field).  Theodulveside  (DB) 
and  Teolvesia  (Ch.  R)  display  confusion  Avith  the  p.  n. 
Theodivulf  (see  on  this  point  Zachrisson,  p.  46,  foot-note). 
On  the  interchange  between  t  and  th  see  Zachrisson,  p. 
47  f.  The  termination  has,  after  w^eakening,  been  changed 
into  -head  through  popular  etymology;  (cf.  Fifield). 

11     E.  Ekblom 


Tinhead  NE  of  Westbury. 

1240 — 45  de  Tynhide,  de  Tunhide  Macray;  1249  Tynnehid 
Pat.  ll\  1250  Tinehid  ib.;  1280  de  Teenhide  Cli.  R;  1316 
de  Tenhyde  FA;  1402  de  Tynliide  ib. 

Originally  Hlen  {tyn)  hi  da;  cf.  Fifield.  For  the  develop- 
ment of  the  second  element  cf.  preceding  name. 

Tisbury  SE  of  Hindon. 

759  -fTissehiri  CS  no.  186  [prob.  identical];  901—924  '\to 
Tysse  hyrig  ib.  no.  591;  984  ■\(Et  Tissebiri  CD  no.  641;  1086 
Tisseherie  DB;  c.  1200  de  Tissiherie  Osmund;  1225  Tysse- 
hury  ib.;  1316  Tyssebury  FA;  1SS2  Tisbury  Br.  Mus.;  1333, 
1413  Tyssebury  ib.;   1428  Tissebury  FA. 

Originally  '''''cet  Tis{s)an  byrig.  ■^Tis(s)a  is  certainly  not 
recorded  as  an  independent  p.  n.  but  its  existence  is  never- 
theless certain.  A  patron^anic  of  the  name  is  found  in 
Tissington,  Derbs. ;  see  Walker,  p.  250.  Tiso,  its  Contin- 
ental equivalent,  is  recorded  in  Foi'stemann,  Pers.  411. 

Tockenham  SW  of  Wootton  Bassett. 

854  •\Tockenham  CS  no.  481  {Tocccmham  CD);  1086  Tocheham 
(five  times)  DB;  1194  Tolcha  Eot.  Cur.;  1202  Thokenham 
Phillipps'  ped.  fin.;  c.  1290  ToBim  T.  Feci.;  imo  Tocken- 
ham Ch.  R;  1316  TokJcenham  Y A ;  14:1b  ToJcenham  Bv.  Mua.; 
1424  ToJdngham  Cal.  Inq.;  1428  Tokham,  Tokkenham  FA. 
Originally  {^)Toc{c)an  ham.  For  the  p.  n(s)  Tocca,  Toca 
see  Bjorkman,  Pers.  I,  p.   142   f. 

ToUard  Royal  SE  of  Shaftesbury  (Dors.). 

1086  ToUard  (three  times)  DB;  1262  ToUard  C.  Inq.;  1316 
de  ToUarde  FA;  1428  ToUard  ib. 

Probably  from  '^'Tolan  eard  (OE  eard  here  =  home,  property). 
Tola  is,  according  to  Bjorkman.  Pers.  I  p.  143  1,  a  p.  n. 
of  Scand.  provenience  (<  ToU). 

'PoyaF  refers  to  King  John,  who  had  a  hunting-seat  at 
this  place  (see  Jones,  p.  237). 



1212  Trouhriuj  R.  L.  Pat.;  1214  Troiihrigg  ib. ;  1215  de  Tro- 
hrigg  E.  L.  CI.;  1236  Trouhrig  Ch.  E;  1250  de  Treivbrigge 
Macray;  1310  Trehrigg  C.  Inq. ;  1316  de  Troiihrigge  FA; 
1322  of  Troubrigge  Ch.  R;  1394  de  Trouglihrigge  Pat.  R; 
c.  1540  Throughbridge,  Thorough-bridge  Leland. 

OE  ^'treow-bryc^  ('wooden  bridge"),  with  a  shifting  of  stress 
in  the  OE  diphthong.  The  corrupted  forms  in  Leland  are 
due  to  a  misconception  about  the  first  element. 

Trowie  (Common)  near  Trowbridge. 

1086  in  Trole  DB;    early  14th  cent.  Trulle  TN;   1349  Troll 
Br.  Mus.;   1372  Tro/Z  Cal.  Inq. ;   1414  Tro// ib.;   UTS  Trellih. 
The  origin  of  this  name  is  not  clear. 

Tytherington  near  Heytesbury. 

1086  Tedrintone  DB  (prob.  identical);  c.  1140  Tyderinton 
Osmund;  1150 — 60  Tiderinton  ib.;  c.  1290  Tuderyngton 
T.  Eccl. 

From  ^Tidheringa  tun;  Tldhere  is  a  p.  n.  occurring  in 
LVD.     For  the  NE  change  oi  d  >  th  see  Horn  §  181. 

Tytherton  Kelways  and  Tytherton  Lucas  NE  of  Chip- 

1086  Terintone  (twice),  Tedelintonel  DB;  1194  Tidrinton 
Rot.  Cur.;  1272  Tiderintim  Cat.  A.  D.;  1316  de  Tiideryntone 
FA;  1327  Tuderyngtone  Caloivey  C.  Inq.;  14:28  Tuderyngton 
Caylewey,  Tyderyngton  FA;  [n.  d.]  m  T(li)ederingdone,  de 
Thederingedonc,  Thederingdune,  T(h)uderinton  Reg.  Malm. 

From  '^'Tldheringa  tiin;  see  preceding  name.  For  the  AN 
interchange  of  -ring  and  -ling  see  Zachrisson,  p.  138  ff.  On 
the  initial  th  in  the  Reg.  Malm,  forms  see  ib.,  p.  47. 

Adam  Lucas  and  Elyas  da  Kaylewey^  are  mentioned  as 
land-holders  here  in  TN,  pp.   137,   142. 

^  referring  to  the  adjoining  estate  now  called  Kellaways, 
for  which  see  above. 


Ugford  W  of  Wilton. 

956  {^)ucganford  CS  no.  1030  [eg  representing  ggy,  [1045 
•\Uggafordinga  landscore  CD  no.  778];  1086  Ocheforde,  Oge- 
forde  DB;  c.  1190  Uggeford  Sancti  Johannis  Macray;  1195 
Uggeford  Feet  of  fines;  1227  Uggeford  Ch.  R;  1275  Huge- 
ford  C.  Inq.;  c.  1290  Hugeford  T.  Eccl. ;  1327  Ugeford  St. 
James  G.  Inq.;  1328  Uggeforde  St.  James  ib.;  1428  Oge- 
ford  FA. 

Original!}^  {^)Uggan  ford,  '''Ugga  being,  no  doubt,  identical 
with  the  Scand.  p.  n.  Uggi.  Cf.  Ughill,  W.  R.  of  Yorks. 
(see  Moorman)  and  Uggesball,  Suffolk  (Skeat,  PI.  Ns  of 
Suffolk,  p.  47).  ch  for  g  in  one  of  the  DB  forms  may  be 
due  to  the  influence  of  Ochehurne  (mod.  Ogbourne)  occur- 
ring in  DB  four  times. 

The  distinctive  names  refer  to  churches. 

Upavon  or  Uphaven  N  of  Enford. 

1086  of  Oppavrene  DB;  after  1142  Upavene^v.  Mus. ;  1172 
TJpeauena  Pipe  R;  1194  de  Hupliaueh,  de  Uppatvne  Rot.  Cur.; 
1199  in  Uphaueu  Feet  of  fines;  1226  Ophaven  Osmund; 
1240  de  Up  Aven  R.  fin.  exc;  1316  de  Uphavene 'F K\  1324 
in  Hupphavene  ib.;  1337  Uppehavene  Pat.  R;  1428  in  Upha- 
vene  FA. 

Originall}^  "^wt  up-Afene  (^'cet  pcem  uppan  Afenel).  For 
the  initial  h  see  Avon,  Hacklestone,  above.  Zachrisson, 
p.  142,  gives  Op)pavrene  (DB)  as  an  example  of  the  AN 
change  of  n  >  r  in  pi.  ns.  It  would,  however,  be  more 
correct  to  say  that  the  form  in  question  has  been  written 
under  de  influence  of  Nigravre  (=  Netheravon),  occurring 
on  the  preceding  page  in  DB,  for  r  in  Opavrene  is  obviously 
not  due  to  an^^  substitution;  (but  Nigravre  itself  is  of  course 
an  example  of  the  change  in  question). 

Uppington  N  of  Stapleford. 
1411  Uppington  Br.  Mus. 


Other  pi.  ns  which  are  to  be  taken  into  consideration 
here  are  Uppingham,  Rutland  (1166  Uppingeha  Pipe  R, 
Edw.  I  Uppingham  Rot.  H,  1315  Uppyngham  C.  Inq.), 
Uppington,  Salop  (1342  Upinton  C.  Inq.,  1352  Opinion  ib.), 
and  also  fupping  hcema  gemcera  CS  no  1315. 

Although  it  is  impossible  to  prove  that  the  -ing-  element 
in  these  names  is  not  genuine,  yet  there  is  a  strong  prob- 
ability that  it  is  not.  It  is  much  more  probable  that  the 
element  in  question  goes  back  to  uppan,  dat.  of  the  adj. 
up{p)  (=  'high-lying^),  the  original  names  being  consequently 
ycet  p^m  uppayi  tune,  etc.  with  a  later  change  of  -an  >  -ing 
(a  development  quite  analogous  with  that  of  the  weak  gen. 
-an  >  -ing;    see    Alexander,    Mod.    Lang.    Rev.   VII,  p.   70). 

The  same  element  is,  no  doubt,  contained  in  the  local 
on  Uppan  ufre  CS  no.  332. 

Note.  Middendorff's  statement  that  pi.  ns  of  this  kind  contain 
the  OE  preposition   uppe,   uppan  is  a  strange  mistake. 

Upton  WSW  of  Hindon. 

1284  Upton  Ch.  R;  1402  Upton  FA. 
OE  "^hip-tun. 

Upton   Lovell  SE  of  Heytesbury. 

957  cet  Uhhan  tune,  [ubhanttminga  gemcere]  CS  no.  992; 
1086  Uptone  DB;  1130—35  Vbbeton  Osmund;  c.  1290  de 
Ubetone  T.  Eccl.;  1314  Ubeton  C.  Inq.;  1316,  1428  Ubefon 
FA;  1476  Ubbedon  Lovell  Cal.  Inq.;  1489  Updon  Lovell 
C.  Inq. 

The  first  element  is  the  p.  n.  Ubba,  a  diminutive  of  which 
is  concealed  in  Ebbesborne  (see  above).  'Lovel(l)'  is  an  AN 
family  name;  see  Hildebrand,  p.   338. 

Upton  Scudamore  N  of  Warminster. 

1086  Opetone  DB;  1221  de  Obetuh  R.  L.  CL;  c.  1250?  de 
Uptone  Macray;   1267  Upton  Escudemor  Ch.  R;   1316  Upton 


FA;  1335  Upton  Scydemor  C.  Inq.;  1428  Upton  [Escuda- 
mor]  FA. 

Originally  '^'up-tun.  The  distinctive  name  (for  which  see 
Bardsley)  refers  to  Peter  de  Skydemore,  who  was  a  land- 
holder here  in  the  time  of  Edw.  I;  see  Rot.  H.  II,  p.  277. 

Urchfont  or  Erchfont  SE  of  Devizes. 

1086  Jerchesfonte  DB;  1175  Erchesfonta  Pipe  E;  1179  t/e 
Archesfu7ite  ib.;  1205  Erchesfont  R.  Oblat.;  1237  de  Herches- 
fimf  CI.  E;  Edw.  I  Urcheffoiit  Eot.  H;  c.  1290  de  Orche- 
funte  T.  Eccl;  1291  in  Ercheffunte  VslL  U:  1292  in  Erche^s- 
funte  Ch.  E;  early  14th  cent,  de  UricJicsfimte  TN;  1314 
Erchefont  Cal.  Eot.  Ch.;  1316  de  Erchesfonte  FA;  1349 
Erchesfounte  Cal.  Inq.;  1377  Lerchesfonte  ib.;  1378—99 
Erchesfont  Br.  Mus.;  1428  de  Orcheffante  FA;  1546—48 
Erchefount  Br.  Mus. 

This  name  goes  back  to  an  original  '^'Eardrices  font  (funt). 
'■^Eardric  is  certainly  not  on  record,  but  its  existence  cannot 
be  doubted  Avhen  we  consider  the  great  productivity  of 
Eard-  in  the  formation  of  OE  p.  ns.  The  initial  j  in  the 
DB  form  is  due  to  change  of  stress  in  the  OE  diphthong 
(see  on  this  point  Zachrisson.  p.  65  f.,  and  Sievers  §  212, 
note  2).  How  are  we  to  account  for  the  initial  ME  u-  and 
o-vowels?  It  has  been  pointed  out  above  that  it  in  early 
ME  may  represent  OE  eo  (see  under  Bemerton).  As, 
however,  ME  e  is  also  a  representative  of  the  same  diphthong 
(particularly  before  r  +  consonant,  which  is  the  position  of 
e  in  the  present  name)  confusion  between  e  and  w  may 
easily  have  taken  place.  For  a  secondary  ii  to  be  rendered 
in  its  turn  by  o  is  very  common.  The  u  in  the  mod.  form 
must  of  course  be  explained  in  a  different  way,  being 
due  to  the  fact  that  ur  and  er  have  been  levelled  in  pro- 
nunciation in  NE.  Mod.  ErcJifont  is  itself  an  archaic  form. 
The  initial  I  in  Lerchesfonte  (Cal.  Inq.)  represents  the  French 


Vasterne  [v{Bst9{)')n]  near  Wootton  Bassett. 

1-234  Fosterne  Cal.  Eot.  Ch.;  1235  of  Fasternc  Ch.  U;  1266 
la  Fosterne  R.  Pat.;  1280,  1290  La  Fasterne  C.  Inq.;  Edw.  I 
de  Wasturne  Eot.  H;  1299  Fasterne  E.  Pat.;  1300  {in) 
Fasterne  Ch.  E;  1331  La  Fasterne  ib. 

Probably  from  *Fcestan  cern,  "^Fcesta  being  a  pet-form  of 
some  name  beginning  with  Fcest-,  of  Avhich  '-^Fcestrecl  (occur- 
ring in  DB  as  Fastradus,  Ellis,  Intr.  II,  p.  316)  and  -^Fcest- 
wulf  (Fastulf,  Fastolf)  are  on  record.  Note  also  fcestan  falod 
CS  no.  702,  and  fcestan  dc  CD  no.  652.  For  the  second 
element  cf.  Chitterne,  CoUerne,  Potterne,  above.  On  the  tran- 
sition of  the  initial  f  >  v  see  under  Sutton  Yeny.  o  in 
two  of  the  ME  forms  quoted  is,  no  doubt,  a  s})elling 

Wadswick  SW  of  Corsham. 

late  12th  cent.  Wadestvica  Br.  Mus.;  1226  WadeswyJce  Cal. 
Eot.  Ch. ;  1288  Waddisivyhe  Dugdale. 

Originally  '■Wades  (or-  ■■Wadan)  imc\  of  the  cognate  p.  ns. 
Wade  and  Wada,  the  weak  form  is  the  more  common;  see 
Miiller,  p.  62. 

Walcot  near  Swindon. 

1086  Walecote  DB;  early  14th  cent.  Walecot{e)  TN;  1324 
Wal{l)ecote  FA. 

Most  probably  from  ''Wealan  cot{e),  "^Weala  being  a  hj^po- 
coristic  form  of  some  p.  n.  beginning  with  Wealh-,  several 
of  which  are  recorded.  For  the  loss  of  h  see  Sievers 
§  218. 

Wan  borough  [wonbdrd]  ESE  of  Swindon. 

854  -feet  Wenbeorgen,  ^oit  Wenbeorgan,  \Wenberglf,  ^to  ivcen- 
beorgan  CS  nos.  477,  478;  1086  Wemberge  DB;  1146  Wan- 
herga  Macray;  c.  1180  Wamberga  Osmund;  1194  de  Wenbge 
Eot.  Cur.;  1205  Wameburg  Cal.  Eot.  Ch.;  1229  ofWaiiberge 
Ch.  E;  1245  Wamberge  Br.  Mus.;   1252  of  Wamherge  Ch.  H] 


1285  Wmiberg  C.  Inq. ;  Edw.  I  Wamherewe  Abbr.  Plac. ; 
1310  Wamherge,  Wanhrogh  C.  Inq.;  1316  deWanibergheYA.\ 
1349  Wamhenve  Cal.  Inq.;  1354  Wenhurgh  CI.  H;  1374 
Wanebergh  ib.;  1428  Wamhurgh  FA. 

By  some  scholars  (among  them  Ch.  Phimmer)  this  place  has 
been  thought  identical  with  Woddesbeorge,  Wodnesbeorge  (dat.) 
AS  Chr.  [A.  D.  592  and  715].  From  the  old  forms  quoted 
above  it  is  obvious,  however,  that  this  identity  is  im- 
possible on  linguistic  grounds.  It  is  true  that  there  is  a 
tendency  among  the  Wilts,  dialects  to  change  o  >  a,  but 
this  transition  is  of  a  very  late  date  (hardly  older  than 
the  end  of  the  15th  cent.);  cf.  Calcutt,  Ratfyn,  WansdyJce, 
Wraxhall.  A  circumstance  which  also  militates  against  a 
derivation  from  Woden  is  the  development  of  WansdyJce  (see 
below).  What  the  first  element  is  it  is  difficult  to  say  for 
it  seems  hardly  to  be  Germanic;  it  may  perhaps  represent 
some  p.  n.  [cf.  Wanmgore  DB  (Sussex)].  The  second  element 
was  OE  beorh;  see  Brokenborough,  above. 

There  is  another  ^ anhorough  in  Surrey,  occurring  in  DB 
as  Weneberge. 

Wansdyke  [won&daik]. 

903  ivodnes  die  CS  no.  600;  933  ivodnes  die  ib.  no.  699; 
957  ivodnes  die  ib.  no.  998;  960  wodnes  die  ib.  no.  1053; 
970  Wodnes  die  ib.  1257;  Hen.  Ill  Wodenesdieh  Dugdale; 
1260  Wodenesdieh  Ch.  R. 

Wansdyke  is  an  ancient  British  earthwork,  originally 
extending  from  Andover,  Hants.,  through  Wilts.,  to  the 
Bristol  Channel  at  Portishead.  As  appears  from  the  old 
forms  above,  the  ditch  has  got  its  name  from  the  god 
Woden.  The  mod.  termination  represents  the  OE  dat.  form. 
On  the  change  of  o  >  a  see  under  Calcutt.  The  mod. 
pronunciation  [ivon-\  is  a  spelling  pron. 

It  is  interesting  to  notice  that  what  is  left  of  the  same 
earthwork    in  Hants.  (N  of  Andover)  is  called  Wodensdyke. 


Wardour  SW  of  Tisbuiy. 

901—924  cet  Weard  oran  CS  no.  591;  im^inWerdoreDB; 
1314  Werdore  C.  Inq.;  1316  de  Wer dure  FA;  131S  Weredore 
C.  Inq.;   1392  Werdour  R.  Pat.;   1428  in  Wardore  FA. 

Provided  the  form  recorded  in  CS  is  genuine,  the  name 
is  composed  of  the  subst.  weard  (=  watch)  and  ora  (=  bank, 
viz.  of  the  r.  Nadder).  Does  the  name  refer  to  some  look- 
out stations  on  the  bank  of  the  river  during  the  early 
wars  in  Wessex?  Cf.  on  Wearddune  CS  no.  1176,  translated 
in  Bosworth-Toller  with  ^beacon-hilF. 


901 — 924  Worgemynter  CS  no.  591  (prob.  ident.);  1086  Guer- 
minstre  DB ;  c.  1115  Werminister  Osmund;  1174  de  Werre- 
ministf  Pipe  R;  1222  Weremenestr.  Osmund;  1226  WerminisU\ 
ib.;  1231  of  Werministre  Ch.  R;  1259  de  Wer(e)menistre  Mac- 
ray;  Edw.  I  Wereministre  Br.  Mus.;  1316  de  Weremynstre 
FA;  1320  de  Wermunstr'  Rot.  Orig. ;  1324  in  Wer emy sire 
FA;  1402  de  Wermestre  ib. ;  1428  de  Wermynstre  FA;  1471 
Warmester  Br.  Mus.;  1496  Warmester,  Wermester  C.  Inq. 

The  first  element  is  the  name  of  the  little  stream  called 
Hhe  Were'  that  passes  here  and  flows  into  the  Wiley.  Were 
[wid{r)\  is,  no  doubt,  a  Celtic  name.  The  termination  is 
OE  mynster  =  'monastery\  The  absence  of  n  in  some  forms 
must  be  due  to  AN  influence  (OFrench  moustier). 

Water  Eaton  E  of  Cricklade. 

1372  Watereton  CI.  R;  1428  Eton  FA. 

OE  *ea-tun  (ea  referring  to  the  Thames).  The  pleonastic 
'Water  has  been  added  to  distinguish  the  place  from 
'Castle  Eaton'. 

Wedhampton  ( ~  — )  SE  of  Devizes. 

1349  Wedhampton  Cal.  Inq. ;  1500  Wedhampton  Br.  Mus. 
Probablv  from  ''^'weod-ham-tun.     OE  iveod  =  'weed'. 


Weiiow,   West  SP:  of  Whiteparish. 

c.  670  on  tvelewe  CS  no.  27;  826  on  iveleive  ib.  no.  391; 
880 — 85  cet  Welewe  ib.  no.  553  (possibly  identical);  905  on 
tvelewe  ib.  no.  690;  948  on  iveleive  ib.  no.  862;  early  14th 
cent,  in  Wilewe  TN;  1316,  1428  in  Weleive  FA;  1493  in 
Wellotve  C.  Inq. 

This  name,  which  originally  denoted  the  stream  on  which 
the  village  is  situated  (an  affluent  of  the  r.  Test),  is  most 
probably  pre-Germanic.  There  is  another  Wellotv  in  Soms., 
obviousl}^  referred  to  in  CD  no.  643:  cet  Weleive  (stoce),  on 

Note.  Kemble's  location  of  TJeluue  (flumen)  CD  no.  115  and 
(cpA)   Welowe   ib.   no.   1105  seems  to  be  merely  a  conjecture. 

Westbrook  NE  of  Melksham. 

late  Hen.  II  in  Westebroche  Br.  Mus.;  1266  de  Westehrolc 
R.  fin.  exc. 

Originally  "^'cef  west-l)rdce  (a  little  affluent  of  the  Lower 


1086  Westberie,  Wesberie  DB;  c.  1115  WestUri  Osmund; 
c.  1145—50  Westherie  Macrav;  1227  Westbire  ib.;  1229 
Westbury  Ch.  E. 

'  '''cet  ivest-byrig.  For  the  loss  of  t  in  one  of  the  DB  forms 
see  Stolze  §  36. 

Westport  St.  Mary  (Within  and  Wilhout). 

1232  Westport  Ch.  R;   1251  Westport  Cal.  Rot.  Ch. 

'The  west  gate'  (leading  to  the  town  of  Malmesbury). 
One  part  of  the  present  parish  lies  within  the  borough  of 

Westrop  (Park)  near  Higliworth. 
Edw.  I   in  Westhroj^p    Rot.  H;   1324  Westhorp  FA;   1410  of 
Westhrope  Br.  Mus. 

OE  '^west-porp  {prop).     See  Eastrop,  above. 


Westwood  SW  of  Bradford. 

1086  Wesfwode  DB  (prob.  identical);    1285  Weshvod  Cli.  E; 
1316  Weshvode  FA. 
OE  '^luest'ivudu. 

Wexcombe  SE  of  Burbage. 

1158  Westcuba  Pipe  R;  1167  Wexcuba  ib.;  1172  Westcumba 
ib.;  1173  Wex  Cumba  ib.;  1231  de  Wexcumh\  de  Westi/- 
cumh'  CI.  R;  Hen.  Ill  de  Westciimhe  Rot.  H;  1214^ofWexe- 
ciimhe  CI.  R;  1275  {of)  Westcmnhe  Ch.  R;  1288  de  Woxe- 
cunibe  Rot.  Orig. ;  1289  of  Wexecumbe  Fine  R. ;  of  Woxecumbe 
Pat.  R;  1314  Wexcombe  Ch.  R;  1316  de  Woxcomhe  FA; 
1-170  Westcombe  Cal.  Inq. ;   1490  of  Westcombe  C.  Inq. 

Originally  Hvest-cumb.  After  loss  of  t,  metathesis  of  s  and 
c  has  taken  place  (Avith  retention,  however,  of  the  original 
termination).  That  this  metathesis  is  of  a  dialectal  nature 
has  been  pointed  out  in  connection  with  Axford  (above). 
0  for  e  in  the  first  svllable  of  a  few  forms  is  certainlv 
merely  orthographic. 

Whaddon   SE  of  Salisburv. 


1086  {in)  Watedene  (twice)  DB;  1109—20  Rwatedena  Os- 
mund; 1243  in  Waddone  Macray;  1272  Wadden{e)  C.  Inq.; 
Edw.  I  in  Wafdene  Rot.  H;  1290  Wadden  Ch.  R;  early 
14th  cent,  in  Wafden  TN;  1316  Whaddon  FA;  1428 
Whadden  ib. 

Obviously  from  ViivM{e)-dene  {denu);  OE  Invade  {=  wheat) 
is  found  as  a  first  element  in  several  pi.  ns.  The  «-vowel 
indicates  absence  or  early  loss  of  the  final  e  of  the  first 
element  in  the  OE  form;  (see  Bergsten,  p.   33). 

Whaddon  SW  of  Melksham. 

1086  Wadone  DB;   1253  Waddon  C.  Inq.;   1428  Whaddon  FA. 

A  comparison  of  the  old  forms  of  this  and  the  preceding 

name  indicates  that  the  two  names  are  of  different  orio^in. 

in    spite  of  their  conformity  at  the  present  daj^.     The  ter- 


mination  of  the  present  name  seems  to  have  been  dun, 
and  the  first  element  one  would  be  inclined  to  derive  from 
OE  wad  fwoad^),  particularly  as  this  plant-name  occurs  in 
several  OE  pi.  ns  (see  Kemble's  index). 

Whitbourne  W  of  Warminster. 

1396  Whytehorne  Cal.  Inq. 

Probably  ^cet  pcem  (pcere)  Invltan  human  ['^cet  pcere  hivttan 
hiirne],  referring  to  a  little  affluent  of  the  r.  Frome.  The 
calcareous  nature  of  the  soil  accounts  for  the  name.  There 
was  also,  however,  an  OE  p.  n.  Hwita  (see  Mliller,  p.  56), 
and  the  possibility  of  this  p.  n.  being  present  in  Whithoume 
is  naturally  not  excluded. 

Whitcombe  near  Hilmarton. 

1086  Widecome  DB;  1291  de  JVydecumbe  Pat.  E;  1316  de 
Wydecombe  FA;  1324  Wydecoiinibe  Pat.  R;  1428  in  Wy de- 
combe  FA. 

Originally  ''"''se  tvtda  cmnb  (the  broad  valley).  The  develop- 
ment is  clear.  For  the  absence  of  b  in  the  DB  form  see 
Stolze  §  34. 

Whiteparish  SE  of  Salisbury. 

1306  Whyteparisch  Cal.  Inq.;  1318  of  Wyteparosche  C.  Inq.; 
1324  of  La  Whiteparisshe  Pat.  R;  1487  White  Parish  C.  Inq. 
The  parish  is  situated  in  the  White  Chalk  district,  and  this 
explains  its  name. 


Whitley  NW  of  Melksham. 

1001  -fat  Wiilege  CD  no.  706;  1085  Witelie  DB  (prob.  iden- 
tical); 1167  Wittelega  Pipe  E;  1254  Whitele  Pat.  E;  1286 
W hitler  Ch.  E;  1333  Whijtele  Br.  Mus. 

It  is  impossible  to  say  whether  the  first  element  was 
the  OE  adj.  hunt  or  the  p.  n.  Hwlta.  The  origin  may 
consequently  have  been  "^'cet  }mm  {pmre)  hwltan  lea^e  or  "^a^t 
Hwtta^i  lea^e. 


Wilcot  NW  of  Pewsey. 
1086    Wilcofe    DB;    1205    Wilcote    Cal.    Rot.    Ch. ;    1220    de 
WilcofU.  L.  CL;  1285  in  Wijlekote  Ch.  R:  c.  1290  deWijle- 
cote  T.  Eccl. ;    1428  in  Wijl{e)cote  FA. 

From  ^Wil{l)cm  cot{e),  Willa  (^Wila)  being  probably  a  pet- 
form  of  one  of  the  numerous  p.  n.  compounds  with  Wil-. 
Cf.  Wilton  (E  of  Burbage),  below,  which  seems  to  contain 
the  same  p.  n. 

Wilsford   SW  of  Pewsey. 

892  ivifeles  ford  CS  no.  567;  933  icifehs  ford  ib.  no.  699; 
1086  Wivlesford  DB  (prob.  identical);  1218  Wiveksford 
Macray;  1288  Wyllisford  Dugdale;  1316,  1428  Wyveles- 
ford  FA. 

The  first  element  contains  a  p.  n.,  which  in  OE  is  only 
recorded  in  pi.  ns.  That  this  p.  n.  in  certain  cases  may 
be  of  Scand.  origin  (ONorse  Vifill)  is  indisputable  (see 
Bjorkman,  Pers.  I,  p.  175  f.).  but  it  seems  also  quite  certain 
—  as  Zachrisson  points  out  in  Stud,  i  mod.  sprakvet.  YI, 
p.  278  —  that  there  existed  a  native  ^Wifel  as  well;  (note 
Wifeleshale,  Warws.,  CS  no.   127,  A.  D.  710). 

Wilsford  SW  of  Amesbury. 

1086  Wiflesforde,  Wiflesford  DB  (prob.  identical);  1178? 
Wyuelisford  Br.  Mus.;  c.  1200  Wivelford  Osmund;  c.  1207 
Wiuelesford  Br.  Mus.;  c.  1230  Wivelesford  Osmund;  1258 
Wivelesford  Ch.  E;  1316  WiUesford  FA;  1428  Wyl es ford  ih. 
See  preceding  name. 


The  name  occurs  as  Wiltim,  Wiliunia,  Wilton  (Wylton)  in 
the  following  charters:  CS  nos.  421,  459,  468—476,  635, 
699,  714,  917,  1216,  1304;  CD  nos.  665,  687,  949,  1290; 
AS  Chr.  [871]  cet  Wiltune  [A],  [962]  on  Wiltune  [A],  DB 
de  IMltimie. 


This  place,  which  has  given  rise  to  the  mod.  name  of 
the  county  (see  introduction),  takes  its  name  from  the  r. 
Wiley,  on   which  it  is  situated;  see  Wylye,  below. 

Note.  {•\)WillettLin  CD  no.  1084  is  obviously  identical  with  mod. 
Wilton  in  Taunton,  Soms. ;  (in  Kemble  and  Thorpe  it  is  errone- 
ously identified  with  Wilton,   Wilts.). 

Wilton  E  of  Burbage. 

1227  Wulton  Ch.  R;   1402  Wilton  FA;   1428  WijUon  ib. 

Probably  from  *TT7/(0rt>i  tun;  for  the  p.  n.  Willa  (Wila) 
see  Wilcot,  above. 

Wily  see  Wylye. 

Winkfieid  (now  called  'Wingfield')  WSW  of  Trowbridge. 

1086  Winefel  DB;  c.  1290  Wyneffeld  T.  Eccl.;  early  14th 
cent.  Winesfeld  TN  (prob.  identical);  1316  de  Wyncfelde 
FA;  1428  Wijnfeld,  Wenfeld  ib.;  1458  Wynfeld  Br.  Mus. 

From  *Wines  (or  ^Winan)  feld,  Wine,  Wina  being  OE  p.  ns. 
The  -development  of  Win-  >  Wing-  and  probably  also  the 
change  of  ng  >  nJc  is  due  to  AN  influence;  (cf.  Dodinc  for 
Doding,  Hanlinc  for  Harding,  etc.;  see  Hildebrand,  p.  360). 
WinJc field,  the  mod.  official  spelling,  represents  an  earlier 
pronunciation,  which  is  now  quite  abandoned.  Cf.  Wingfield, 
Derbs.  (Walker,  p.  269),  Wingfield,  Beds.  (Skeat,  PI.  Ns  of 
Beds.,  p.  18),  and  Winsley,  below.  For  the  loss  of  d  in 
the  DB  form  see  Stolze  §  37. 

Winsley  W  of  Bradford. 

1316  Wynesleij  FA;   1362  Winsleigh  Phiilipps'  fines. 

Originally  "^cet  Wines  (or  '■Winan)  lea^e.  On  account  of 
the  proximity  of  this  place  to  Winhfield,  the  p.  n.  which 
is  contained  in  these  two  names  may  perhaps  have  repre- 
sented one  and  the  same  person. 


Winterbourne  Bassett  SSE  of  Wootton  Basset. 

1086  Wintrehurne  DB  71  a;  1178?  North.  Wijnterburn  Br.  Mus.; 
1198  Winterhuni  ib.;  1 199  Nort  Wintborh  Rot.  Ch. ;  1270  North- 
winferhurna  Cli.  R;  c.  1290  Wi/nf burn  Basset  T.  EccL;  1316 
Wynterburne  Basset  FA;  1325  Wynterbourne  Bassett  Ch.  R. 

Originally  '""'cet  pcem  (p(^re)  tvinter-biiiman  (cet p^re  to.-burne), 
here  denoting  the  northern  head-water  of  the  r.  Kennet. 
This  common  name  was  certainly  applied  to  streams  that 
dried  up  in  summer. 

W.  Bassett  was  one  of  the  old  estates  of  the  AN  'Bassett'- 


Note.  There  seems  no  reason  to  locate  Winterhurna  CD  no. 
269  in  Wilts.,  as  is  stated  in  Kemble's  index,  nor  ^Winterhorne 
CS  no.  886  (as  Birch  suggests).  If  {on)  Wi7iterburnau  CD  no. 
422  was  a  Wilts,  stream,  it  is  to  be  located  in  the  south-west 
of  the  county  (in  the  neighbourhood  of  Knoyle). 

Winterbourne  Dauntsey  NE  of  Salisbury. 

fram  winter  burnan  CS  no.  1286;  1086  Wintreburne  DB^; 
1316  Winterburne  Dauntesey  FA;  1428  Wynterbourn  Daun- 
tesey  ib. 

The  name  refers  orioinally  to  the  affluent  of  the  Lower 
Avon  which  is  now  called  'the  Bourne^ '^.  Cf.  W.  Earls, 
W.  Ford,  W.  Gunner  (or  Cherborough),  below,  all  of  which 
derive  their  name  from  the  same  stream.  'Dauntsey^  is  a 
native  family  name  (probably  taken  from  Dauntsey  SE  of 

Winterbourne  Earls  NE  of  Salisbury. 

1086  Wintreburne  DB;  c.  1290  Wynfborn  Comitis  T.  Eccl.; 
1316  Winterburne  Comitis  FA;  1323  Eurlesivynterbourne 
Pat.  R;  1324:  Heorlesivynterbourne  FA. 

^  All  the  four  mod.  WinterbourDes  NE  of  Salisbury  are,  no 
doubt,  represented  in  DB,  for  there  are  no  less  than  seven 
Wintreburnes  mentioned   in  Exon  DB  under  Alderbury  hundred. 

"  The  same  stream  which  in  its  upper  course  was  at  one 
time  called  {^•)Colinga  burn{e)\  see  Collingbourne,   above. 


The  manor  has  been  in  possession  of  the  Earls  of  Lan- 
caster, Lincoln,  and  Salisbury  (see  FA,  pp.   200,  216,  239). 

Winterbourne  Ford   NE  of  Salisbury. 
1086  Wintreburne  DB;    1320  Winterl)ourncforcl  Cal.  inq.  da. 

Winterbourne  Gunner  or  Cherborough  NE  of  Salisbury. 

1086  Wintreburne  DB;  1199  Maiden  Winfborh  Eot.  Ch.; 
King  John  Maidwinterhurgh  Dugdale  (corrujDt);  1266  Wintre- 
bnrn  Gunore  Pat.  11;  1270  Mmjdenwinterbiirne  Ch.  E;  1290 
Wynterburn  Ounnore  ib.;  c.  1290  Wynfborn  Cherburg  T. 
EccL;  1314  Maidene  Wynterborne  C.  Inq.;  1316  Winterburne 
Oonnor  FA;   1332  Winterburne  Cherberwe  CI.  E-. 

'Gunner^  is  a  corruption  of  'Gunnora\  referring  to  Gun- 
nora  de  la  Mere,  who  held  lands  here  in  the  12th  century, 
and  the  epithet  'Maiden^  may  also  refer  to  this  lady.  ^Cher- 
borough'  is  a  family  name. 

Winterbourne  Monkton  N  of  Avebury. 

1086  Wintreborne  DB  66  c;  c.  1290  Wynfburn  Monacli'  T. 
EccL;  1316  Wynterborne  Monachorum  FA;  1544  Winterborn 
MouncMon  Cat.  A.  D. 

The  village  is  situated  on  the  same  stream  as  Winter- 
bourne Bassett;  see  above.  The  distinctive  'Monkton'  is  due 
to  the  fact  that  the  Abbot  of  Glastonbury  was  formerly 
tenant  of  the  manor  (see  DB). 

Note.  There  seems  no  reason  whatever  to  identify  {cet)  Winter- 
human    CS    no.   1145  with  this  place,   as  is  suggested  by  Birch. 

Winterbourne  Stoke    W  of  Amesbury. 

1086  Wintreburne-Stoch  DB^;  1 1Q7  Winlburh  Stoehe  Pipe  E,; 
1248  de  Winterburnestoke  Macray;  1283  WynterbournestoJce 
C.  Inq.;  1316  de  WyntcrburnestoJce  FA. 

^  The  mod.  equivalents  of  the  other  Winterhurnes  mentioned 
in  Exon  DB  under  Dole  hundred  seem  impossible  to  identify 
(see,  however,   the  suggestions  made  by  Jones,   pp.   241,   242). 


Originally  '^cet  pcem  stoce  (for  OE  stoc  see  Baverstock). 
'Winterbourne/,  which  in  the  present  case  is  the  distinctive 
name,  refers  to  the  affluent  of  the  Wiley  which  passes  here, 

Winterslow  ENE  of  Sahsbur}^ 

1086  Wmtresleu,  Wintreslei  (three  times)  DB;  1166  Winter- 
lawa  Bey  Pipe  R;  UTS'?  Wyntreslaiva  Br.  Mus.;  c.  1190 
of  Wintreslewe  Gal.  France;  1199  in  Wintlawe  Rot.  Ch.; 
1201  Wintreslau  Br.  Miis. ;  1216  de  Wintreleive  R.  L.  01.; 
1249  of  Wmterslewe  0.  Inq.:  1275  Wijntreslawe  ib. ;  1316 
de  Wintevslewe  FA;  1323  of  Wijntereslotve  Ch.  E,;  1402,  1428 
de  Wy  liter  slew  e  FA. 

Originally  "^Wintran  QYiyitresl)  hlciiv  (lild^w).  OE  hiaiv 
Qdceic)  =  '(funeral)  mound'.  Wintra  is  recorded  as  an  OE 
p.  n.  as  early  as  A.  D.  699,  and  a  native  Winter  may 
perhaps  also  have  existed  (although  not  recorded  as  an 
independent  name  except  on  the  Continent).  For  the  con- 
fusion of  the  second  element  with  lei  (<  OE  lea^e)  cf. 
Chedglow,  above.  Note  in  connection  with  this  name  on 
ivintres  lilcewe  OS  no.  761,  mentioned  among  the  boundaries 
of  Garanford  (Garford,  Berks.). 

The  manor  was  for  a  time  Crown  property  (see  Jones, 
p.  243),  which  accounts  for  the  distinctive  'Regis\ 

Wishford,   Great  and  Little  NNW  of  Wilton. 

1086  Wicheford  (twice)  DB;  c.  1190  de  Wylford  Major  I 
Macray;  1227,  1268  Wicheford  Ch.  U;  1217  Wic ford  C.  Inq.; 
1289  Magna  Wycheford  ib.;  1316  Magna  Whieheford,  Parva 
W.  FA;  1324  Wychford,  Litel  Wycford  ib.;  1336  Muchele- 
ivycheford  Pat.  E;  1351  Muchel  Wichford  Br.  Mus.;  1408 
Magna  Wichefford  ib.;  1476  Little  Whisford  Cal.  Inq.;  1493 
Wisheford  C.  Inq.;    1513  Wyssheford  Magna  Br.  Mus. 

Originally  'hvic-ford.  {wlc  =  'dwelling',  'cottage').  The 
late  change  of  tf>f  is  quite  analogous  to  the  case  of 
'Ashelton,  the  mod.  pronunciation  of  Etchilhampton ;  see 
Zachrisson,  p.   158  f..  and  Etchilhampton,  above. 

12     E.  Ekblom 


Wolf  Hall  near  Burbage. 

1086  Ulfela  DB;  1180  Wulfhala  Pipe  E;  1199  de  Wulfhale 
Eot.  Ch.;  1324  Wolphal  FA;  1332  Wolf  hale  C.  Inq.; 
1451  de  Wolfehale  E.  Pat.;  1485  in  Wolfale  C.  Inq.;  1490 
Wulfall  ib.. 

From  '■^Widfan  (Wulfesl)  heall  (or  Jiealli);  '^Vulfa  is  to  be 
considered  as  a  hypocoristic  form  of  some  name  beginning 
with  Wulf-.     Wulf  is  recorded  as  an  independent  p.  n. 

Woodborough  W  of  Pevvsey. 

1240  in  Wudeberg  CI.  E;  1258  de  Wodeherg  E.  fin.  exc. ; 
1277  Wodehore  C.  Inq.;  c.  1290  Wodebergh  T.  Eccl. ;  1316 
de  Wodeberghe  FA;  1428  Wodebergh  ib.;  1596  Woodborough 
Br.  Mus. 

Originally  Huudu-beor^.  For  the  frequent  substitution  of 
-borough  for  -bevgh  see  Brokenborough,  above. 

Note,  {to)  wudiibiirh  {-fwudiiheorch)  hylle  CD  nos.  436,  698, 
985,  1036,  1108  is  not  identical  with  the  present  place,  as  is 
stated  by  Kemble,  but  was  obviously  situated  in  south  Wilts, 
(between   Bower  Chalk   and   Britford). 

Woodford  NNW  of  Salisbury. 

972  {to  pcem  ealdan)  tvuduforda  CS  no.  1286;  1120  Wodeford 
Macray;  1214:  in  Wudeford  R.  Oblat. ;  1226  Wdeford  Osmund; 
1316  Woodeford  Magna,  Wodeford  Parva  FA. 

Note.  ■\Wodeforde  CD  no.  460  is  to  be  located  in  the  north- 
w^est  corner  of  Wilts.;  (when  Kemble  identifies  it  with  mod. 
Woodford,   he  is  probably  referring  to  the  present  place,) 

Woodhill  S  of  Wootton  Bassett. 

1086  Wadhulle  DB;  early  14th  cent.  Wodhull  TN;  c.  1340 
Wodhull  NI;   1402  in  Wodhidle  FA. 

Originally  ■^wudu-hgll.  The  a-vowel  in  the  DB  form  is 
certainly  a  spelling  mistake. 


Woodrow  adjoining  Melksham. 

1280  of  La  Woderoive  CI.  E;  1286  {in)  Woderewe  Ch.  R; 
1298  (of)  Woderoive  Pat.  II;  1309  Woderowe  ib.;  1490  of 
Wodereive  C.  Inq. 

This  name  corresponds  to  an  OE  '''iuudu-rdiv  (rmv),  \;-'cet 
(p^re)  wudu-raive  (r^ive)].  The  meaning  of  this  compound 
seems,  however,  not  quite  clear.  Did  it  mean  'edge  of  a 

Wootton  Bassett. 

680  ■\Wdetun  CS  no.  54;  745  '\Wdetun  ib.  no.  170;  844 
■\JVttune  ib.  447;  937  -fWdetun  ib.  no.  718;  1065  Wdetun 
CD  no.  817;  1086  Wodetofie  DB;  1230  Wutton  Gh.  U;  1271 
Wotton  Basset  C.  Inq.;  1316  Wotton  Bassett  FA. 

Originally  "^hviidu-tmi.  The  place  is  an  old  estate  of  the 
AN  'Bassetts'. 

Note.  There  seems  no  reason  to  locate  Wudetmie  CD  no.  1183  in 
Wilts.,   as  Kemble  does.      In  CS   (no.   969)  it  is  located  in  Hants. 

Wootton  Rivers  S  of  Marlborough. 

803—805  Wdutun  CS  no.  324;  1086  Otone  DB ;  1194  de 
Wotton  Rot.  Cur.;  c.  1290  fZe  TI^o//owe  T.  EccL;  1316  Wootton 
FA;  1332  Wotton  Ryvers  Pat.  R;  1428  Wotton  (Eyver)  FA; 
1490  Wutton  Byver  C.  Inq. 

See  preceding  name.  'Rivers^  represents  a  French  family 
name  (see  Hildebrand,  p.  342);  according  to  Jones,  p.  228, 
it  refers  to  the  Walter  de  Riperia,  mentioned  in  Abbr. 
Plac,  p.   78. 

Worton  SW  of  Potterne. 

1173  Wrton  Osmund;  1175—79  Wrtona  Br.  Mus.;  1309 
Worton  ib.;  1316  Worton  FA. 

I  suggest  an  original  ''^^wyvt-tun,  which  may  have  meant 
much  the  same  as  'garden'.  (OE  ivyrt  =  herb,  vegetable). 
Cf.  Worton,    Oxfs.    (see    Alexander,    PL    Ns    of  Oxfs.)  and 


Wortle}^  (in  Tankersley  par.),  W.  R.  of  Yorks.  (see  Moor- 

WraxhaU,  North  [rceksdl]  NW  of  Corsliam. 

1086  Werocheshalle  DB;  1281  de  Worxhale  Pat.  E  (or  =  W 
South);  1316  de  Wroxhale  FA;  1428  in  Wroxale  ib.;  1468 
Northwroxhall  Cal.  Inq. ;   1477  NortJiwraxhall  ib. 

From  "^Wrocces  lieall,  '-"Wrocic)  being  a  p.  n.,  found  in 
the  local  Wroccesheale  CD  no.  768;  cf.  Wroxton  (Alexan- 
der, PL  Ns  of  Oxfs.),  Wroxhill  (Skeat,  PL  Ns  of  Beds., 
p.  29),  and  Wraxhall,  Soms.  (1323  WrocJceshale  C.  Inq.) 
The  present  name,  like  the  following,  offers  another  example 
of  the  influence  of  the  tendency  among  the  Wilts,  dialects 
to  change  o  >  a;  (see  under  Calcutt).  For  the  AN  rendering 
of  Wr-  by  Wer-  see  Zachrisson,  p.   51. 

Wraxhall,   South  N  of  Bradford. 

c.   1290  WrocJceshcde,  de  Wroxhale  T.  EccL;   1316  de  Wroxhale 
FA;   1468  Suthivroxhall  Cal.  Inq.;  1477  Siithivraxhall  ib. 
See  preceding  name. 

Wroughton  S  of  Swindon. 

1086  Wertune  (prob.  identical),  in  Wervetone  ([)rob.  ident. 
but  corrupt)  DB;  1226  TFer^/on  Phillipps'  ped.  fin.;  Edw.  I 
in  Overe  Werstone,  in  Nether  Werstoii'  Rot.  H;  c.  1290 
Nethertverston  T.  EccL ;  1300  Wrfton,  Wertonam  (Lat.  ace.) 
Ch.  E;  1316  Werston  FA;  1328  Overwarston  C.  Inq.;  1428 
(Nefhyr)  Wroghton,  Over  Worston,  Nethyr  WroftonFA;  1488 
Nethir  Wroughton  C.  Inq. 

Undoubtedly  from  '^iveorc-tun  [meaning  much  the  same 
as  '■^weorcmannes  (tveorcmanna)  tUn].  The  development  of 
the  combination  rt  has  taken  place  on  exactly  the  same 
lines  as  pre-Germ.  M;  [note  that  the  tAvo-fold  develop- 
ment of  this  combination  (viz.  ght  and  ft)  is  represented 
here].  Cf.  Brougliton,  above,  s  in  some  forms  is  probably 
an    AN    rendering    of    the    palatal    fricative    /    (see    under 


Brigmerston).  Nether  W.  seems  to  have  denoted  the  present 
village,  and  Over  W.  the  farm  immediately  south  of  it,  now 
called  Overtown. 

Wyke  near  Trowbridge. 

1252  of  Wijhe  Ch.  R. 
"ret  (pa;m)  tc'ice. 

Wylye  or  Wily  [waili]  on  the  r.  Wiley  ^  SE  of  Heytesburj-. 

688  Wlleo  (flumen),  [Uuilig]  CS  no.  70;  860  he  ivilig  ih.  500; 
880 — 85  cet  Welig  ib.  553;  Giiilou  (flumen)  Asser;  901  Buvilig 
ib.  595;  940  he  Wilig  ib.  757;  943  wilig  ib.  782;  946— 
955  cet  Wilig  ib.  819;  957  tvilig  ib.  992;  963  on  ivilig 
ib.  783;  968  on  tvilig  ib.  1216;  1045  on  ivili{stream)  CD 
no.  778;  1086  Wilgi,  Will  DB;  c.  1125  Wile  (fluvius)  W. 
Malm.;  1270  Wili  Ch.  E;  c.  1290  Wghj  T.  Eccl.;  1316 
Wgleg  FA. 

This  is,  no  doubt,  a  Celtic  name.  McClure,  p.  250  foot- 
note, mentions  two  river-names  in  Wales  which  in  all 
probability  contain  the  same  element,  viz.  Aher-guilly  and 
Camguili.  It  is  possible  that  the  name  is  connected  with 
Welsh  givjj  =  'water'. 

Note.  It  is  very  uncertain  whether  Uuilea  CD  no.  115,  Wilig 
ib.  no.  611,  and  Wigli,  Wilig  ib.  nos.  664,  665  are  to  be  located 
in  Wiltshire,  in  spite  of  Kemble's  statement,  {on)  Wiles  yge 
ib.  no.  1136  seems  to  have  been  situated  in  Hants.,  near  Overton 
(SW   of  Basingstoke). 

Yarnfield  NNW  of  Mere. 

Hen.  Ill  Jernefeld  Dugdale;  1260  G  erne  feud  Br.  Mus.;  1536 
Yernefeld  Dugdale. 

I  derive  this  name  from  "^Emman  feldj  with  change  of 
stress  in  the  initial  diphthong;  (on  this  point  see  Ablington 

^  It  may  be  pointed  out  that  all  the  OE  forms,  quoted  above, 
refer  to  the  river  at  different  places. 


and  Urchfont,  above).  Cf.  Yarnfield,  Staffs.,  occurring  in 
ME  as  Ernefeld,  Ernefen  (see  Duignan,  Notes  on  Staffs. 
PL  Ns),  which  undoubtedly  is  to  be  explained  in  the  same 
way  ^,  and  also  Yarnton  Oxfs.  {<-'Eardinga  tun ;  Alexander, 
PI.  Ns  of  Oxfs.).  There  are  also  two  other  Wilts,  names 
which,  although  no  old  references  have  been  found,  most 
probably  contain  the  same  p.  n.,  viz.  Yarnhury,  an  ancient 
camp  N  of  Steeple  Langford,  and  Yarnhrook,  a  small  hamlet 
S  of  Trowbridge.  It  is,  at  any  rate,  quite  obvious  that 
these  two  names  cannot  contain  OE  '^earn.  -feud  (Br.  Mus.) 
shows  AN  vocalization  of  I. 

Yatesbury  E  of  Calne. 
imQ  EtesherieJ)B\  1199  i?i/«M/r  Feet  of  fines;  1207  Yttehir 
R.  Oblat.  (prob.  identical);  1226  Geteshir  Osmund;  1239 
Yeteshur  Ch.  R;  1252  Yateburi  ib.;  Yetehiry  Pat.  R;  1263 
YeUesUry  ib.;  c.  1290  leteshury,  YaUeshur'  T.  Eccl.;  1309 
Hyateshury  C.  Inq.;  1316  Yatteshury  FA;  1324,  1428  Fa/^e-s- 
hury  ib. 

On  account  of  the  twofold  development  of  initial  OE  la, 
it  is  quite  impossible  to  say  whether  the  first  element  of 
this  name  (and  of  Yatton,  below)  was  originally  ^eat  {^'geata  ^) 
or  Eata.  Binz's  statement,  p.  152,  that  Yatesbury  is  an 
example  of  a  pi.  n.  containing  ^eat  (=  the  god  Woden),  is 
consequently  not  at  all  reliable.  See  Zachrisson's  discussion 
of  this  question,  p.  65. 

Yatton  Keynell  NW  of  Chippenham. 
1086    Etone  DB  66  b,  Etone  ib.   70  b  (according  to  Jones); 
Getone    ib.    (possibly  ident.);    1257  latton  C.  Inq.;    c.   1290 

^  Duignan's  opinion  that  the  first  element  represents  OE 
^earn  (yarn)  seems  very  improbable,  but  I  admit  that  the 
influence  of  ME  yern,  yarn  may  have  aided  the  survival  of  the 

^  a  hypocoristic  form  of  some  compound  p.  n.  with  ^eat 
as  the  first  element,  the  existence  of  which  there  is  no  reason 
to  doubt.  There  is  even  one  on  record,  viz.  Geatfleda  (fern.) 
CS  no.   1254. 


de    Yattone    T.    Eccl.;     1316    Yatton    FA;    1317    of  laftone 
Kaijngnel  C.  Inq. 

See  preceding  name.  'Keynel?  (Kennel)  is  a  family  name 
of  uncertain  provenience. 

Zeals   WSW  of  Mere. 
1086  Sele,  Sela  DB;   1220  6'e/e.s  Osmund;   1246 /S'e?e.s- Pat.  E; 
1263  Celes  C.  Inq.;    1299  Belles  Gal.  Inq.;    1428  Selcsayles- 
hury  FA;   1458  Seles  Ayleshury  Cal.  Inq. 

OE  sele,  selas  ('house',  'dwelling'),  z  in  the  mod.  form 
is  due  to  a  tendency  for  initial  s  to  become  z  in  this 
dialect;  see  Ellis,  p.  38.  Cf.  Zeal,  Devon,  according  to  Birch 
identical  with  -^at  Scale  OS  no.  968. 

'AilesbmV  is  a  familv  name. 

List  of  second  elements  in  Wiltshire 

place-names  ^ 

OE  cecer  in. :  Beanacre,  Goatacre. 

OE  ceim  n. :   Chitterne,  Colerne,  Potterne,  Vasterne. 

OE  hece  f.  (beech):  Burbage  (probably). 

OE  heor^  (beorh)  m. :  Brokenborough,  Marlborough,  AVan- 
borough,  Woodborough  (with  later  substitution). 

OE  broc  m. :  Beversbrook,  Westbrook. 

OE  hroiu  m. :   Southbroom. 

OE  hryc^i.:  Bulbridge,  Cowbridge,  Longbridge  (Deverill), 

OE  hurh  (dat.  hijrig)  f. :  Alderburj^,  Amesbury,  Avebury, 
Badbury,  Barbury,  Chisbury,  Chisenbury,  Fosburj^  Hazel- 
bury,  Heytesbur}^,  Malmesbury,  liamsbury,  Salisbury,  Tis- 
bury,  Westbury,  Yatesbury;  [uncompounded  in  Bury 

OE  hum,  hurne  f.,  hurna  m.:  frequent. 

OE  cealc  m.;  Bower  Chalk,  Broad  Ch.,  (originally  un- 

OE  cirice  f. :  Ivychurch. 

OE  cUf  n.:  Baycliff,  S walloAV cliff e;  [uncomp.  in  Clevancy, 
Cliff e  (Pypard)]. 

OE  cote  f.,  cot  n.:  frequent. 

OE  croft  m.:  Paxcroft. 

■"■  For  practical  reasons  I  have  preferred  to  state  the  OE  forms 
of  the  elements,  although  many  names  have  of  course  been  formed 
at  a  much  later  date. 


OE  cumh  m.:  Alcombe,  Boscombe,  Burcombe,  Catcombe, 
Elcombe,  Hippenscombe,  Stitchcombe,  Tidcombe,  Wexcombe. 
Whitcombe;  [imcomp.  in  (Castle)  Combe,  Combe,  Coombe 

OE  denu  f.,  dene  m.  f. :  Chisledon  (with  a  later  substitu- 
tion), Figheldean,  Marden,  Standen,  Surrendell?,  Whad- 
don  (SE  of  Salisbury;  with  substitution);  (uncomp.  in 

OE  die  m.  f. :  Grims  Ditch,  Wansdyke. 

OE  dun  f. :  Bay  don,  Blunsdon,  Bowden,  Braydon?,  Cla- 
rendon, Fresdon,  Garsdon,  Gomeldon,  Hannington  (with 
substitution),  Haydon,  Hazeldon,  Moredon,  Swindon,  Whad- 
don  (SW  of  Meiksham). 

OE  eard  m.  (dwelling,  home):  Tollard. 

OE  feld  m. :    Bradfield,    Chalfield,  Cowesfield,  Froxfield, 
Winkfield.  Yarnfield. 
OE  fen{n)  m.  n.:  Eatfyn. 

OE  font  Cfunt)  m.:  Fovant,  Teffont,  Urchfont. 

OE  ford     m.:  frequent. 

OE  geard  m.:  Derriads. 

OE  gelad  n.,  see  lad. 

OE  ^el(et{e)  n.:  Longleat. 

OE  {ge)m^re  n.:  Bridmore  (w^th  a  later  substitution), 
Buttermere,  Imber;  (uncomp.  in  Mere). 

OE  ham  m. :    Corsham,    Foxham,  Grittenham,  Meiksham. 

OE  }icwi{m)  m.:  Chippenham;  (uncomp.  in  Ham). 

Either  ham  or  ham{m):  Bremilham,  Bromham,  Cadnam, 
Harnham,  Hartham,  Horningsham,  Ingiesham,  Lackham, 
Lyneham,  Pewsham,  Tockenham. 

OE  ham-tun  (homestead):  Bathampton,  Chilhampton,  Ne- 
therharapton,    Quidhampton,    Sevenhampton,    Wedhampton. 

OE  heafod  n. :  (head  of  a  down) :  Donhead. 

OE  hecdl  f.:  Bincknoll,  Mildenhall,  Wraxhall  (prob.  both). 

Either  heall  or  Jiealh  m.:  Ludgershall,  Midgehall,  Eushall, 
Wolf   Hall. 

OE  hid  f . :  Fifield  (2),  Fyfield   (with  a  later  substitution), 

13     E.  Ekblom 


Tilshead,    Tinhead    {-head    due  to    weakning);    [uncomp.  in 

OE  hlivisc  n.:  Hardenhuish;  (uncomp.  in  Huish). 

OE  hi  aw  Qilcew)  m. :  Chedglow,  Winterslow. 
•  OE  hlinc  m.:  Standlynch. 

OE  holt  m.  n. :  Poulshot;  (uncomp.  in  Holt). 

OE  hryc^  m. :  Ditteridge,  Eastridge,  Lockeridge,  Sand- 
ridge;  (uncomp.  in  E.idge). 

OE  hijll  m.  f.:  Greenhill,  Lushill,  Oakhill,  Sedgehill,  Wood- 
hill;  (Hill  Deverill). 

OE  hyrst  m.  (hurst):   Gastard. 

OE  le^  f.  (in  Wilts,  pi.  ns  =  'marshy  land'):  Dauntsey, 
Eisey,  Minety,  Oaksey,  Patney,  Pewsey,  (Seagry?). 

OE  lacli.  {^elad  n.):  Chapmanslade,  Chicklade,  Cricklade. 

OE  land  n.:  Blackland. 

OE  leah  m.  f. :  frequent. 

OE  me  arc  f. :  Chilmark. 

OE  mar  m.:  Blackmore. 

OE  mynster  n. :  Warminster. 

OE  ora  m.  (border,  bank):    Wardour;  (uncomp.  in  Oare). 

W^  parish  (paroehe,  etc.):  Whiteparish. 

OE  port  m.  (gate,  entrance):  Westport. 

OE  rmv  {rd;w)  f.:   Woodrow. 

OE  stan  m.:  Slierston. 

OE  stede  m.:  Clrimstead. 

OE  stoc  m.  (=  place):  Baverstock,  Beechingstoke,  Braden- 
stoke,  Earl  Stoke,  Laverstock,  Odstock;  [uncomp.  in  (Purton) 
Stoke,  Stoke  (Farthing),  Stokke,  and  (Winterbourne)  Stoke]. 

OE  treoiv  n.:  Bishopstrow. 

OE  tmi  m. ;  frequent. 

OE  porp  {prop)  m. :  Eastrop,  Salthrop,  Westrop;  (uncomp. 
in  Throope). 

OE  ?6'eg  m.:  Chittoe,  Highway,  E-oundway. 

OE  iveorj)  {tvorp,  tvurp,  ivyrp)  m.  f  :  Atworth,  Brink- 
worth,  Chelworth  (2),  Hamptworth,  Highworth,  Pertwood 
(with  substitution),  Sopworth,  Tedworth. 


OE  ivlc  n.  (f.):  Berwick  (4),  CliaddenAvicke,  Soutliwick, 
AVadswick;  [uncomp.  in  (Bremhill)  Wick,  (Farleigh)  Wick, 
(Haydon)  Wick,  and  Wyke]. 

OE  (WS)  ivielle,  ivylle  m.  f.  [ivijll{a)  m.]:  Cmdwell, 
Groundwell,  Liidwell,  Stovveil. 

OE  wudu  m.:  Bowood,  Heywood,  Oxenwood,  Thickwood, 


p.   22,  line  5  and  4  from   bottom,  read  insufficient. 

»   25,      »  4  from   top,  read  he  represented   hy. 

,->   37,      »  7   and    p.    39,  line    10  from   top,  read    Edward   the   Confessor 

»   39,      »  16  from  top,  read  occurring. 

»    73,      »  6       »         »         »       hardly  any  trace.